Women and the girl-child

Top PDF Women and the girl-child:

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE AS IT AFFECTS WOMEN AND THE GIRL-CHILD IN NORTHERN NIGERIA.

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE AS IT AFFECTS WOMEN AND THE GIRL-CHILD IN NORTHERN NIGERIA.

As a Nigerian and an international student in Canada, who is about to conclude her Master of Laws degree, I believe in the value of education for everyone, especially for the girl-child because I am aware of some of surrounding factors, which opposes the enjoyment of human rights of the girl- child and women in Nigeria. Gender inferiority as one of the opposing factors backed up by culture and religious because its cores and recalling elements against the female gender in the society are adequate education, early marriage and lack of economic participation. Whenever I am asked by my colleagues and friends about what motivated me to research on thesis that connects to the abuse of human rights of the girl-child and women, my answer are, I am passionate about the researching on problems facing the girl-child in northern Nigeria and it will give me insights, bring about awareness and create a future solution to these abuses. In addition, I always remind my colleagues and friends that the world is changing and now accommodating the value of gender equality, notwithstanding that we that are aware of the truth must not be silent on the things that matter, because according to Martin Luther King Jr in his quotes on silence:
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Female circumcision: a conflict of culture, religion vs health and  rights of girl child

Female circumcision: a conflict of culture, religion vs health and rights of girl child

A frequently cited reasons for FGM is its assumed ability to diminish women’s desire for sex. This in reality is the truth. Cutting away of the sensitive part of the genitalia kills the emotion associated with the organ. There is a generally held belief that uncircumcised women and girls are difficult to satisfy sexually, and this implies that women cannot control their sexual emotions. Uncircumcised women are assumed to be over sexy. “Excision is believed to protect a women against her over sexed nature, saving her from temptation of being prostitute, suspicion and disgrace while preserving her chastity” (MRG 1992/3). This is one of the core reasons for the existence of FGM. It is believed that FGM serves as a means to discourage premarital sex and reducing sexual desire of a girl thereby preserving her virginity. The reduced desire even during the marriage is expected to ensure faithfulness of a woman to her husband. This is why it is believed that uncircumcised girls are assumed to run wild into prostitution, or are considered of loose moral bringing shame and disgrace to her parents. For most African women as well as other Third World women, marriage and reproduction are the only guarantee for a women to gain economic security and social status. Marriage ensures a woman with old age pension or security as well as respect in the society. In some African communities a woman without children or an unmarried woman will have a very difficult life and a devastated old age, especially ones without any support from their relatives or community. Marriage is the base for the whole practice of FGM, without which, a woman is denied the right of marriage, in most cases also denial of receiving bride price. In Africa, marriage does not come easily without its sacrifices. Virginity must be maintained at the time of wedding and the lack of it has damaging social consequences to the girl as well as her parents. Virginity is the base for marriageability and it also enforces the prohibitions of sexual relationships outside marriage. Virginity is considered as a base for a family’s honour. A girl is expected to bring honour to her family through the preservation of her virginity and this is where FGM comes as a means of ensuring virginity. In Africa, a woman not a virgin on her wedding day will suffer a lot in her life. Many Maasai 1 girls are traditionally considered children until they are circumcised, it is seen as imperative for a Maasai girl to undergo the circumcision rite before she is married. This strongly ingrained cultural belief propels families to go to great lengths to complete the circumcision
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Gender and Human Rights: The Girl Child and Violence

Gender and Human Rights: The Girl Child and Violence

More importantly, for the purpose of violence against the female gender, the Act prohibits female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FGM), forceful ejection from home and harmful traditional practices. It also prohibits the abandonment and exploitation of women, men, children and other violence acts such as battery and sexual abuse. Previously, this practice was not specifically banned by law in many parts of the country as a result of cultural difference which characterize different religions in Nigeria. Thus, there was no general legal prohibition throughout the country, as such people suffer one form of violence or the other. Such general prohibition is very necessary because some of these practices impinge on the rights and physical well-being of individuals which might also affect the society with huge consequences. In addition to the fundamental human rights stipulated in the constitution, victims of violence have their rights protected under the Act. They are also entitled to compensation for harm done to them or to family members or for any loss incurred as a result of violence by the perpetrators. But the fact remains that cases of violence are not reported as a result of various reasons which might lead to stereotype, humiliation or death of the victim.
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STATUS OF GIRL CHILD AND FEMALE FOETICIDE IN DEVBHUMI HIMACHAL PRADESH

STATUS OF GIRL CHILD AND FEMALE FOETICIDE IN DEVBHUMI HIMACHAL PRADESH

Technology changed the mode of getting rid of a girl child. At present Female infanticide took the form of female foeticide. Female foeticide is a practice of sex selective elimination of the female foetus after prenatal sex determination or sex pre-selection, thus avoiding the birth of a girl child. The girl child in India has been the most vulnerable for centuries and, is even today, vulnerable to the insults of deprivation. Whatever the natural biological laws of human reproduction had given mankind for balancing its natural sex ratio, has been taken away by manmade laws, customs, traditions, religious beliefs and sophisticated medical technology, resulting in a lower status in society for girls as well as for women. For too long have they been left on the back burner, facing discrimination throughout their entire journey from cradle to the grave. In particular, peculiar to South Asia, and certainly to India, tradition, values and customs encrusted over time have resulted in the insatiable desire for sons, with families having totally marginalized the joy and pleasure in giving birth to a baby girl. Kolloor, (1990), defined infanticide as, “Killing of an entirely dependent girl child less than one year of age by mother, parents or others in whose care she is entrusted”. Historically, female infanticide has been in existence since long. Girl infants have been known to be killed by rubbing poison on the mother‟s breast, by feeding infants with milk of errukam flower or oleander berries, by using sap
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CHILD DOMESTIC LABOUR: A CORRELATE TO GIRL-CHILD BATTERING AND RAPE IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

CHILD DOMESTIC LABOUR: A CORRELATE TO GIRL-CHILD BATTERING AND RAPE IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

“In Bangalore, India, the gang rape and subsequent death of an Indian physiotherapy student in 2012 triggered nationwide protests calling for better protection for women against sexual violence. But, three years on, Delhi has done little to shake off its reputation as the country’s “rape capital.” In two separate incidents this month, girls aged 2 and 5 were raped in Delhi: One was taken from near her home, raped and abandoned in a park, unconscious and bleeding; the other was lured by a neighbour to his house, where he and two others raped her. In both cases the children were abducted by people who lived in their neighbourhoods. These attacks came one week after a 4-year-old girl was allegedly raped and slashed with a blade before being abandoned by a railway track.”
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Kidnapping In Nigeria, The Impact On Girl-Child Education

Kidnapping In Nigeria, The Impact On Girl-Child Education

For instance, the situation where the rights of the girl-child have been repeatedly violated through early marriage has seen millions of girls drop out of school due to pregnancy (Sanni, 2015). It is estimated that in developing communities 2.5 million girls under the age of 16 have experienced child marriage (WHO, 2013) and this clearly shows the impact discrimination has had on the girl child and the society at large. As women clearly make up a significant proportion of the population and their economic and societal significance cannot be overlooked. It is estimated that about 49 % of the population in Nigeria are women which accounts for approximately 80.2 million of the entire population (Onyido & Brambaifa, 2018). Quoting Abbagana (2013) “if you teach a man you teach an individual but if you teach a woman you teach a family and the whole nation”.
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The Nigerian Girl-Child and Sexual Abuse: The Plight of Victims in Bayelsa State Nigeria

The Nigerian Girl-Child and Sexual Abuse: The Plight of Victims in Bayelsa State Nigeria

Furthermore, many circumstances and situations are responsible for girl-child sexual abuse in Nigeria since traditions established norms to guide sexual activity. However, subverting the traditional norm of sexual activity in any African community by anybody is an abomination incurring severe punishment. Thus, the concept of sexual abuse is strange to Africans of post-colonial era. The common sexual abuse seen is rape (between adult) and incest but perpetrators are caught and punished. However, abusing children sexually is a hideous crime neither seen nor heard of in traditional African communities. But according to Leclerc-Madlala (2007) the legacies of colonialism, Christianity, Islam, and apartheid as well as the ongoing effects of poverty, civil war, and racism contributed to the reconstruction of sexual cultures and the norms that guide sexual relations in African, of which the consequences is not limited to exposure to documented sexual activities. This uncontrolled exposure is perhaps one of the root causes of girl-child sexual abuse because it constantly stimulates the sexual force or drive of perpetrators to engage in the act. In addition, is the wanton desire for diabolical wealth which many a times requires hideous act of sexually abusing a child. Also, the activities of unruly men who see women as sex objects to be toiled with, make it easy to sexually abuse the girl- child. With all these anomalies coupled with the sensitivity of sexual matters that restrains victims and victim‟s family from officially reporting such cases, it only increased the girl-child sexual abuse in the country.
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Female Foeticide in Haryana

Female Foeticide in Haryana

Women who constitute half a human population have been discriminated, harassed and exploited irrespective of the country to which they belong, unmindful of the religion which they profess and oblivious of the timeframe in which they live. Everywhere women are confronted with many challenges. Female foeticide is perhaps one of the worst forms of violence against women where a woman is denied her most basic and fundamental right i.e “the right to life”. The phenomenon of female foeticide in India is not new, where female embryos or foetuses are selectively eliminated after pre-natal sex determination, thus eliminating girl child even before they
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Role of educational managers in promoting girl-child education in light of Female Genital Mutilation in Kuria East Sub- County, Migori County, Kenya

Role of educational managers in promoting girl-child education in light of Female Genital Mutilation in Kuria East Sub- County, Migori County, Kenya

WHO, United Nations and Non-governmental Organizations mostly use the term Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), to point at the mutilating nature of the procedure and violation of human rights. Darkanoo (2008) agrees that this term was also adopted at the third conference of the Inter African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) in Addis Ababa in 1991. It is also most widely used in a scientific context. However, the term "FGM" could be offensive for those who practice FGM/C and do not intend to harm or mutilate. In their views Toubia and Izett (2009) emphasizes that many women who are circumcised do not consider themselves mutilated. Other terms commonly used include Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and Female Circumcision. Some argue that, strictly speaking, the term ―circumcision‖ refers to the removal of the prepuce of the clitoris, and this is difficult to achieve in young females. It also equals FGM/C with male circumcision. Some United Nations organizations have started using ―Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting‖ in order to capture the significance of the term mutilation at the policy level and, at the same time, in recognition of employing non- judgmental terminology with practicing communities (UNICEF, 2005). In this study, the term FGM/C will be mostly applied but other terminology may appear in the quotations.
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The Implications of Girl-Child Education to Nation Building in the 21st Century in Nigeria

The Implications of Girl-Child Education to Nation Building in the 21st Century in Nigeria

Girl-child education is a catch-all term for a complexity of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and health education for females (Okernmor, Ndit and Filshak, 2012). Girl-child education also includes areas of gender equality, access to education and it’s connection to the alleviation of poverty, good governance, which are major ingredients in averting crime against women. Today’s girl-childis tomorrow’s woman. Afebendeugne in Ugwu (2001) defines women education as the education that would make a woman become aware of herself and her capacity to exploit her environment, and involves training in literacy and vocational skills to enable her become functional in the society. When maternal care is adequately provided for the girl-child the aims and objectives of education will be achieved.
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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES  A CONCERN SHARED BY BUSINESS COMPANIES

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES A CONCERN SHARED BY BUSINESS COMPANIES

urban areas in CSR issues related with environment protection also very crucial, for these extend CSR initiatives to small, medium and large business. Government should enter fare in CSR activates and recognized all those firms who are performing very well, reward them and promote others also. Few firms like Tata, Mahindra& Mahindra are performing very well and giving more concentration on education, health, environment protection, livelihood, girl child development, women empowerment, disaster management, green marketing issues, and other ethical, social and community relevance issues.
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FINANCIAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES FOR THE GIRL CHILD

FINANCIAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES FOR THE GIRL CHILD

The Government of India through the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) on 3 rd March 2008 launched the Dhan Lakshmi Scheme with the object of providing financial support in the form of staggered cash benefit to the families of the Girl Child in order to help the eligible family ensure a better life and environment to the Girl Child. Added to the CCT was an insurance maturity cover to be taken for the girl child born after 19 th November 2008 and if the girl child remains unmarried till the age of 18 years, she would receive an amount of Rupees One Lakh. The scheme implemented through the State Governments covered eleven selected backward blocks of seven states. These were the States of Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and U.P. The scheme is totally financed by the Government of India. The scheme was made open to all girl children born after 19.11.2008 irrespective of their socio-economic status and the number of girl children in the family who had their birth registered and were domiciled in the implemented area and had been immunized and enrolled in school. The registration was not applicable with retrospective effect.
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Effects of female genital mutilation and alternative rites of passage on girl child self esteem: experiences from marigat district in Kenya

Effects of female genital mutilation and alternative rites of passage on girl child self esteem: experiences from marigat district in Kenya

The circumcision rite and the informal as well as formal education accompanying the whole process traditionally had a very special meaning and wherever it is authentically practiced today. All human behaviour within cultures has value for the people who initiate and perpetuate the practice. The circumcision ritual has a place in the life of the people. An individual is placed in their proper status because of the rituals they undergo as they grow up (Gachiri and Ephigemia, 2000). It is worth noting that as much as the FGM is still valued by a number of communities practicing it, it has several negative effects which include the painful surgical procedure done without any anaesthetic, causing psychological trauma, severe blood loss and bleeding of lesser degree which could result in anaemia. The FGM wound is prone to bacterial infections; if this remains localized it causes pain and inflammation and possibly an abscess; if it becomes generalized, it causes septicaemia which may be fatal. Tetanus is another fatal complication likely to arise. The use of non-sterile instruments can cause the spread of viral infections like HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and genital infections. Wrong techniques used during the procedure may cause scarring of the urethra and nerves. Obstruction to the urine flow, if total, can cause kidney failure and death. Long-term psycho-sexual dysfunction causes marital disharmony because of deep psychological wounds resulting in anxiety, depression, frigidity and irritability. Social consequences include the loss of trust in those who should be seen as support and care givers such as mothers and other older women (Gachiri and Ephigemia, 2000). Circumcised girls consider themselves mature and then begin unhealthy preoccupation with their sexuality; soon their performance in school gradually drops, then they begin to feel ashamed when smaller girls perform better than them in class. If this trend continues for some time, together with accompanying punishments for low performance and taunting from small boys in school, the circumcised girls could end up pregnant or just leaving school to be married or are driven to prostitution by poverty and frustration.
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THE EVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL POLICY ON GENDER IN BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

THE EVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL POLICY ON GENDER IN BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

Although unconditional and conditional cash remittance and transfers have begun in a few states, social protection policies like cash transfers is an investment that will benefit the country in the long run. Supervision and monitoring is necessary for the National Policy on Gender in Basic Education to be substantially implemented in the political system. In as much as the policy legally makes girl-child education mandatory, monitoring and empirical scrutiny by the government is important. This calls for a stronger social work department at federal and state level. Based on the Nigerian ecosystem, this portends that there should be strong coordination between the Federal Ministry of Education and the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development where social work is situated.
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Girl child education in africa: misconceptions and challenges

Girl child education in africa: misconceptions and challenges

In early 2010, according to Gregory, Amnesty International reported that discrimination against women in Burkina Faso was responsible for a high rate of maternal death during pregnancy and childbirth because they were unable to access adequate health care. This situation is not confined to Burkina Faso, though. A thousand women in the world die each day from pregnancy-related causes, and 570 of them are African. While these deaths are preventable, they are not prevented. Reducing maternal mortality was one of the Millennium Development Goals, yet the level of African maternal mortality is actually rising. African women more than carry their share of society’s burden and should be assisted far more than they usually are. The light of hope in this situation stems from those women who have broken through to become leaders in their countries and internationally. It also lies in the young men who have been educated to see beyond the boundaries of the culture in which they and their ancestors were reared. We are entering the second decade of the 21st century, and communications technology allows us all to see how life is lived throughout our world. Even rural women in Africa are seeing past the limits placed on them by societies holding desperately onto the past. Young women on the continent will not be held back by the conventions of the past, and young African men are increasing less willing to try to hold them back. There was a time in many societies on the continent before the colonial powers took control that African women and men had an equitable distribution of responsibility and walked side by side in partnership. Perhaps history is about to repeat itself – albeit in a more modern way.
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An Assessment of Factors Militating against            Girl Child Education in Nigeria

An Assessment of Factors Militating against Girl Child Education in Nigeria

Abstract Children arrive at birth as packaged gifts with great but latent potentials. Training (especially formal education) nurtures, prepares and matures them to unleash these to humanity in service and live a fulfilled life; girl child is not left out but girl children, in Nigeria, do not have the same opportunity as boys. This paper, therefore, intends to investigate the Challenging Factors Militating against Girl Child Education in Nigeria. The factors include poor family background, religious isolation, disability, early marriage and pregnancy, gender-driven violence, cultural discrimination and attitudes against women’s status and role. Legislative and legal provisions have been recommended to alleviate the obstacles and enhance the girl child’s right to partake in, and gain the dividends of education. Formal education is very essential in developing the value systems of girl children which would lead to the development of good families, good society and ultimately good nation. Hence the slogan: if you educate a boy, you educate an individual but if you educate a girl, you educate a nation.
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PURIFICATION TALE: MUTED VOICES OF WOMEN OF THE BOHRA  COMMUNITY

PURIFICATION TALE: MUTED VOICES OF WOMEN OF THE BOHRA COMMUNITY

The Dawoodi Bohra is a sub sect of the Shia order under the branch of Islam. Their population accounts to around 1 million and are scattered around various parts of the globe. In India, the community is located in states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. most of the community people belong to the business class and tend to be secular in their outlook. Women and children from this community enjoy benefits of education as compared to the other community group where education for children especially for a girl child is totally banned or partially allowed till certain age after which she is married off. Even as the Dawoodi Bohra community have a secular understanding towards its people they continue to follow a tradition which questions their outlook, especially towards women.Woman especially girl child from the Bohra community undergo a purity test between the age of 7 and 15 years. Known as Khatna or Khafd, the process includes the removal of the Clitoris either a part or whole. Studies show that women from the Dawoodi Bohra community follow the Type I and Type IV of Female Genital Mutilation among the girls. Though its not a new phenomenon, FGM has arised as one of the most barbaric acts that destroys the life of the girl child both physically and psychologically.
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GENDER DISCRIMINATION-POLICIES AND PRESCRIPTIONS

GENDER DISCRIMINATION-POLICIES AND PRESCRIPTIONS

Taking into account the apathy towards the girl child, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on July 10, 2014, while presenting Union Budget 2014 lunched a new scheme called "Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao" to help in generating awareness and improve the efficiency of delivery of welfare services meant for women. He said "Government would focus on campaigns to sensitize people of this country towards the concerns of the girl child and women".(9) He further said that the process of sensitization must begin early and therefore the school curricula must have a separate chapter on gender mainstreaming.
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Issues and Challenges of Girl-Child Education a Critical Study

Issues and Challenges of Girl-Child Education a Critical Study

“If you pray to god we will get male child, if you want god we will get female child”. Girl child education is very important to our society. Giving education to girl-child is very important, nowadays most of the counties encourage female child education but still some places girls are struggling in the process of education. They are supposed to be facing many problems and difficulties in education. Everyone should support female child education in world. From parents teacher friends and society people are all should help and encourage female child in their studying process.
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Loss Of Innocence… Boko Haram Attack On Children.

Loss Of Innocence… Boko Haram Attack On Children.

Boko Haram, a hitherto indigenous salafist/Islamic Extremists Movement is waging a religious war on the West Africa regionsince 2009.Boko Haram a colloquial noun which means “western Education is sin” in Hausa language.The sect as officially called Jamã’atu Ahlis-Sunnah Lidda’Awati wal-Jihad(people committed to the propagation of prophet’s teachings and jihad) propagates a version ofShia Islamic extremism thatforbids any interaction with the western culture, education, tradition etc. and also the traditional Muslim establishment recognised by the government of Nigeria. In addition to the sect’s ideology of opposing western ideals, also aims at establishing a state based on strict Islamic tenets in Nigeria. Analysts today limit the reasons for sectarian violence in Nigeria to issues of religious fundamentalism and fanaticism (Atim, T. 2013).However the causes could be structured i.e. poverty, inequality, unemployment, illiteracy etc. Nigeria former Security Advisor, Sambo Dasuki, also offers a new path to solve the problems claiming that corruption, injustice and lack of opportunity have led many young Nigerians to support or even join Boko Haram. (Stutz,2014). The extremist sect continues to commit unspeakable violence targeted atchildren, with a focus on the girl child and non-combatant
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