somehow promiscuous life in the sense that unlike many other wives of Okonkwo, Ekwefi was the one who eloped with him. Ekwefi had fallen in love with Okonkwo’s bravery after he defeated Amalinze, the Cat,but because his fortune was not much as of the time to pay her bride price she had taken another suitor. She had abandoned her husband two years later and came to live with Okonkwo. She was just on her way to the stream when she stopped over in Okokwo’s house. Being a man of little words but actions, Okonkwo had taken her into his Obi and slept with her and that was how she became his wife. Such action may not have gone down well with the earth goddess and one might be compelled to believe that that was part of the reasons she was punished with Ogbanje children before Ezinma decided to stay to crown her joy of motherhood. But in all, women in the novel were productive and fertile and Ani, blesses them all,yet Okonkwo would always find a way to molest his wives and by so doing threaten the peace of the community. Apart from desecrating the Week of Peace, he beats his second wife, Ekwefi for merely plucking leaves from a banana tree. He had beaten her and while the woman was crying and muttering something about Okonkwo’s gun that will never fire, Okonkwo almost killed her to prove to her that the gun has bullet and can kill. The writer captured this thus:
This paper argues that the enduring problem with food provisioning in northern Ghana is not just a product of climate change or drought, as has been conventionally framed, but is inextricably linked to historical processes and social inequalities. Although there are considerable dry spells and rainfall variability in the region, these events are not of acute concern among some farmers. Instead, farmers are more concerned about inequitable access to and control over resources. The paper especially reveals that the impact of climate change is differentially experienced, and rural women, given their marginal location in patriarchies, bear the most brunt. Moreover, contrary to what is often portrayed in the literature, the findings suggest that traditional farming methods are not static, technologically primitive and unproductive. Indeed, many farmers are resorting to locally-developed, agroecological practices to limit the impacts of climate change. The aim is not to romanticize these local innovations, but to suggest how a better understanding of local resilience could contribute to sustainable food production in an era of climatic change. Ultimately, the paper contributes to the broader literature by demonstrating the need to bring into the resilience debate issues of inequality, power relations and gender politics. Further, it shows how the lens of feminist political ecology could be powerfully deployed to analyze these social relations in the context of resilience.
Gender is one of the main variables that influence the distribution of local knowledge. We carried out a literature review concerning local mycological knowledge, paying special attention to data concerning women ’ s knowledge and comparative gender data. We found that unique features of local mycological knowledge allow people to successfully manage mushrooms. Women are involved in every stage of mushroom utilization from collection to processing and marketing. Local mycological knowledge includes the use mushrooms as food, medicine, and recreational objects as well as an aid to seasonal household economies. In many regions of the world, women are often the main mushroom collectors and possess a vast knowledge about mushroom taxonomy, biology, and ecology. Local experts play a vital role in the transmission of local mycological knowledge. Women participate in the diffusion of this knowledge as well as in its enrichment through innovation. Female mushroom collectors appreciate their mycological knowledge and pursue strategies and organization to reproduce it in their communities. Women mushroom gatherers are conscious of their knowledge, value its contribution in their subsistence systems, and proudly incorporate it in their cultural identity.
In most cases, the establishment of protected areas (PAs) goes hand-in-hand with an increase in conservation costs to communities living adjacent to these PAs. This paper draws insights from gender theories in particular feminist political ecology approach to unravel the impact of PAs on men and women around the Kilimanjaro National Park (NP) and the Enduimet Wildlife Manage- ment Area (WMA) in Tanzania. Specifically, it investigates how the creation and expansion of two PAs in Tanzania have impacted men and women in different ways. A combination of in-depth in- terviews, focus-group discussions, and key informant interviews was used to collect data from lo- cal people who live adjacent to these PAs. The findings reveal that the PAs impact both men and women, but the most significant impact is felt by women due to inequality in the gendered division of labour and resources at the household level. Poor men and women together with most women in female-headed households, suffer more from strong restrictions on access to PA-based resources than other people as they have limited alternatives. The benefits of PAs in compensating for re- source restrictions were found to be modest and do not meet the needs of predominantly poor men and women. The majority of local people collect resources from PAs illegally to meet their livelihood needs, despite restrictions on resource access. This study concludes that, instead of PAs paying attention to people’s relevant livelihood needs and improving their wellbeing, they have unfortunately worsened their situation.
The bacterial profile of the female urogenital tract in the southeastern region of Gabon, allowed us to identify the microbial flora present and to determine the prevalence of urinary and genital tract infection women. The germs circulating in the sexually active female population would be in order of importance the Mycoplasma and Candida albicans. Indeed, knowledge of the quality of this ecology is important because it can be used for the establishment of a monitoring process to better fight against low urogenital infections that are the initial process high infections urogenital tract. One of the causes of infertility which is a major public health problem in young people in Africa comes from to the lack of appropriated governmental policy. Alternative treatment options reside in the identification of plants with antibacterial and antifungal properties and able to eradicate resistant strains and / or multi resistant to current pharmaceutics drugs in order to improve the care of patients particularly those exposed to HIV, and secondly to reduce the phenomenon of primary and secondary infertility.
Values are embodied in ideas, ideals, principles and purposes. Idea in the true sense words is a visual, evident image. We must note that some authors divide values and ideas where the second ones are considered as more gnoseological categories than axiological ones. Really, the concept of idea is closely connected with concept of truth, and the relation of truth and value represents the separate important problem. Values correspond first of all not to truth, but to notion of the ideal. The science, for example, claims that the person is mortal, and it is impossible to avoid the death. However Christian ideas consist that the soul of the person is immortal and the person can be rescued for life eternal. People, in their behavior, being guided by these ideas, reject an extremity of the existence. It is represented that some religious ideas (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism) can become a valuable kernel of the human person in particular and the ecology- oriented society in general.
Ineffective linkages between processors, farmers, transporters and marketers is another challenge to processors in the cassava value chain (Ayoade and Adeola, 2009). This could lead to untimely delivery of cassava roots for processing thus delaying cassava processing. If fresh roots are held over 5 days before processing is initiated, the possibility of end-product contamination with aflatoxin is much increased (FAO, 2004). Lack of funds, unstable agricultural policies high processing cost, poor power supply are other constraints women processors are facing (Ayoade and Adeola, 2009). Lack or delayed technical support in form of information on improved practices due to insufficient access to extension services is another constraint faced by the processors (Okocha et al., 2006).
tropical aquatic food webs (Lewis et al., 2001; Thorp and Delong, 2002; Jepsen and Winemiller, 2007; Lau et al., 2009), including freshwater ecosystems in northern Australia (Douglas et al., 2005). In contrast, this study identified a range of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon sources supporting terapontid diets over different stages of their life history, although C3 vegetation was particularly important in the smaller size classes. Species shifted away from these relatively specialised juvenile diets to feeding across multiple carbon sources as they grew. An increasing number of studies are, similarly, highlighting the role of allochthonous plant matter in riverine and stream ecosystem function (Zeug and Winemiller, 2008; Lau et al., 2009), including Australia (Reid et al., 2008). The role of allochthonous detritus may be particularly relevant to the upper Burdekin River due to several aspects of its habitat structure. Pearson (1991) noted that although the upper Burdekin river bed is wide (~250m), for much of the dry season the wetted channel is relatively narrow (< 20m) and typically flows close to either bank, so that the influence of riparian vegetation may be greater than expected for such a large river. It is increasingly recognised that single conceptual models of carbon dynamics are not broadly applicable to different river systems, habitat units or individual species (Hoeinghaus et al., 2007; Zeug and Winemiller, 2008). Similarly, with ontogenetic dietary shifts being such a fundamental component of fish dietary ecology, a single conceptual entity is unlikely to adequately represent a given species at all times.
15 The concerns of land insecurity through biofuel developments, and the resultant impacts on marginalised communities, can be better understood and avoided if focus is equally placed on the form and the security of property rights. In seeking better forms of sustainability, effective biofuel implementation approaches are more likely if sustainable development is recognised as an evolving inquiry – on a site-specific basis. The holistic approach of political ecology, and the common themes (e.g. social-political-economic hierarchal dynamics; environmental protection; uneven knowledge, political and economic powers, and their influence on equality; dispersion of costs and benefits, property rights and the impacts on marginalisation and community integrity) referred to by the supporting theories, suggests that to meet sustainability standards and the principles therein, ethical implementation attitudes must be prioritised. The efforts of political ecology to unearth and understand complex sustainability concerns can be complemented through development economics, which seeks to understand causes and explain responses to the matching developmental inquiries through the examination of past successes and failures. Amalgamating the interests of four supporting theories that displayed interlinking qualities has provided a more inclusive theoretical understanding in an effort to move towards sustainable biofuel development. While this analysis of key theories with regard to biofuel implementation approaches in sub-Saharan Africa may have merit, moving forward the agenda requires empirically based work to bring the concepts together.
(ii) The model community should possess robust specialized metabolic poten- tial. Once the chemical diversity of a potential system has been evaluated, an impor- tant goal is to capture as much of the chemical diversity as possible through inclusion of key community members that contribute to this diversity. This can be achieved based on culturing approaches, where isolates are grown under different conditions— ideally as similar as possible to the natural setting. The chemical proﬁles of these cultures can then be mapped against the molecular network obtained by the in situ analysis. This approach allows for inclusion of isolates that contribute the most to the specialized metabolite diversity detected in situ. Alternatively, the specialized meta- bolic potential could be assessed through genome sequencing of the isolates followed by genome-level analysis using tools like PRISM (23) and antiSMASH (24). Understanding the metabolic proﬁle of the natural environment and how it changes over time will give valuable insights into the chemical ecology of the microbial specialized metabolism. The correlation between community dynamics and metabo- lomic patterns over time will be key to understanding how these molecules function in microbial communities.
Natural disturbance and human activities on wetland ecosystems have raised significant concerns over the last few decades. Focusing on the actual situation of Gudong River wetland, this study finds that the interference factors are flood erosion, industrial and agricultural sewage, household garbage filling, open-pit mining and reclamation. These interferences caused degradation of the ecosystem structure and function in the Gudong River wetland, such as wetland area reduction, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity decline. From the perspective of landscape, it appears as a simple ecology landscape type, with decreased spatial heterogeneity, and landscape fragmentation.
Although it has antecedents in contest studies that focussed on a small sub-set of metabolites (e.g., Briffa and Elwood, 2007) and in studies of the effect of feeding on parasitoid contest behaviour without the associated metabolic analysis (Tsai et al., 2014), ours is the first study to explicitly couple the untargeted metabolomics approach (Snart et al., 2015) with the study of dyadic animal contests (Hardy and Briffa, 2013). Despite the small size of the organisms involved, this methodology is capable of reliably producing identifiable NMR spectra associated with different diet treatments (Kapranas et al., 2016) and as such has potential for application to a wide range of studies of the behaviour and ecology of small insects and other organisms. The approach can identify experimental outliers, in this instance individuals that had not ingested the provided diet were detected by absence of the highly conserved honey signal in the NMR spectra of fed wasps. However, as the whole insect is sampled, the method cannot distinguish between resonances generated from insect haemolymph from those generated from diet within an insect’s digestive tract (similarly, Tsai et al., 2014 were unable to determine whether mass gained by honey-fed wasps indicated metabolism or simply ingestion). Hence, further experimentation, such as our longevity study, is required to confirm that parasitoids are capable of utilising a particular dietary resource other than merely ingesting it.
In summary, we find that the proportion of invitees who submit a review has been decreasing slowly but steadily for four of the six journals examined here and that the cumulative effect over 13 years has been quite substantial for these journals. Why two of these journals (Evolution and Methods in Ecology and Evolu- tion), plus a third journal examined by Albert et al.  (Molecular Ecology), have not experienced a similar decline, are unclear. It could be due to differences in editorial practices at these journals; e.g., although edi- tors select the reviewers to be invited, three of the journals with the most significant declines in the pro- portion of reviewers agreeing to review—Functional Ecology, Journal of Ecology, and Journal of Applied Ecology (but not Journal of Animal Ecology) — have editorial assistants who contact prospective reviewers on behalf of editors, whereas editors themselves send the reviewer invitations for both journals that showed no significant decline, Methods in Ecology and Evolu- tion and Evolution. Alternatively, it could be due to differences in the communities they serve — those that have experienced consistent reviewer response rates over time publish more evolutionarily and genetically focused research, whereas those that have shown sub- stantial declines are more ecological in scope. We also find, like Vines et al.  and Albert et al. , that the average number of invitations being sent to prospect- ive reviewers has not changed much over the 13 years we examine, at least within these journals, suggesting that reviewer fatigue is not the primary reason for the decline in the proportion of invitees who agree to re- view. We do see evidence that reviewer fatigue may occur at the per-individual level; individuals who re- ceive the most invitations are the most likely to de- cline the invitation, but too few individuals receive enough invitations (at least within journals) for this to be a primary explanation for the declining proportion of individuals who agree to review.
One of the most promising directions of ecocriticism, which has developed especially in Europe, is the approach of Cultural Ecology. From the perspective of the theory of science, Peter Finke‟s Ökologie des Wissens (Ecology of Knowledge) is perhaps the most systematic presentation of this theory, which posits ecology as a paradigmatic perspective of knowledge not only for the natural sciences, but for cultural studies as well. Such an ecology of knowledge implies a unifying perspective in the sense that it brings together the various cultures of knowledge that have evolved in history, and that have been separated into more and more specialized disciplines and subdisciplines in the evolution of modern science. Indeed, if ecocriticism is fundamentally concerned with the relationship between culture and nature, then it must necessarily also face up to the challenge of a new dialogue between the “two cultures” of the natural sciences and the humanities. Disciplines on both sides of the divide thereby turn into “shifting hybrid domains,” in which traditional disciplinary boundaries are blurred (Wilson Consilience 10). At the same time, this drive for the
Undertaking interdisciplinary research can carry challenges. A key challenge can be ﬁnding funding to support research. Moss (2005) posits that because landscape ecology encompasses aspects of many disciplines, it can have diﬃculty ﬁtting into academic institutions (and presumably funding bodies). Because landscape ecology includes aspects of ecology, geography, and planning, which are usually housed in diﬀerent academic units and funded by diﬀerent agencies, landscape ecologists might encounter diﬃculty ﬁnding an academic and/or funding “home.” Although many funding bodies call for and state they support interdisciplinary research (e.g., many of the Networks of Centres of Excellence in Canada emphasize collaborative teams from multiple disciplines), the traditional Tri-Council funding bodies tend to be more focused within discrete disciplines. Two of my environmental history and geography colleagues had a grant proposal to investigate the historical impact of toxins on communities in Northern Canada rejected on technical grounds by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). e reason was that because the themes of historical health impacts and public health responses appeared as one small component of the larger research program, SSHRC administrators decided (without the input of peer review) that it the proposal was ineligible. SSHRC administrators advised my colleagues to direct the proposal to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), even though the proposed work was in no way medical research and there were no medical or toxicological researchers on the team. I have been told that some of my publications “don’t count” in Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) competitions because they are not in natural science and
Reproductive ecology is also an important aspect of macroscopic ecological studies on Galliformes (Jones 2001). In additional to recording breeding parameters like egg size, clutch size and incubation period (Hernán- dez et al. 2003), there are more efforts focusing on breed- ing habitat use or nest site selection (Jones 2001). A great number of results stated that the vegetation canopy den- sity was one of the main factors related to nest site selec- tion of pheasants (e.g. McNew and Sandercock 2013; Wu et al. 2013). However, it was controversial about the influence of the vegetation cover on the nest fate (Lu and Zheng 2003; Rhim 2012; Khalil et al. 2016). Synthetic reviews suggested that high nest survival rate may be attributed to the extended breeding season (Jansen and Crowe 2005) and available supplemental food sources (Sandoval and Barrantes 2012). Meanwhile, the preda- tion (Ellis-Felege et al. 2013; Carpio et al. 2014; Capdev- ila et al. 2016; Lyly et al. 2016), competition (Robel et al. 2003; Hämäläinen et al. 2012), extreme weather condition (Kobayashi and Nakamura 2013) and temperature effects (Xu et al. 2008) were likely to be the principal causes of nest failure.
In his book Cultural Ecology, Professor Zhengquan Huang included “an- ti-cultural ecology” in his conceptual system, pointing out that “people not only have the rational spirit of yearning for and pursuing harmony, but also have the ‘irrational’ spirit. This kind of destructive is often unconscious, anti-cultural ecology is not only the heterogeneity of this kind of cultural ecology, but also the contradictory aspect of cultural ecology” . In other words, anti-culture is not a political reactionary, it is not necessarily destructive, anti-culture is not neces- sarily against cultural ecology. In the period of common development of tradi- tion and modern times, the problem of protection and development is the core problem of traditional villages.