of collective refugee experience because it contradicts the persistent characterization of Somalia as a country dominated by civil conflict rooted in clan and ethnic-based warlordism. Catherine Besteman provides a potent summation of the portrait of Somalia’s collapse imprinted in the collective imagination of the west, “Somalis became cartoon-like images of primordial man: unable to break out of their destructive spiral of ancient clan rivalries, loyalties, and bloodshed” (4). Many policy and political analysts agree that a confluence of history and politics contributed to the collapse of the Somali government, “from civil war in the 1980s; to state collapse, clan factionalism and warlordism in the 1990s; to a globalized ideological conflict in the first decade of the new millennium. The Somali state failed as a result of internal and external factors” (UNDP). This research project is not a political exploration of the complex causes of the collapse of the Somali government, but I believe paying attention to the viewpoints of the women in my study is an important in a way of “speaking back” to the hegemonic discourses of power that ultimately forced the migration of these women from their homeland. These women would not have chosen to be refugees. They would not have chosen to flee their homeland, their culture. Many of them have maintained in their stories that they led contented, satisfied, and largely peaceful lives before they left Somalia. These stories shape how they have reformulated their hybridized post-migratory identities as new members of a new nation. Being Somali from the perspective of westerners is equated with primitiveness, illiteracy, poverty, and war, but these stories augment what we know about Somali life before the war. These affirming narratives provide a context for understanding the why many Somalis stay so closely connected to their nation despite their current dislocation.
Predictive algorithms are foundational to Web 2.0 generally, and to social media specifically. A comprehensive user experience hinges on being presented with precisely what one expects (desires) just prior to the cognitive realization that it is desired. This is perhaps one reason why (mis)targeted advertising elicits annoyance and ridicule. Meaningless, intrusive ads (assuming there might be any other kind) run counter to the anticipated experience. The notion of anticipating a public mood goes beyond single users and given networks. Once affect is made an object-target, emotional responses can be anticipated and messages can be altered to generate a desired response. Advertising firms and political campaigns (not to suggest a difference) use these techniques to great effect. In another case, a recent study conducted by Facebook intentionally altered the stories in user’s news feeds and then monitored their posts. 30 As
As Susan Napier discusses in Anime: From Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle, in Japan there is an important concept seen throughout traditional Japanese culture known as “furusato,” which translates to “hometown.” 465 Napier states that “for years the furusato has been a vital building block in Japan’s cultural construction of self” as it evokes a lyrical vision “of a quintessentially Japanese originary village and landscape” that became increasingly important after the rapid cultural, political, economic, and technological changes it experienced from the late 19 th century onwards. 466 In the process, furusato re- flects both aesthetic and socio-cultural Japanese tradition. Significant portions of Japanese popular cul- ture – particularly in anime – oftentimes loses or purposefully erases furusato in favor of promoting an- other concept known as “mukokuseki,” which translates to “‘stateless’ or essentially without a national identity.” 467 This is done through purposefully altering the physical characteristics of characters, blend- ing them with “Western” looks or unrealistic features like purple hair, and mutating/distorting their bod- ies to remove any semblance of realism or concrete association with Japan as it truly exists. 468 In the process, a new world is created where furusato is no longer present and anime worlds become a hybrid of East and West. 469 Referencing an interview with animator Oshii Mamoru, known for his seminal anime adaptation of Shirow Masamune’s manga Ghost in the Shell, Napier postulates that the creation of this “other world” suggests animators themselves “do not possess a real ‘furusato.’” 470 This is further compounded by the hybrid aesthetic origin of anime, which is discussed later in this chapter. In the pro- cess of erasing the quintessential furusato from both the filmmaker’s “origins” and anime’s aesthetic and socio-cultural function, anime serves as a ready extension of contemporary Japan’s national identi- ty.
Faith leaders and community members reported feeling abandoned by police and political leaders. Community members stated that criminals are commonly arrested and permitted re-entry back into the community the same day only to steal and rob from members of the neighborhood once again. Faith leaders described their churches or congregation members’ cars being broken into on numerous occasions. Community members reported that though police may arrest a head gang member, the gang member that immediately takes his place might be even more violent. Though the participants stated that they wanted to help stop the violence in their neighborhoods, they expressed that people did not always feeling safe doing so. One participant talks about how if people in the neighborhood call the police, gang members or criminals will know who called due to the police visiting the caller’s house. This makes the caller vulnerable to backlash from the gang members or criminals once the police leave:
Islamist political parties and militias in Iraq use women’s dress codes, social roles and legal rights to signal a radical break with the deposed regime, which was largely associated with secular politics and even a period of “state feminism” in the 1970s. Conservative Islamist forces are also reacting to the rhetoric of women’s rights and liberation coming from the White House and Downing Street by appealing to “cultural authenticity” and “Muslim values.” Ironically, the louder political leaders in the West shout “women’s rights” while Iraq is occupied, the bigger the backlash against women’s rights might be in the long run. Widely circulated images of the female soldier, Pvt. Lynndie England, sexually abusing Iraqi male prisoners at Abu Ghraib, can only worsen this backlash, as Iraqis ask the question: “Is this what women’s rights means?”
few weeks later when France’s Army and the United Nations (UN) arrested Gbagbo and his allies (Central Intelligence Agency, 2015). The conflicts that occurred in Cote D’Ivoire these past years have hurt the country’s economic, political, educational, and health sector. According to a study funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the health facilities and human resources in both the public and private health sector has dramatically decreased due to the war (Betsi et al., 2006). The number of medical doctors and qualified midwifes in Central Cote D’Ivoire have dropped from 127 to 3 (98 % reduction), and from 184 to 26 (86 % reduction), respectively, from 2001 to 2004 (Betsi et al., 2006). About 80% of health facilities in the north (rebel territory) were locked down or destroyed. Though during this conflict period the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) doubled, those organizations were mainly local, thus lacked the appropriate means and equipment to continue the implementation for HIV/AIDS care and prevention (Betsi et al., 2006).
derivation of cell adhesion 2 (CD2), originating from T-cell receptor in the immunoglobulin response system. It maintains its original conformation a β-sheet topology, under varying pH and temperature. Initially, a calcium-binding pocket was constructed with five mutations to test its binding capabilities and thermostability. This construct was further optimized to improve its capabilities for strong binding with lanthanides such as Tb 3+ which showed a dissociation constant less than 1 μM. [36, 37]. Modifying this calcium-binding site further, a novel design approach has been introduced to engineer a gadolinium-binding pocket onto a stable protein, domain 1 of rat CD2. For constructing the Gd 3+ binding pocket, oxygen from the side chains of Glu15, Glu 56, Asp 58, Asp 62, and Asp 64 was used as a ligand that comes together from the different regions of the protein sequence and forms a binding pocket(Figure 1.8 A). In order to allow fast water exchange rate between the metal ion and the solvent, one coordination position is kept open. (Figure 1.8 A) After rigorous simulations and efforts, Domain 1 of rat CD2 was optimized to have high relaxivity, r1 = 117 mM -1 s -1 compared to Gd-DTPA r1 = 5.4 mM -1 s -1 [22, 29] as ProCA1. The molecular size of ProCA1 is about 11 kDa, suitable for optimal rotational rate and longer blood retention with easy renal excretion. As mentioned earlier, ProCA1 is conjugated with 12 kDa PEG to further improve its in vivo properties as contrast agent and enhancement has been achieved (Figure 1.8 B)[22, 38]. Previous lab members have successfully targeted ProCA1 by introducing various moieties that can target HER-2 receptor on breast cancer cells and GRPR receptors on prostate cancer biomarkers.(unpublished data)
Contrast and assimilation can account for the relationship between illusion magnitude and array density. When the target and inducing circle(s) are similar in size and/or are proximally positioned, they are pooled in the visual system as one entity (Morinaga, 1956). The gap between the inner and outer circles is relatively small, leading the perceiver holistically to pool these individual elements (Girgus & Coren, 1982). This phenomenon, also known as assimilation, results in the overestimation of inner target size relative to an identical target. Contrary to this, when the gap between the inner and outer circles is relatively large and thus the circles are dissimilar in size and/or distally positioned, the actual difference between the two elements is exaggerated and they are perceived as distinct entities (Weintraub, Wilson, Greene, & Palmquist, 1969). This phenomenon is known as contrast, which creates the illusion that the inner target is smaller than it actually is, resulting in the underestimation of size relative to an identical target (Pollack, 1964). Although there is some variation in the effects of contrast and assimilation (Nicolas, 1995), there is an optimal ratio at which each effect can be predicted to occur (also known as Morinaga’s Optimum Ratio; Morinaga, 1956; Oyama, 1960). Contrast, or
On the first training day, the rats were removed from their home cages at lights- on, placed into polycarbonate experimental cages with ALPHA-dri® bedding (Shepard Specialty Papers, Richland, MI) that did not contain food or water, and transported to the behavioral testing room. After 8 h, they were presented with a bottle containing a 32% sucrose solution for 10 min. One hour later, they were returned to their home cages where chow and tap water were available ad libitum until the following day. This constituted one training trial. The rats were trained in the same manner the next day with the exception that they had continuous access to water. We removed the water on the first training day in order to increase the likelihood that rats would approach and consume the sucrose solution. On the third training day and on all following days, the rats were trained in the same manner with the exception that the sucrose was given after 3 h rather than 8 h. We started with an 8-h deprivation period in order to increase the likelihood that the rats would approach the bottle, but then decreased it to 3 h in order to be within the range of an average ppIMI (Snowdon, 1969). Latency to contact the sipper tube was measured daily starting on the third training day using a MultiTrack Stopwatch, Version 2.3.1 (Morimoto Software Workshop, Japan). Rats were trained daily until their latencies were less than 30 s for 3 consecutive days (maximum 10 days).
Despite the decreasing trends in juvenile arrest rates in the United States since the early 1990’s, youths have been exposed to various forms of violence (Becker & Kerig, 2011; Hawke et al., 2009; Synder, 2006). This violence has involved physical assault, sexual assault, community violence, domestic violence and even unexpected or untimely loss. As youth experience or witness violence, they are at a higher risk of engaging in future perpetration of crime and deviant behaviors (Dixon et al., 2005; Finkelhor et al., 2009; Graham-‐Bermann et al., 2012; Hawke et al., 2009; Moretti et al., 2006; Ruchkin et al., 1998; 2002; Wood et al., 2002a; Zinzow et al., 2009). Additionally, the detrimental effect of such traumatic events on adolescents’ mental health has been well-‐documented by scholars (Ariga et al., 2008; Becker & Kerig, 2011; Dixon et al., 2005; Ford et al., 2008; Gorman-‐Smith & Tolan, 1998; Gorman-‐Smith et al. 2004; Haller & Chassin, 2014; Rosenberg et al., 2014; Richards et al., 2004; Shen, 2009). Studies show that sexual assault, physical assault, and witnessing violence increase PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance and numbing, re-‐experiencing the traumatic event, and hyperarousal.
Thoennes, 2000). Researchers (Breslau et al, 1998; Kessler et al., 1995) have also indicated that women are at higher risk for sexual molestation, childhood parental neglect, childhood physical abuse, domestic violence, and the sudden death of a loved one. According to McHugo et al. (2005), exposure to one traumatic stressor can increase the likelihood that an individual will experience additional traumatic stressors. These researchers further concluded that posttraumatic stress is often comorbid with other mental health conditions including substance abuse. In addition, Mockus et al. (2005) posited that mental health practitioners are often not abreast of current evidence-based literature indicating best practices in the treatment of posttraumatic stress and comorbid mental health and substance dependency issues. Mueser et al. (1998) found that 43% of consumers of public mental health services had a diagnosis of PTSD not previously identified by other facilities, and mental health staff had noted a diagnosis of PTSD in the charts of 2% of these mental healthcare consumers.
Mutations of A46, I335 and S45 respectively to glycine, histidine and alanine did not confer oxidase activity to PaDADH. This conclusion is supported by the oxygen reactivity tests carried out in the oxygen electrode, which showed no oxygen consumption upon mixing the variant enzymes with ᴅ-arginine in absence of the artificial electron acceptor, PMS. However, the A46G and S45A variant enzymes could not be fully reduced in the stopped-flow spectrophotometer when these enzymes were mixed against ᴅ-leucine in the presence of oxygen. The stopped-flow data for the variant enzymes in the presence of oxygen showed a stationary phase lasting for about 0.5 seconds and taking more than 10 minutes to approach a fully reduced state. In contrast, when the same experiments were carried out in absence of oxygen, the stopped-flow traces displayed a single exponential process for the A46G variant enzyme and a double exponential process for the S45A variant enzyme without a presence of a stationary phase. In the anaerobic condition, flavin reduction is completed within 10 seconds and the absorption spectrum yielded a fully reduced flavin similar to the one observed in the wild-type enzyme when the flavin reduction is carried out in aerobic condition (38). These results are consistent with the A46G and S45A variant enzymes reacting very poorly with oxygen but not enough to be considered as an oxidase since the rate of flavin oxidation was ≤ 1 s -1 . This may be due to the side chain of A46 preventing oxygen from
Schwinn, N., D. Vokhminova, A. Sucker, S. Textor, S. Striegel, I. Moll, N. Nausch, J. Tuettenberg, A. Steinle, A. Cerwenka, D. Schadendorf and A. Paschen (2009). "Interferon- gamma down-regulates NKG2D ligand expression and impairs the NKG2D-mediated cytolysis of MHC class I-deficient melanoma by natural killer cells." Int J Cancer 124(7): 1594-1604. Seliger, B., U. Ritz, R. Abele, M. Bock, R. Tampe, G. Sutter, I. Drexler, C. Huber and S. Ferrone (2001). "Immune escape of melanoma: first evidence of structural alterations in two distinct components of the MHC class I antigen processing pathway." Cancer Res 61(24): 8647-8650. Serrano, A., S. Tanzarella, I. Lionello, R. Mendez, C. Traversari, F. Ruiz-Cabello and F. Garrido (2001). "Rexpression of HLA class I antigens and restoration of antigen-specific CTL response in melanoma cells following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment." Int J Cancer 94(2): 243-251. Shandilya, J. and S. G. Roberts (2012). "The transcription cycle in eukaryotes: From productive initiation to RNA polymerase II recycling." Biochim Biophys Acta 1819(5): 391-400.
tobacco control, individuals that use traditional cigarettes and ENDS are the hosts. The agent is the factor that is required for a disease to occur similar to how tobacco products and tobacco smoke cause addiction and disease. Tobacco products and ENDS that are marketed, sold, and used are agents. The vector is the organism or object that distributes the agent. Tobacco and ENDS companies and other users can act as vectors by distributing tobacco and ENDS products. The environment is composed of the external influences that the host, agent, and vector operate by. Familial, social, cultural, historical, economic, political, legal and media-related factors affect awareness and use of tobacco and ENDS products 16 . As Figure 2 depicts, this study will use the HAVE model with a particular focus on e-liquids as the agent.
extended behind her holding a cup of wine and a white napkin for Pairy and his wife to wipe their faces after drinking. This offering of wine was believed to enable the deceased to communicate with the gods in his or her inebriated state, and thus played an essential role in celebrations and festivals. 222 All that remains legible of the inscription above them is, “. . . his daughter, Mut. . .” (. . . sAt.f mwt. . .). As the scene within the first register continues it is divided into two sub-registers. The top contains four seated men dressed in identical white kilts, lotus collars, and wigs, holding lotus blossoms to their noses to inhale their intoxicating scent. Below are four seated women wearing long white gowns and matching lotus headpieces with scented unguent cones resting on their wigs. The first woman holds a lotus bloom to the nose of the woman behind her, while the last two face each other as if to converse. Aside from a few scattered hieroglyphs within the first register of PM (6), there is no surviving text to assist in identifying the banquet’s participants.
A total of 904 adults were included in the present analysis. Responses indicate that 420 (46.5%) were female, 469 (51.9%) were male, and 15 (1.66%) were transgender women. Racial classification revealed a largely black study population of 885 (97.9%), with 6 (0.7%) hispanic respondents, 9 (1.0%) non-hispanic white respondents, and 4 (0.4%) respondents of other racial backgrounds. Mean participant age was 36.2 years with a standard deviation of 12.8. The cutoffs for age quartiles were selected for groups of optimally equal size, with 18 to 23 year olds numbering 215 (23.8%), 24 to 34 year olds numbering 220 (24.3%), 35 to 46 year olds numbering 234 (25.9%) and those over 47 numbering 235 (26.0%). Regarding sexual orientation, 100 (11.1%) were either lesbian women, gay men or bisexual, while 17 (1.9%) did not identify with any of the options provided, and 786 (87.0%) of participants identified as heterosexual.