Alhamdulillaahirobbil'aalamin, praise and gratitude for Allah SWT, the Glorious, the Lord, and the All Mighty, who has given opportunity and bless for the researcher to finish the research paper entitled “Womenmovement in Mike Newell’s Monalisa Smile Movie (2004) : A Sociological Approach ”. Greetings and invocation
reconceptualisation of child care in the early stages of the women’s liberation movement: “With the resurgence of the women’s movement at the end of the 1960s feminists began to articulate a new approach to child care” (p. 83). In her 1976 Refractory Girl article Ann Curthoys positioned child care as central to the feminist agenda and the liberation of women. Curthoys seminal article was based on a paper presented in 1975 at an anarchist feminist conference, and it provides an insight into the relationship between feminism and child care. Curthoys (1976) linked women’s oppression with child caring responsibilities and argued that women’s achievements in other areas amounted to nothing without the sharing of child care responsibilities between men and women: “Only if the pattern of child care is completely changed can the mass of women be free” (p. 3).
As has been stressed throughout this thesis, activism has been an important aspect of the African experience. Slavery, gender bias and racial discrimination have placed black people in situations where they had no choice but to fight their way to a better standard of living. Black women, experiencing the blow of both racism and sexism, knew this better than anyone. As a result of the focus on white women and gender during the women’s movement and the emphasis on black manhood during the civil rights movement, black women’s activism in both phases remained in the shadows. Consequently, their activism developed on the grassroots level, utilizing the networks of the communities in which they lived and worked. That being said, this thesis set out to do one thing: provide illustrations of black women’s activism and community status that were representative of their experience with slavery, the women’s movement and the civil rights movement. These three phases are so intertwined with the history of black women in the United States that it is virtually
Third wave feminism as a contemporary representation of feminism has its roots in the early nineties when Rebecca Walker, activist, Yale graduate, writer, and daughter of acclaimed second-waver, Alice Walker, said in a Ms. magazine article, “I am not a post-feminist feminist, I am the third wave.” It was like the shot heard around the world for feminist history. This comment, which drew the distinction between what some would call a dangerous trend in feminism called post feminism, and what some would say was a more brave and inclusive version of feminism called third wave feminism, would begin to signify a group of young women who may or may not even call themselves feminists. Third Wave signified a group of women who considered themselves too heterogeneous to be linked to the white women’s feminism of the second wave and living too much in the margins or the interstice to associate themselves with the power feminists of the eighties and early nineties. As Rebecca Walker (2004) states in her foreword to To Be Real, “We want to be linked with our foremothers and centuries of women’s movement, but we also want to make space for young women to create their own, different brand of revolt, and so we choose the name Third Wave” (xvii). Thus, she was voicing the beginning of a new theory.
They gained many of their new demands by lobbying. One of their most successful organisations was the Women’s Electoral Lobby, formed in Melbourne in 1972. It sent off questionnaires to parliamentarians asking their views on women’s issues. Few bothered to fill them in. So the women decided to track down and interview all the candidates running for the federal election late in 1972. The newspapers were so interested in the women’s movement that they published, for no charge, charts showing the candidates’ answers. Women could now decide how to vote on the basis of women’s issues.
The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women ’ s Health, Mayo Clinic, and Society for Women's Health Research (www.sgbmeducationsummit.com). It was held on October 18 – 19, 2015 to provide a unique venue for collaboration among nationally and internationally renowned experts in developing a roadmap for the incorporation of sex and gender based concepts into medical education curricula. The Summit engaged 148 in-person attendees for the 1 1/2-day program. Pre- and post-Summit surveys assessed the impact of the Summit, and workshop discussions provided a framework for informal consensus building. Sixty-one percent of attendees indicated that the Summit had increased their awareness of the importance of sex and gender specific medicine. Other comments indicate that the Summit had a significant impact for motivating a call to action among attendees and provided resources to initiate change in curricula within their home institutions. These educational efforts will help to ensure a sex and gender basis for delivery of health care in the future.
Some political events like “ChaiduarRyotSabha” under the leadership of JyotiprasadAgarwala in 1931 influenced Kanaklata very much. She was also influenced by leaders like Cheniram Das, Mohin Chandra Singha, Lakhidhar Sharmahand Madhav Sharmah. Further her maternal uncle DebendraNath Bora and Jaduram Bora were active congress workers who very often visited her house and had talks with her about various programmes of Gandhiji. Naturally such words as “Mahatma Gandhi”, „Congress‟, „Independence‟ became familiar with her since her childhood. Kanaklata thought of fighting for freedom from the core of her heart. At that time Kalyanpur Camp under KalyanpurMouza was the main camp of the freedom movement and KanaklataBarua joint the volunteers. Kanaklata was most influenced by the speech of Puspalata Das in the meeting which was held on 18 th September 1942 near Kanaklata‟s village. After listening to the speech, Kanaklata was thrilled by the spirit of patriotism and sacrifice. She could not resist her desire to serve the motherland even at the cost of her life. Puspalata Das and other congress members were hesitating to enroll such a young girl in the Mrityu Bahini. But Kanaklata was determined and she succeeded in her effort. Thus, she won the destination of becoming the first girl member of the MrityuBahini not only in her home district but also in the whole province of Assam. 7
Preventive health care is little interest in cardiopulmonary function, which is important for the aerobic exercise and daily life movement. There is little research on the cardiopulmonary function of the elderly without disease, and the function (DeFina et al., 2015; Hwang et al., 2015). Positive effects of physical exercise on improvement of depression and cognitive performance. Music intervention, listening to or playing a musical instrument, has also been shown to improve depression and cognitive function (Yeh et al., 2015). Decreased activity in elderly populations increases the body's asymmetry and functional limitations (Mitchell et al., 2016).
of organising and has the advantage that you get to know their living conditions and gain their trust. We use theatre as a way of teaching and involving workers. The plays we use are a strategic tool in our organisation’s awareness-raising work and are taken into the communities where maquila work- ers live. We have three plays: The Other King Kong Story, which is about the struggle of the men and women working at Kuk Dong garment factory in Atlxico, Puebla. It shows the importance of organis- ing and resistance and is based on the experience and voices of those who lived through the threats, discrimination and abuse. The story has a success- ful ending when the independent union wins the day and signs a collective bargaining agreement. The Machine illustrates how workers can organise into unions to improve working conditions, and The Capital M in ‘Mujer’ is Not for Macho! is about three women recounting their own experience of what it’s like to be a woman. These are raw stories that raise people’s awareness of the abuse that women can experience just because they are women. For the CAT this is a successful way of raising awareness because it covers broader human rights issues as well as workers’ rights.
I've tried everything women are supposed to do--hobbies, gardening, pickling, canning, being very social with my neighbors, joining committees, running PTA teas. I can do it all, and I like it, but it doesn't leave you anything to think about--any feeling of who you are. I never had any career ambitions. All I wanted was to get married and have four children. I love the kids and Bob and my home. There's no problem you can even put a name to. But I'm desperate. I begin to feel I have no personality. I'm a server of food and putter-on of pants and a bed maker, somebody who can be called on when you want something. But who am I? … It's as if ever since you were a little girl, there's always been somebody or something that will take care of your life: your parents, or college, or falling in love, or having a child, or moving to a new house. Then you wake up one morning and there's nothing to look forward to.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of women empowerment, microfinance involvement, and loan size on women satisfaction. To achieve the objectives through simple random sampling technique the cross-sectional was collected from 372 borrowers’ and 372 non- borrowers’ women’s through questionnaire and later multinomial logistic regression was applied. The findings revealed and support the theory of adoption, which demonstrates that income increases satisfaction. Microfinance is a kind of money, which involves borrowers in small business and enables them to have money through doing businesses that increase borrowers’ women satisfaction compare to non-borrower’s women. More empowered women is more satisfied with life. Present study also found that the effect of microfinance involvement on women’s satisfaction depends on their empowerment In the light of findings this study recommends that future researchers can examine the same model in the different culture. This study contributes theoretically, practically and politically.
33 the after-war, due to the difficulties for poor uneducated buraku people to find stable employment, the main source of income for most buraku households were the jobs offered by the Unemployment Relief Measure (Yamamoto 2012, 14). According to the law, only the person responsible for the family finances was eligible, so Morita Masuko, as many other women, applied saying that her husband had tuberculosis and for a long time she sustained her family thank to the unemployment measures (Morita 1992). Following her father’s footsteps, she joined the union for unemployment measures workers and she got involved in the fight to establish health insurance for day labourers. The Union also managed to obtain in Kochi equal pay for men and women employed thought the unemployment measures (1992). In 1975, in the occasion of the International Women Year the BLL, with other organizations, called for the elimination of the difference between men and women in public assistance and both Morita and Shiotani took part in the campaign. The difference was based on the belief that women's intake of calories was lower than men’s, its elimination was a gradual process and it was completed ten years later in 1985 (1992). Furthermore, according to Shiotani (2007), a great achievement of the women’s division was allowing women to work for the postal service since they could not even take the exam. After they managed to allow women to get employed, the real fight they had to face was creating a convenient and accessible working environment for them since there was no toilet, changing room or whatsoever for women (Shiotani 2007, 79). Employment, due to illiteracy, discrimination and low educational attainment, was a critical issue for the buraku community as a whole; however, activists had to work twice as hard to improve working conditions for buraku women. They had to fight not only against buraku discrimination but also against gender bias in the society as well as in the system.
CONFRONTING PROSTITUTION TOURISM The Bathers by Jean Kamins (Photo) Marion Barling THE THIRD WORLD MOVEMENT AGAINST THE EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN Sister Mary Soledad Perpiftan, R G S Au cours de la Decenn[.]
Increased media attention on women’s issues failed to translate into improved outcomes for many ordinary women. Rather, patriarchy got an opportunity to inflict its regressive dictums to redefine gender roles prescribing women to behave, dress and move in certain manner citing women’s safety as the reason. Repressive measures are again being fostered in the guise of “protecting” women which intend to curb women’s freedoms and squarely blame the emergence of “promiscuous culture”. Debates that propagated the image of docile obedient woman both at home and the workplace again find their way out as the voices of dissent slowed down. The backlash showed its ugly face and restrictions are imposed curbing women’s mobility and personal choices as being done earlier. The onus is squarely laid on women to ensure their own safety. The state inflicted protectionist approach once again while issuing out the list of do’s and don’ts for women, imposing restriction on working hours and institutions like `khap panchayats’ came out with their regressive diktats of ordering women to give up mobile phones and marry at the early age transgressing women’s hard earned freedom while imposing restrictions on women’s sexuality. The current situation in a way reinvents patriarchy in its new form within the robe of capitalism and modernity. In fact today the situation is that discussions on women’s safety and security appear to be a hollow rhetorical strategy. However, it has created awareness, awakening and openness about the violence issues among general public which is a significant and momentous step towards changes in attitudes and mindsets. The situation has provided a platform where many of issues relating to violence against women and the gender inequality may be talked about openly and be acknowledged and to initiate a process of change. This new sense of freedom and awakening among women is paving a new way towards women empowerment in India.
However, the results also showed that the later documents on Kenya were more defensive of customary law and more praising of the government. Placing this information within the context of Wipper’s argument, that the MyW leadership became ‘co-opted’ into the ruling Kenyan elite (which included a heavy emphasis on the Africanisation of staff and a rejection of ‘Western’ culture), it would seem that this change in tone was a reflection of this co-optation. Even if, as suggested above, the change in tone was more of a reflection of the women exercising their agency and rejecting Northern prescriptions, it is nonetheless still possible that the organisation became distanced from its village and rural bases. Thus, it would seem that the women leadership in both countries ended up closely affiliated with the ruling elite of their respective countries. This, as previously stated, poses a problem for the validity of information as reflecting the majority of women’s opinions.
Between 1972 and 1973 women, united in The Feminine Power, engaged in many different strikes and anti-governmental actions such as the Coppermine strike, Truck drivers strike or a strikes against nationalization of the Bank of Chile and La Papelera, large paper producer company (Crummett, 1977: 106-107). An important moment came in March 1973 with the coming congressional election that could have shift the balance of power in the politics. The rightwing and centrist parties formed a new coalition called Confederación Democrática (Democratic Confederation CODE), in order to have a stronger concentration of votes (Thomas, 2011a: 84). They had hoped to win more than two-thirds of the seats in the Congress, which would allow them to impose an impeachment on Allende (Baldez, 2002: 107). However this plan was not successful, as CODE did not receive the needed amount of votes. 16 This convinced the opposition that they had made use of all the democratic means at their disposition to get rid of Allende and thus the only possible way left was a military coup (Power, 2002: 220). The Anti-Allende women perceived it in the same manner. Since the March of Empty Pots, the situation for women had not improved actually the opposite. The shortages became even more severe in 1972 and by 1973 women felt that their situation was no longer sustainable. Moreover, in the spring of 1973, the government started discussing the educational reform called Escuela Nacional Unificada, ENU (The National Unified School) (Baldez, 2002: 109). This reform constituted another threat to women’s practical gender interests, as it would directly affect their children. As Power explains it: “ Conservative women opposed the ENU because they perceived it as an attempt on the part of the “communist state” to invade their homes and take control of their children” (2002: 36). The women organized demonstrations involving parents and teacher, to express their disagreement with implementing this reform (Crummett, 1977: 107). Even though this reform was, shortly after
The Microsoft Research Graduate Women’s Scholarship is a one-‐year scholarship program for outstanding women graduate students in Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, or Mathematics (if your program is within the scope of these areas, but is titled differently, you are eligible). This program supports women in the second year of their graduate studies ONLY. Women who are interested in this scholarship must apply during first year of graduate studies. The award is $15,000 for the academic year plus $2,000 to allow recipients to attend a conference in their field of academic study. Applicants who intend to pursue a PhD are strongly preferred. Departmental nomination is required for this fellowship. Please consult the Director of Graduate Fellowships well in advance of the deadline for details on how to obtain this nomination. Deadline: October