Women and Identity

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Saudi Women and the Expression of Identity in the Domestic Living Space

Saudi Women and the Expression of Identity in the Domestic Living Space

Abstract: This paper entails a non-western analysis of the contemporary home environment. The main focus of this study is the role of women in family living room design, particularly in the context of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study was to determine how the interior design of domestic space offers opportunities for women to present their identity. Saudi women using their living space within the home can play a role in expressing the identity of those women through the experience of designing this space and the interaction with its objects. The methodological framework has been structured into an ethnographical approach, which involved in-depth interviews with middle class housewives in their living rooms, aimed to seek information about experiences, interaction and values in the home environment, and enables identity presentation in the family living room. In addition, associated methods, such as photographic and video records, coding the living space features and visual observation of the living room were used to enrich data collection and unpack the environmental meaning. These mixed methods helped to understand the reality of women’s life experiences and provide a compelling portrait of women’s roles and identity within their living space. This paper explains the expression of individual (women) identity and the expression of group (family) identity within the living rooms. The living room in Jeddah homes is the centre space of symbolic interaction, where "I" meets "them", where women show how well they have presented themselves and the values of their families in the living room context.
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The gendered identity of women in the games industry

The gendered identity of women in the games industry

outwardly promoted a ‘softer’ image but that the police themselves internalised this image. Furthermore, Loughery (2008) used the short version of the BSRI in a study of male nurses in Ireland. Findings revealed that male nurses in the study identified more strongly with female more than male gender norms. This supports the notion that men who have less male stereotypical gender traits feel free to choose non- traditional careers, in this case nursing (Jome and Tokar 1998). Loughery argues that both masculinity and femininity mean different things to different people and gender roles are in a constant state of flux. A view similar to Collinson and Hearn (1994) who assert that masculinity and femininity are both constructs which are fluid and uncertain, with gender roles being stereotypical to a time and place (Loughery 2008). Most recently, Powell and Greenhaus (2010) found that women managers were significantly higher in femininity than men. Results from such studies are interesting in light of the current study, as the participants are in a masculine dominated environment one would expect them to identify themselves as more masculine in the workplace especially since the image of the games industry and computer games are in general, predominantly viewed as masculine. However, women in the study seem to be neutralising their gender identity. This could be reinforcing rather than challenging the gender stereotypes that exist (Powell, Bagihole and Dainty 2009).
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Effect of Women Representation in Lux Advertisement on Pakistani Women Identity

Effect of Women Representation in Lux Advertisement on Pakistani Women Identity

This research is a multi -disciplinary research intertwining cultural studies, media communication and identity crisis. Data is taken from an advertisement of multinational brand running on Pakistani TV channels during 2014. Semiotic analysis of the visual images is done using Saussurain model .Qualitative analysis is favoured for digging out the ideologies hidden in the women representation in commercial advertisement. Focus of the analysis is the images drawn from the advertisement for media focuses on visual representation more than the textual representation. Furthermore, very little verbal or written text is added in ads giving comparatively small number of threads for deep analysis while analyzing images deeper digging is possible where extracting denotative meaning is obvious while connotative meanings of signs are also brought to the surface. Saussure divides sign into two components, the signifier (sound image) and signified (the mental concept) that leads to signification i.e. external reality or meaning. Saussure suggested that relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary and of crucial importance for development of semiotics.
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Women's social identity as women:  New conceptualizations.

Women's social identity as women: New conceptualizations.

consciousness and responses to perceived illegitimate group status outlined in SIT. For classification purposes, Gurin and Markus (1989) retain the gender centrality and sense of common fate identity measures from Gurin and Townsend (1986) and add a measure to differentiate between women endorsing traditional and nontraditional gender role orientations. Agreeing with the statements that working mothers of preschool children were less likely to form secure bonds with their children than were mothers who did not work, and that young children are negatively affected if a mother works, as well as indicating an intention not to work when their children were young, placed women in the traditional category. Women were categorized as nontraditional if they disagreed with these statements. As in her previous studies, gender consciousness was defined as a feeling of collective (power) discontent, rejection of the legitimacy of group status, and support for social change using collective action. Undergraduate women (N = 146) indicated whether gender-identified phrases (e.g., feel close to women) presented one at a time on a computer screen, were characteristic of themselves, and provided a rating of the confidence with which they made the judgment. Women who scored higher on centrality and common fate items endorsed significantly more gender-identified phrases and were more certain of their judgments than were those women who scored lower and thus, the authors conclude, may have more readily available access to their gender- related schema.
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Maternal identity of women in the postpartum period

Maternal identity of women in the postpartum period

After preterm labour, the psychological problems related to women’s maternal identity formation may also be caused by the lack of physical contact with the baby which has to undergo a medical treatment at ITU in the meantime. Researchers em- phasize that lack of eye contact between mother and child and limited sensational contact make the mother’s perception of the baby substantially virtual (Yesenina, 2003). Such a situation not only will not ensure the necessary conditions for the ma- ternal identity formation in but will also lead to their deterioration, which may pose a threat to the baby. In such cases, it is possible that the mother will be less willing to keep close to her baby (emotional component of maternal identity) and there may be disorders in breastfeeding (behavioural component of maternal identity). Incon- sequent behaviour of the preterm baby caused by its special needs could dismay and frustrate its parents: they may feel anxious about the problems of survival and development of the child. As a result, they either avoid the baby or compensate the changes of preterm infants’ behaviour with hypercare. Irrespective of the inconsi- stency of their behaviour, parents overstimulate their baby even more, exacerbating its behaviour and increasing their own frustration (Lukovtseva & Baz, 1999). Thus, the preterm infant and the problems it entails may drain the emotional resources of a number of mothers and, as a consequence, may have a negative impact on the formation of a woman’s maternal identity.
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Women, uniforms and brand identity in Barclays bank

Women, uniforms and brand identity in Barclays bank

The decisions made about corporate dress in the 1970s and 1980s took place in the context of second wave of feminism. This was a discourse that focussed on women’s identity and their bodies as well as their place within society. It was preceded by the first wave of feminism in the early twentieth century which had classically liberal aims due to the pursuit of equal legal rights. It resulted in the removal of legal barriers which restricted women from voting and from entering into certain professions. There was a resurgence of feminist writing which began in the English-speaking world in 1953 with the translation of Simone de Beauvior’s text The Second Sex. Beauvior’s interest in the human condition of women was not new but her work introduced the concept of women as ‘other’. She wrote that ‘He is the Subject, he is the Absolute – she is the Other’ (Beauvoir, 1956, p. 16). Her work inspired a new group of feminist writers to think again about the difference between men and women in society. One of the most prolific authors of this generation was Betty Friedan, who published the Feminist Mystique in 1963. Friedan wrote as one of those from the first generation of women who had access to higher education and were permitted to attend college. Dissatisfied with their status in the home, as mothers and wives, Friedan (2010, p. 58) challenged the notion that those women who chose marriage and motherhood over a career were happy with that decision.
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Omani Women: Embracing New Identity

Omani Women: Embracing New Identity

Being mothers and wives means they are expected to spend time most of the time at home. Jobs that require them staying outside home and away from family for long time are considered unsuitable for women. Although there is indication that younger women started not to limit their career options, in general women are still drawn to teaching and administrative positions. The arrangement of 7-8 hours a day and five days a week is considered ideal for women to balance their domestic and professional roles. Long working hours and jobs away from home are considered threatening women’s identity as wife and mother. Embracing the identity as professional woman therefore does not happen without challenge.
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Developing Researcherhood: Identity Tensions and Identity Work of Women Academics Reflecting on Their Researcher Identity

Developing Researcherhood: Identity Tensions and Identity Work of Women Academics Reflecting on Their Researcher Identity

engagement in this role (ADAMS & CRAFFORD, 2012; STETS & SERPE, 2013). Academics who identify with a researcher identity can thus theoretically be expected to be emotionally more attached to its purpose (VAN LANKVELD et al., 2017) and thus more dedicated to follow its pursuits (BRENNER et al., 2014). Identity work has also been linked to self-esteem and self-efficacy (BREAKWELL, 2010; STETS & BURKE, 2014b). This I observed, when women academics' identity work was purposefully linked to their researcher identity in this study. [49] Considering the discussion above, management buy-in and institution-wide accountability for efforts to facilitate identity work are highly recommended. Identity work can be a powerful means to effect change on an individual and organizational level (BROWN, 2017; CREED, DeJORDY & LOK, 2010). In the higher education context, purposeful engagement in identity work may help women researchers resolve contradictory role demands and underlying
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Hmong Women Issues: Identity and Mental Health

Hmong Women Issues: Identity and Mental Health

Now, women are still lower, they haven’t rise as high as men yet. They say men and women are equal but women still doesn’t have as much right .. except those that get higher education and they let those educated and skilled talk and discuss. According to the elders, it’s still the same, women still don’t have as much value. It’s still the same, if it has changed, it hasn’t changed much; women have not been given much right. It still seem like it stayed the same.. as in Laos. But those young that are educated in this country, they can get themselves to higher positions so they see further and could catch up to others. Those old that came from Laos and are not educated, I think this generation is still functioning the same way as the ones in Laos. There’s no change. If there’s any changes, only in their words, not in their heart. The women also stated that they see the unfairness but are sometimes unable to resolve the situation to make it fair for women. Xee stated that the culture will reject you if you speak against the unfairness. Some participants also shared how they dealt with the oppression without being rejected by the Hmong society. Nu and Xee spoke of changing perceptions and behaviors in their immediate family in hope to change the Hmong community. Nu spoke of requesting her husband to utilize a larger table for gatherings so both genders could sit and eat at the same time. In regards to helping the Hmong society recognize women as leaders, Xee stated,
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Gender, identity and change : mature women students in universities

Gender, identity and change : mature women students in universities

While recognising that structural forces such as gender, class and race have played a central role in shaping their lives and experiences in initial schooling, work and marriage, this st[r]

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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

extended behind her holding a cup of wine and a white napkin for Pairy and his wife to wipe their faces after drinking. This offering of wine was believed to enable the deceased to communicate with the gods in his or her inebriated state, and thus played an essential role in celebrations and festivals. 222 All that remains legible of the inscription above them is, “. . . his daughter, Mut. . .” (. . . sAt.f mwt. . .). As the scene within the first register continues it is divided into two sub-registers. The top contains four seated men dressed in identical white kilts, lotus collars, and wigs, holding lotus blossoms to their noses to inhale their intoxicating scent. Below are four seated women wearing long white gowns and matching lotus headpieces with scented unguent cones resting on their wigs. The first woman holds a lotus bloom to the nose of the woman behind her, while the last two face each other as if to converse. Aside from a few scattered hieroglyphs within the first register of PM (6), there is no surviving text to assist in identifying the banquet’s participants.
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

A number of 800 women die from preventable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth, and almost 99% of all these deaths occur in developing countries, where access to antenatal care (ANC) services may be challenging (World Health Organization, 2014c). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), pregnant women should have at least four antenatal care visits, or more if medical complications have been diagnosed in order to treat or monitor their condition (The Partnership for Maternal Newborn and Child Health, 2006). In addition, the WHO encourages pregnant women to visit an ANC healthcare facility during the first trimester and to deliver in an ANC healthcare facility with the assistance of a skilled health professional (The Partnership for Maternal Newborn and Child Health, 2006). On a global scale, 83% of pregnant women had at least one ANC visit with a skilled health professional in 2012; however, only half of those women met the minimum number of visits recommended by the WHO (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2014).
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

Thoennes, 2000). Researchers (Breslau et al, 1998; Kessler et al., 1995) have also indicated that women are at higher risk for sexual molestation, childhood parental neglect, childhood physical abuse, domestic violence, and the sudden death of a loved one. According to McHugo et al. (2005), exposure to one traumatic stressor can increase the likelihood that an individual will experience additional traumatic stressors. These researchers further concluded that posttraumatic stress is often comorbid with other mental health conditions including substance abuse. In addition, Mockus et al. (2005) posited that mental health practitioners are often not abreast of current evidence-based literature indicating best practices in the treatment of posttraumatic stress and comorbid mental health and substance dependency issues. Mueser et al. (1998) found that 43% of consumers of public mental health services had a diagnosis of PTSD not previously identified by other facilities, and mental health staff had noted a diagnosis of PTSD in the charts of 2% of these mental healthcare consumers.
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

2c. The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Intimate Partner Violence Numerous studies have established alcohol consumption as a risk factor for both intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization (Okuda, 2015; Devries et al., 2013; Abramsky et al., 2011; Foran & O’Leary, 2008; Stith et al., 2004; Jewkes, 2002; Kessler et al., 2001). Alcohol is a risk factor for IPV regardless of gender, and was shown to have an effect on both male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence (Rapoza & Baker, 2008). Alcohol use was associated with IPV victimization regardless of age as well (Devries et al., 2013; Abramsky et al., 2011). According to Zaleski, Pinsky, Laranjeria, Ramisetty-Milker, and Caetano (2010), men consumed alcohol in 38.1% and women consumed alcohol in 9.2% of IPV instances.
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

I would be remiss not to mention some unanticipated yet significant barriers to this research study. The inclusion of these barriers is not to undermine the importance of the healing work of Queen Afua or self-care practices in general but rather speak to the conditions that possibly lead to women taking her program. Several women that I was supposed to interview had been to my home for a cookout and I told them about my project and asked if they would be interested in being interviewed. All of them gave me an enthusiastic yes and told me to let them know when. It was my assumption that I would get passionate responses regarding how they’ve been helped by reading or taking part in the Sacred Woman program as well as the spiritual transformations that potentially had taken place in their lives. In my initial stages of contact, it seemed like I would have no problem with getting good interviews; however, once it was time to actually schedule the interviews, the women with whom I made contact became less and less responsive. After several attempts to solidify times, I changed the format of how participants could respond to interview questions and I created a questionnaire to make it easier for people to respond at their own pace; it became apparent that many of the affirmative participants had dropped out of the study, including Queen Afua.
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

Another contributing factor to individuals engaging in risky sexual behavior is discrimination. Research has found a correlation between discrimination and engagement in risky sexual behavior among African American women. In Rosenthal et al.’s (2014) study, a group of minority pregnant women were interviewed about their sexual behavior, views on discrimination and history of STIs. The researcher observed that stereotypes/labels, coping mechanisms, and the lack of power were all driving factors of discrimination within minority women. The researcher suggest that distrust for the United States government due to past treatment of ancestors may cause distrust for many government/state run businesses to include healthcare facilities. This may lead minority women to reject health advice given by the health system or avoid seeking service or care at such facilities. There are some stereotypes/labels that deem minority women as promiscuous and sexual property of men. These stereotypes may decrease confidence in these women leading them to engage in more risky behavior because of the diminished view of their self-worth. Some may also feel that they have less power in their relationships; particularly on sexual matter and, as a consequence, subjugate to the will of their partners. The stressors of daily discrimination and economic issues may also cause the female to use sexual activity as a release, stress reliever, or a bargaining chip.
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THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

THE RHETORIC OF REFUGEES: LITERACY, NARRATIVE AND IDENTITY FOR SOMALI WOMEN

A total of 904 adults were included in the present analysis. Responses indicate that 420 (46.5%) were female, 469 (51.9%) were male, and 15 (1.66%) were transgender women. Racial classification revealed a largely black study population of 885 (97.9%), with 6 (0.7%) hispanic respondents, 9 (1.0%) non-hispanic white respondents, and 4 (0.4%) respondents of other racial backgrounds. Mean participant age was 36.2 years with a standard deviation of 12.8. The cutoffs for age quartiles were selected for groups of optimally equal size, with 18 to 23 year olds numbering 215 (23.8%), 24 to 34 year olds numbering 220 (24.3%), 35 to 46 year olds numbering 234 (25.9%) and those over 47 numbering 235 (26.0%). Regarding sexual orientation, 100 (11.1%) were either lesbian women, gay men or bisexual, while 17 (1.9%) did not identify with any of the options provided, and 786 (87.0%) of participants identified as heterosexual.
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Designed Fashion Identity. The concept of contemporary women

Designed Fashion Identity. The concept of contemporary women

11 to be traditional and achieve gender equality at the same time. 25 Choice is explained by Synder-Hall as the focus on the individual person who is in control of making the choice without admitting to the cultural tradition and social structure. She argues how women should not have to choose at all, for Synder-Hall it is more about determining a “path of life”. 26 Because of the lack of a common notion of feminism it is hard to judge another’s women’s claim to be a feminism as Synder-Hall argues. Women who follow the beauty standard are hard to see as feminist, because they seem to follow what Synder-Hall calls the ‘patriarchal standards of beauty’. But Synder-Hall goes further with her theorization and wonders that if women can eroticize feminism, if they help to reach out to “political goals such as reproductive freedom, policies to create work/life balance, and safe affordable childcare.” 27 However Synder-Hall does believe feminists who are part of the third wave can talk openly about their struggle and don’t have to defend themselves, she does stretch out how the life choices of women influence the way people perceive them. Third wave
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Identity of Women and Media in Modern India

Identity of Women and Media in Modern India

different properties of the cream are shown in the advertisement and its benefits are told in a voice-over. The camera now focuses on the girl who now is shown walking confidently wearing pink dress in a hallway. She enters the where the job aspirants are interviewed. The interviewers are charmed by his beauty and fairness and finally she gets the job. Now she becomes rich as she takes her parents to a sumptuous restaurant. Firstly, the advertisement presents the ideology of domesticity of women. When the father regrets for not having a son, the advertisement seems to represent women as weak and incompetent to support her parents. But the girl breaks the ideology by getting a job and supporting her parents. But how she gets a job is a representation of another patriarchal ideology that constructs the identity of a woman. The girl gets the job by impressing the interviewers with her beauty as she does not need to show her resume. Her beauty, as it is shown in the advertisement, is more important than her work efficiency. She enters the male domain from her private domestic world by selling her beauty and by becoming an object of male desire. Secondly, the ideology that equates beauty with fairness is also represented through this advertisement. So if a woman wants to be financially independent, she must be beautiful to attract the men with her body and in order to be beautiful she must be fair skinned and use Fair & Lovely fairness cream. Women need to be beautiful not only to get success in public life but also to be happy in domestic life. There are a number of advertisements shown in the T.V. representing women trying to attract the attention of their husband using beauty products. In the advertisement of Parachute Summer Fresh Body Lotion 7 ,
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Identity of Muslim Women in Hindi Movies

Identity of Muslim Women in Hindi Movies

Though the movie starts with the identity of a Muslim woman who, despite all prejudices of her father and community, dares to marry a Hindu boy but the movie ends up giving a message of national unity. Through the movie the director tries to depict the complexity of religion on femininity and female body. He also discusses the issue of veil in Muslims. Though in the movie it produces certain kind of romance as the hero is desperate to see by lifting the veil of Shaila. The lifting of veil has many other connotations too. It is not only Shaila‟s tender spell of love but at the same time depicts her courage; profess for freedom and her determination that she has the right to choose her husband. She is not ready to be guided by her father or community. In the movie veil is an important constituent forge linkages and plays an important role in movie‟s screen play. The music composed by A. R. Rehman is more in hip-hoop style. The song and dance are the vital elements to extend pleasure to the audience but is not employed to interpret and articulate the narration.
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