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Farmers’ participatory evaluation of teff (Eragrostis teff (Zucc ) trotter) productivity in response to nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers at Edo, Wolaita zone, South Ethiopia

Farmers’ participatory evaluation of teff (Eragrostis teff (Zucc ) trotter) productivity in response to nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers at Edo, Wolaita zone, South Ethiopia

Depletion of nutrients as a result of erosion, crop mining, lack of optimum fertilizer rates, etc., are some of the problems contributing to the low productivity of crop. Fanuel and Gifole (2012) reported that N and P are low in Wolaita area in their study at Wolaita Zone. Wondewosen (2009) also reported similar result in his study at Wolaita Zone. In addition, Fanuel et al. (2016) demonstrated that in Wolaita area there was a continuous cultivation without fallowing and complete crop residue removal that consequently resulted for the appearance of multiple nutrient deficiencies (N, P, K, S, B and Cu). Therefore, one of the solutions to alleviate the problem could be application of NP fertilizers from external sources based up on recommendation for the crop. Application of fertilizers in a recommended amount is essential for high yield and quality of grains. The use of fertilizers is considered to be one of the most important factors to increase crop yield per unit area basis (Khan et al., 2003). Several studies at different locations on response of teff to NP fertilizers have shown that both the straw and grain yield of the crop have been increased due to the applied fertilizers. Reports from Debre Zeit Agriculture Research Center indicated that 40 kg N ha -1 is generally optimum for better yield of teff. Another study by Abdena et al. (2006) at Wollega Zones indicated that application of N fertilizer on teff gave significant response and was economically feasible at 15 kg N ha -1 .

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Drivers of financial literacy among households of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Drivers of financial literacy among households of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

The main objective of the study was to assess the level of financial literacy and to identify economic and demographic factors that shape financial literacy finance in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional data was collected from 217 households who are living in four districts (Humbo, Kindo Didaye, Damot Gale and Kindo Koyisha) of Wolaita zone in 2018. Ordinary least square (OLS) approach had used to identify the main determinants of financial literacy scores. The OLS estimation results revealed that education, ownership of cell phone, annual total income and age of the household head have positive effect on financial literacy. While, household living in rural area and long distance from bank/IMF have negatively and significantly affect financial literacy scores. The policy implication is that financial institutions and policy makers should give due attention for financial literacy program in order to bringing financially excluded people in to formal financial sector and in creating sustainable and efficient financial market. Financial literacy training to rural people is important to reduce the information asymmetry knowledge gap, to strengthen financial discipline and to enable them to make informed financial decisions.

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Seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus 2 among pregnant women attending antenatal care at health facilities in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

Seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus 2 among pregnant women attending antenatal care at health facilities in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

The present study confirmed that HSV-2 prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Wolaita zone health center was high and this might increase risk of neonatal transmission. A study in Italian pregnant women showed that 3 % women acquired HSV infection during pregnancy. In USA 2 % pregnant women and 2.6 % in Norway acquired the infection close to term and placing their newborn at risk for herpes infection during delivery. The risk of infection varies from 30 to 50 % during late pregnancy however it is 1 % in early pregnancy [9, 26, 27].

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Predictors of undernutrition among the elderly in Sodo zuriya district Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

Predictors of undernutrition among the elderly in Sodo zuriya district Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

A community based cross sectional study design was employed in Sodo Zuriya district from February to June, 2017. Sodo Zuriya district was one of the districts in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. It is located at 327Kms (Kilometers) far from Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia and 160Kms from Hawassa, the regional capital. Based on the last census, it had a total population of 162,691, of whom 80,002 were men and 82,689 women. The number of older persons — those aged 60 years or over were 16,233. The district had 36 Kebeles (the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia) [12]. The major type of cereal grow in the dis- trict was maize. The population mostly consumes root and tuber based products like potato, sweet potato, godere (a greenish-purple potato), and cassava. Among fruits avocado, papaya, banana and mango were commonly consumed. From vegetables kale and cabbage were frequently used.

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Assessing the current status of counseling profession in secondary schools in Wolaita zone, south Ethiopia

Assessing the current status of counseling profession in secondary schools in Wolaita zone, south Ethiopia

As participants in panel discussion seriously raised that no space was given for counseling profession in the school by the school principals and education officers though the problem is serious. Education officers and school leaders have distorted and wrong orientation on the role of school counselors. ‘’ Human resource development offices have weak commitment to recruit school counselors in all education levels even they want to shift budget to the subject teachers due to their weak orientation and understanding.’’ stated by one of zonal education officer. Similarly other education department head delegate stated his experience as ‘I’ were education department leader in one of district in Wolaita zone for the last three years but I have never want to employ school counselors rather make budget transfer for the other activities’’ Psychology curriculum in universities itself is not based on the practical demonstration rather only loaded by West-oriented theories and literatures. Professionals and school leaders are claiming that counselors have great skill gap in what and how to carryout counseling services in school and other environment. A frontline Calmar remarked that even no simple cases will allow to practice in the classroom when we are in the universities. Look at ‘’you have never buy knowledge and skill from the market if there is nothing in the market. University stay is only dominated in theory other than practice and demonstration. Universities have to check and cross check their ways of course delivering and instruction systems’’ an informant in the discussion forwarded his observation. West oriented theoretical aspect domination in the class course weakened students’ intention to advance skills in counseling and psychotherapy.

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Assessment of Quality of Pediatric Emergency Triage and Its Associated Factors in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

Assessment of Quality of Pediatric Emergency Triage and Its Associated Factors in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

Abstract: Background: Most deaths of children in hospital frequently occur within the first 24 hours of admission. Immediate triage on arrival may prevent many of these deaths. Pediatric emergency triage assessment and treatment was introduced in 2014 in Ethiopia, however, there is no evidence which shows its quality and associated factors in the country. Objective:-This study aimed to assess the quality of pediatric emergency triage and its associated factors in selected hospitals of Wolaita zone 2017. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was used March to April 2017. A total of 178 health care workers (HCWs) were included in this study. The data was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire on the HCWs, and an observation checklist for hospitals assessment. We performed descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses; adjusted odds ratio and 95% CI were used to determine statistically significant associations. Results: This study indicated that 41.7% of HCWs did not correctly define triage, 81% did not know triage duration, 85.7% did not identify all triage categories and 64% did not categorize child with urgent signs. Conclusion: The overall quality of pediatric emergency triage service was poor.

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Pre-Extension Demonstration of Fertilizer Rate in Taro (Boloso-1) Varietyin Boloso Sore Woreda, Wolaita Zone Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia

Pre-Extension Demonstration of Fertilizer Rate in Taro (Boloso-1) Varietyin Boloso Sore Woreda, Wolaita Zone Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia

The research was carried out in Boloso sore woreda of Wolaita zone and two kebeles were selected which are Dubo and GarraGoddo respectively. Wolaita Zone of Boloso sore Woreda is located in 420 km from Addis Ababa which is the capital city of Ethiopia and 158 km from Hawassa which is the capital city of the Southern Nation National People Region. The total land area of the woreda is 28,800. It is characterized with high land (17%), mid land (83%) agro ecology (BSWARD offices, 2014). The altitude of the woreda ranges 1500-2500m.a.s.l (FAO, 2003). The average temperature varies between10 to 20. Rain is occurs during June to August and September is a transitional period between rainy and dry seasonand the annual rain fall of the Woreda is 1201mm to 1600mm (Wolaita Zone Metrologicaloffices, 2014).

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Farmers' participatory evaluation of wheat (triticum aestivum l ) yield in response to nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers application at kokate mara chare, wolaita zone, south Ethiopia

Farmers' participatory evaluation of wheat (triticum aestivum l ) yield in response to nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers application at kokate mara chare, wolaita zone, south Ethiopia

unavailability of other crop management inputs (Asnakew et al., 1991). The productivity of wheat in Wolaita Zone (1 t/ha) (Personal Communication) is even less than the national average yield, as stated above, as result of depletion of major nutrients such as N, P and K, lack of optimum fertilizer rates, etc. One of the solutions to alleviate the problem could be applying NP fertilizers from external sources based on recommended rate for the crop. Application of fertilizers in a recommended amount is essential for high yield and quality of grains. The use of fertilizers is considered to be one of the most important factors to increase crop yield per unit area basis (Khan et al., 2003). Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the major nutrients affecting wheat yield and quality (Bacon, 1995). Yields of cereals have been reported as being roughly proportional to the amount of N applied (Greenwood, 1981). Increased yield of the wheat occurs on all soils with increased N rate, but such increases are reported more frequently on heavy clay soils (Sylvester-Brediey et al., 1984). Several reports have also indicated that increased usage of nitrogen fertilizer is considered to be a primary means of increasing wheat grain yield in Ethiopia (Asnakew et al., 1991; Amsal et al., 1997). Ayoub et al. (1994) reported that split application of increased N rates optimized yield and baking quality of bread wheat. In general, biomass yields of wheat were increased by N application (Amanuel et al., 1991).

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Determinants of employment growth of micro and small enterprises in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

Determinants of employment growth of micro and small enterprises in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

increased their work force (Wasihun and Paul, 2010). Field observations of the researcher besides his professional experiences, and Trade and Industry statistical abstract showed that MSEs at Wolaita Zone continue to be capital-starved and remain low in their job creation potential. Furthermore, the Zone has not yet exploited their potential very well to contribute towards economic development, job creation and poverty reduction. Their contribution to the local economy, capital accumulation and employment generation remains much low.A few studies probed the issue of MSEs in Ethiopia. Belay (2012) analyzed determinants of microenterprises success in the urban informal sector of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using multi-dimensional analyses and Fikirte and Enderias (2013) emphasized the growth and diversification of MSEs in Dire Dawa city of Ethiopia. However, there are a number of features which make the present study different from the existing a few empirical studies. First, unlike this study, a few number of the studies addressed the issue of MSEs growth but as far as knowledge of the researcher goes none of the aforementioned research studies addressed the issue of MSEs growth by employing econometric technique. Secondly, this study reckons demand and supply side factors across location and sector characteristics.

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The Impact of Off-farm Activities on Rural Household Income in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

The Impact of Off-farm Activities on Rural Household Income in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: This study presents an empirical analysis of the impact of participation in off-farm activities on household income level in Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. The impact of participation in off-farm activities on household income was estimated by using Heckman two-step model. The results of Heckman’s two-step model indicated that participation in off-farm activities has a significant impact on annual income of the households. Moreover, the study identified the factors that affect participation of households in off -farm activities. Consequently, the probit model result revealed that age of the household head, sex of the household head, marital status, distance to the nearest market, agro-ecological zone, credit access, livestock ownership, the amount of farm income, and having mobile phone were key factors that influence participation of households in off-farm activities. With regard to results of Heckman’s two-step model, the participation in off-farm activities, education level of the household head, and agro-ecological zone were found to be the main factors that affect households’ total income level. The positive and significant effect of off-farm activities on total income of the rural households calls for policy measures in order to pave the way to expand off-farm activities so as to bring a substantial contribution to the living standard of the rural society.

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Rural poverty and its determinants in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Rural poverty and its determinants in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Sampling technique and Sample size: The study used a multi-stage sampling procedures to select the representative respondents from the study area. In the first stage, based on pilot study four Woredas of the zone, three kebeles from each, were purposively selected in consideration of water resources, living standard, food insecurity, and poverty situations in the Wolaita zone. Accordingly, Humbo, Kindo Didaye, Kindo Koysha, and Damot Pulasaworedas were selected. In the second stage, three sample kebeles were selected from each of four Woredas by using simple random sampling techniques. Finally, by applying proportional sampling method, a total of 270 household heads were interviewed in February 2018 based on the 2017/18 cropping year. Though the data was collected on many different variables across rural and urban kebeles, this study utilized respondents from rural areas alone. Consequently, respondents from urban and semi-urban kebeles were excluded for the purpose of this study. Hence, in this study, we used 168 rural respondents to identify the major socio-economic determinants of poverty in rural area of wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia.

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Adoption and Intensity of Row Seeding (Case of Wolaita Zone)

Adoption and Intensity of Row Seeding (Case of Wolaita Zone)

In the context of Ethiopia, agriculture and specifically crop production take lion’s contribution, supporting the sector through introducing new agricultural technologies, like row planting in the recent times, boosts production. However, despite of such services, utilization of improved tech- nologies remained low in Ethiopia. This study looks into the determinants of adoption and inten- sity of adoption of row planting using a survey data of 300 farming households in Wolaita zone. The survey indicates that about 87 percent of farmers adopt row planting in 2014/15 production year with mean intensity of use 2.33 Timad (about 56% of their total farm land). A dependent double hurdle analysis reveals that household being headed by Illiterate head, family size, Farm size, Annual off-farm income, Distance to nearest market and Training on row planting signifi- cantly influenced adoption and level of adoption of row planting. Moreover, adoption of row plant- ing is significantly affected by Farming experience, No of information sources and Distance to De- velopment Agent whereas level of adoption of row planting by livestock and Number of oxen. The study then concludes that the farmers’ adoption and level of adoption of row planting could be improved by raising farm household’s education, their off farm income, their endowment and by making them optimally mobilize their labor for agricultural activities and receive extension ser- vice. As a result, the study recommends local governments to work towards intensifying informal education to farming households in the study area, raising effort of investment to improve market access and enhancing agricultural extension services to farmers.

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Mothers' Utilization Of Antenatal Care And Their Satisfaction With Delivery Services In Selected Public Health Facilities Of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Mothers' Utilization Of Antenatal Care And Their Satisfaction With Delivery Services In Selected Public Health Facilities Of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Safe motherhood initiative recommended the importance of access to quality maternal healthcare services and the need of presence of skilled professional at every delivery.(9). The MDG has the aim of reducing maternal mortality ratio by two third and achieving universal coverage of reproductive health by 2015. Skilled attendant at delivery has on improving maternal health outcomes.(9, 10) ANC service is important as it offers pregnant women an opportunity to get different services (11, 12). Deaths due to the other common causes of maternal death like sepsis, hemorrhage and obstructed labour started to decrease during the 20th century. (11,13). A focused ANC model in addition to its direct contribution to better health can also contribute to safe delivery (14, 15) The ANC utilization has increased more than 20% in all the regions of the world except the sub-Saharan regions where only 4% increase was noted.(16,17) Studies reported that a mother‟s positive perception of birth experience has been linked to positive feelings toward her infant and adaptation to the mothering role (18, 19, and 24). ANC utilization coverage is not high in Ethiopia. Those even have ANC follow up attend delivery at home though Safe delivery service is a single most important area that actions and interventions should address in all rounds to achieve the MDGs concerning maternal health. There is a need to identify some areas of disparity in this regard where the findings can guide to design appropriate package. Hence this study aims assessing utilization of ANC and level of satisfaction of mothers‟ with delivery service in selected public health facilities of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

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Factors Associated with Lymphoedema Management Success Among Podoconiosis Patients in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Factors Associated with Lymphoedema Management Success Among Podoconiosis Patients in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

February to May, 2014 to assess the factors associated with lymphoedema management success among podoconiosis patients. Wolaita zone is one of the 13 zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region (SNPPR) located 330 km south of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The zone has a total population of 1,926,693 in 2016 as projected from 2007 national census. This zone is characterized by high proportion (88.3%) of rural population [18] whose livelihood is based on agriculture, in which contact with soil is a routine activity that may predispose them to podoconiosis. In the area, it was reported that around 1.7 million inhabitants are known to bear a heavy podoconiosis burden [6].

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The Impact of Cultural Practices on Women Empowerment: The Case of Offa Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

The Impact of Cultural Practices on Women Empowerment: The Case of Offa Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

One of the elder women informant expressed at the time of interview that, the practice was valued by the community since it is considered as a manifestation of cleanliness, beauty and important criteria to get marriage partner. Sometimes the wolaita community considers that mutilation is best way to preserve virginity. In fact virginity has great value and sometimes very necessary for marriage proposal, so the community takes mutilation as the only chance to preserve their daughters’ virginity. Because culturally they belief that mutilation decreases the interest of girls for sexual intercourse and always the mutilated girl preserve virginity until their wedding day. Culturally virgin girls are a proud for her family but a girl who lost her virginity before marriage girls a shame for her family. In addition to this, some girls who are interested to get mutilation were interviewed on how much it painful in fact they are is forced to get mutilation because the local culture highly subordinate who are not mutilated. So the informant started her conversation by saying.

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Practices And Challenges Of Teachers` Performance Appraisal In Primary Schools Of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia

Practices And Challenges Of Teachers` Performance Appraisal In Primary Schools Of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia

Statement of the Problem: Teachers` performance appraisal (TPA) practices in Ethiopia are not without any problems. According to Yilma (2007) before 2004, in Ethiopia teacher’s performance appraisal had its own limitations it was highly subjective and the criteria were not valid and reliable to appraise teacher performance objectively. Because this and other reasons the ministry of education (MoE) introduced new Result-oriented teacher performance appraisal criteria. However, there were many problems and limitations to implement on the ground. The present teachers` performance evaluation system is implemented with high levels of variation in schools. The cycle/steps are being adjusted, modified, simplified, ignored, and changed by individual school administrators based on their understanding of the process, dedication to the process, ability to conduct teacher performance, training received and time constraints. Teachers revealed the ways in which the present teacher performance evaluation system have obstructed or supported their work, the problems they have with the present system and the implications for teacher growth and development. The present teacher performance evaluation system does have the potential to impact teacher development, support teachers’ work, holding teachers accountable, and influencing student achievement and school-wide effectiveness, if carried out properly by administrators who are equipped with the necessary skills, if teachers are educated on the purpose of teacher performance evaluation and how it can support their work and if done in an environment that trust, collegiality and collaboration, it may bring grate impact on the quality of education. The same is true in Wolaita Zone which found in SNNP Region .There is also implementation gap and certain problems those hinder the implementation of teachers` performance appraisal in the primary schools. There for the researcher was motivated to conduct study on the practices and challenges found in the area.

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Rural Household Livelihood Strategies: Options and Determinants in the Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Rural Household Livelihood Strategies: Options and Determinants in the Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: Due to sever land scarcity, high population pressure and recurrent drought, farm households in the study area widely engage in and pursue diverse activities as livelihood strategies. The carrying capacity of agriculture to attain food and livelihood security is extremely declining from time to time. Diversifying livelihood strategies at current time become a common phenomenon in the study area. The major objectives of this study are, therefore, to identify the existing livelihood strategies adopted by rural households and to assess factors that determine households’ decision to choose alternative livelihood strategies. For the purpose of this study primary data were collected from randomly selected 300 households in four woredas (districts) of the zone. Descriptive statistics was applied to characterize the sample households’ social, economic, demographic and institutional factors. The finding of the survey result indicates that rural households in the study area practice diversified livelihood strategies, in that large part of the respondents (57.7%) combine agriculture with other activities (non/off-farm). Surprisingly, some farmers were pursuing non-farm and off-farm activities as the primary livelihood strategies rather than agriculture. Multinomial logit model applied to investigate factors influencing the households’ choice of livelihood strategies. In this regard, a total of 19 explanatory variables were included in the empirical model of which 11 were significant. These variables include agro-ecology, sex, education, farm size, livestock ownership, participation in social leadership, annual cash income, fertilizer use, improved seed use, age, and training which were determining farmers’ choice of livelihood strategies. The results of this study suggest that development interventions, policies and supportive services should be designed to suit the felt needs and circumstances of different groups of farmers.

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Dietary Diversity and Associated Factors Among Infants and Young Children in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Dietary Diversity and Associated Factors Among Infants and Young Children in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Questionnaire was prepared in English and translated to local language (Wolaita language). Interviewers were trained on the aim of the research, content of the questionnaire, and how to conduct interview for data collectors and supervisor to increase their performance in field activities prior to data collection and pre tested on 5% of mothers before actual data collection outside the selected rural kebeles; correction and modification was done based on pre-test. Two day training was given the Collected data was checked every day by supervisors and principal investigator for its completeness and consistency.

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Child Trafficking in the Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia

Child Trafficking in the Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia

Abstract: This study was conducted in Woliata Zone of Southern Ethiopia where the practice of child trafficking is one of the most challenging problems and happing at alarming rate. Its aim was to assess prevalenceof child trafficking; to identify and investigate the causes and consequences of child trafficking in the study area and finally to analysis demographic and socio-economic characteristics of trafficked children and parents of the victims. For the purpose of this study primary data were collected from 90 trafficked children in three administrative towns and 87 parents of the victim in four rural woredas (districts) of the zone. In addition, key informant interview and focus group discussion were used to supplement the survey with qualitative information. Secondary data were also collected from various relevant sources. Descriptive statistics was applied to characterize the survey children's and parents' social, economic and demographic factors. The finding of the study revealed that the basic livelihood assets like farm size is very small and is not in position to enable families of trafficked children to generate adequate income and access to food in sustainable way. Majority of the survey parents (75.9%) owned no oxen during the survey period. Themean age of trafficked children was 13.2 years old with minimum age was 8 years. About 57.8% trafficked children reported that food access for their family is very bad. Friends/peer pressure, brokers and families are the major agents of child trafficking in the study area. The large proportion (92.4%) of the survey children reported that poor economic condition of their family is a major factors which facilitate the processes. Labour exploitation is a common practice among trafficked children. Majority of the interviewed children reported that their life situation after trafficking is worst. Out of total survey children about 76.6% dropped education. The data from both the survey and key informant interview depicted that trafficked children are facing a serious negative consequences like punishment, unfair payment, hunger, poor health (sickness) and labour exploitation, sleeping under ditch/homelessness, begging, rape, psychological, mental and physical abuse. Many children had no knowledge about the negative consequences of the trafficking before exposure. The results of this study therefore suggest that government and other concerned bodies to give considerable attention in designing relevant strategies to overcome the existing problem of child trafficking.

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Leaders Role on the Effectiveness of Private Pre-schools in Sodo City Administration, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

Leaders Role on the Effectiveness of Private Pre-schools in Sodo City Administration, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

Abstract: The general objective of this study was to investigate leaders role on effectiveness of private preschool education in Sodo City Administration of Wolaita Zone. To achieve this objective a concurrent triangulation research design of mixed research method was employed. Data were gathered from 20 private preschools. 120 preschool teachers and 20 principals were selected by using availability sampling technique. The qualitative data were gathered from 6 supervisors, 2 City administration experts of 6 PTSA chairman. The major findings of the study indicated that, problems encountered by preschool leaders include: the absence of guidelines, shortage of resource, high turnover of teachers, lack of incentive, low salary, the absence of on-job trainings, irregularity and non-uniformity of curricula, lack of qualified teachers in the area, lack of qualified principals, and lack of safe and conducive teaching learning environment. Thus, continuous in-service trainings should be provided in the area of childhood development and leadership for preschool leaders, close and proper monitoring and support should be given to private preschools by city administration education office. Besides, preschool owners should avail essential resources, and private pre- schools should work in collaboration with parents.

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