This work is based on our previous poetry gen- eration system called Hafez (Ghazvininejad et al., 2016), which generates poems in three steps: (1) search for related rhyme words given user- supplied topic, (2) create a finite-state acceptor (FSA) that incorporates the rhyme words and con- trols meter, and (3) use a recurrent neural network (RNN) to generate the poem string, guided by the FSA. We address the above-mentioned challenges with the following approaches:
In Romanian language the accent is variable and therefore cannot be determined in a deterministic manner. It can differentiate between words (“mozaic” – adjective, “mozaic” - noun) and grammatical forms (DOOM dictionary). Syllabification is a challenging and important task, considering that a rigorous research on syllable structure and characteristics cannot be achieved without a complete database of the syllables in a given language (Dinu and Dinu 2006, Dinu and Dinu 2009). Some attempts have been made for the automation of syllabification. Dinu and Dinu (2005) proposed a parallel manner of syllabification for Romanian words, using some parallel extensions of insertion grammars, and in (Dinu, 2003) is proposed a sequential manner of syllabification, based on a Marcus contextual grammar.
Children also performed poorly on all phonological awareness tasks, but despite low scores these measures were well correlated with later reading (correlations were of a similar size to previous stud- ies, e.g., Muter et al., 2004). This is in line with previous ﬁndings that phonological awareness tasks are very challenging for prereaders but are still predictive of later reading. As in Carroll and colleagues (2003), children scored slightly better on our rhyme measures, probably because these tasks tapped into sensitivity rather than explicit awareness and involved larger units. Nevertheless, our measure that elicited the lowest scores (phoneme isolation) showed the highest correlations with print mea- sures at baseline and with reading outcomes. This association suggests that explicit awareness of the sounds in words and knowledge of print develop reciprocally. It is possible that orthographic knowledge was particularly helpful for the phoneme isolation task. If a child were able to imagine the printed word, this would provide an additional route for retrieving the sound of the ﬁrst letter. Auditory skills were also highly correlated with print knowledge and phonological STM and were moderately correlated with phoneme and rhyme awareness, perhaps because they also tapped into children’s ability to judge and/or reproduce the order of sounds (Banai et al., 2009; Talcott et al., 2002; Tallal et al., 1993). Although our auditory measures were highly associated with reading, they did not make a direct contribution after other skills were factored out.
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In this section we discuss a framework for track- ing any poetic genre, specified as a genre descrip- tion object (Section 3.3 above). As in the case of the stress pattern function, we use a statistical MT system, which is now required to be phrase-based only. We also use a pronunciation dictionary, but in addition to tracking the number and stress of syl- lables, we must now be able to provide a function that classifies a pair of words as rhyming or non- rhyming. This is in itself a non-trivial task (Byrd and Chodorow, 1985), due to lack of a clear defini- tion of what constitutes a rhyme. In fact rhyming is a continuum, from very strong rhymes to weak ones. We use a very weak definition which is limited to a single syllable: if the final syllables of both words have the same nucleus and coda 1 , we say that the words rhyme. We accept this weak definition be- cause we prefer to err on the side of over-generation and accept even really bad poetry.
Rhyme is a pervasive style device in historical poetry and Hip-Hop, but previous research has relied on small, handcrafted datasets. A reliable system for the detection of rhyme would allow large scale anal- yses, opening several directions for research. Given word pronunciations and a definition of rhyme, the problem is fairly easy. However, for domain specific or historical data, obtaining precise pronunciation information is a challenge (Katz, 2015). Also, a narrow definition of perfect rhyme 1 disregards fre- quently used and accepted deviations, as in imperfect rhyme (Primus, 2002) (Berg, 1990) or the related sonic devices assonance, consonance and alliteration. Information on the phonological similarity of two rhyme words can be used e.g. for the reconstruction of historical pronunciation (List et al., 2017) or the analysis of sonic pattern (McCurdy et al., 2015). A rhyme detection on grapheme strings is a step in this direction.
A collection of rhyming poetry inevitably contains repetition of rhyming pairs. For example, the word trees will often rhyme with breeze across different stanzas, even those with different rhyme schemes and written by different authors. This is partly due to sparsity of rhymes – many words that have no rhymes at all, and many others have only a handful, forcing poets to reuse rhyming pairs.
Once the main tools of the BAD have been devel- oped, we intend to focus on two different lines of development. The first one is to extend to flexibil- ity of rhyme checking. There are as of yet patterns which are acceptable as rhymes to bertsolaris that the system does not yet recognize. For example, the words filma and errima will not be accepted by the current system, as the two rhymes ilma and ima are deemed to be incompatible. In reality, these two words are acceptable as rhymes by bertsolaris, as the l is not very phonetically prominent. However, adding flexibility also involves controlling for over- generation in rhymes. Other reduction patterns not currently covered by the system include phenomena such as synaloepha—omission of vowels at word boundaries when one word ends and the next one begins with a vowel.
freedom 11 is greater than the critical value of t and also because their obtained significance level is less than criterion significance level (0.01), therefore, with 99% of certainty, it could be said that the observed difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores is significant. Thus, the research hypothesis concerning the impact of visual-perceptual exercises based on Frostig’s model on reading words, Words chain, rhyme, calling the figure, text comprehension, words comprehension, voices removal, reading unfamiliar words, letters signs and category signs components and null assumption is rejected. It is also needed to mention that the obtained value of t in the text comprehension component is smaller than the critical amount of t and according to the obtained significance level (0.067) which is smaller than the criterion significance level (0.05), it could be concluded that there is no significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of the text comprehension component.
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Biologically? Hmm…I‟ll have to get back to you on that. But I know for sure this could change everything as far as women are concerned. If women and men end up on similar hormonal tracks then, well, we may have a chance to even out so much in terms of gender roles alone! Like, you know in school how when more than half the class is doing poorly on a test the teacher will give them a curve on their grades? Well, woman make up more than half of the population and we‟re definitely having problems with this whole dating/love thing because, we seem to be getting hurt all the time, so, why not present the female gender with their own curve? Except instead of grading, we‟re talking sex.
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In contemporary Western societies women are often thought to have overcome inequality, become autonomous and resistant to social pressures, and in so doing gained the freedoms to make their own choices. However, this ‘post-feminist sensibility’ can arguably be seen as a double-bind as some types of ‘choices’ cannot always be recognised as freely chosen if they are taken as an indication of failing to resist social (appearance) pressures. We argue that one such example is the ‘choice’ to have cosmetic breast surgery, a practice that has received both criticism and celebration from different feminist angles. In this paper we analyse how women who have had breast augmentation are constructed by readers of an internet blog in which they are largely vilified and pathologised for not valuing their ‘natural’ (yet ‘deficient’) breasts. We demonstrate how the same discursive constructions that appear to value women’s ‘natural’ bodies simultaneously (re)produce the conditions in which women may feel the need to have breast augmentation.
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In addition to love, which is a pragmatic and emotional experience, Gandhi tries to provide the reader with perspective and awareness of the way the whole world is interconnected. The interconnectedness signifies the universality of spirituality. One of the interconnecting forces is love. There are others like a sense of self- awareness. "The invisible jury" portrays a man dreaming the Doomsday (p. 3). Dreaming his shadow looms larger, he comes to realize his connection with the whole universe: "It [my shadow] encompasses the earth and heaven" (p. 3). His shadow is conceptualized as all- embracive. Significantly enough, the poem accentuates the moral or ethical responsibility the dreamer has with respect to the whole nature. An invisible jury takes him to task for all the harms he has done to nature: "'Are you the one who has devastated / the land and the sea, / spread pollution everywhere / making the planet uninhabitable?'" (p. 3).
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Many different referencing styles are used across the world. The most common styles include the “Harvard” or “Author- Date” referencing system, ” the “Vancouver” or “Numeric” referencing system and the “MLA” and “MHRA” systems. Which ever system you use you must ensure that you follow it consistently throughout your work, including all the necessary information. Important: if your work is for an accredited course you will normally be instructed as to which style you will be required to follow by your tutor or institution.
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Enrolments have trebled over six years (from around 15 initially to more than 50 in some workshops) and approximately 20 percent of all domestic students now choose the IWM. Students have flown in from Perth, Melbourne, Canberra and Singapore to participate because they value the interactive and collaborative nature of the learning environment so highly. In the words of one student, ‘If a picture is worth 1000 words, then an intensive workshop is worth 1000 hours of independent reading’ (Student 2012). Intensive workshops provide
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“The purpose of this questionnaire is is to investigate emotion, and concerns how people respond to different types of words. In the last questionnaire you were asked to rate words based on how positive or negative they are. This time, please rate the following concepts based on arousal. At one extreme of this scale you are stimulated, excited, frenzied, jittery, wide-awake, or aroused. When you feel completely aroused, use the right-most bubble. If the word makes you feel completely relaxed, calm, sluggish, dull, sleepy, or unaroused, use the left-most bubble. You can represent intermediate levels of excitedness or calmness by using any of the other bubbles. If you are not excited nor at all calm (neutral), use the middle bubble (5). This permits you to make more finely graded ratings of how you feel in reaction to each word. There are a total of 9 possible bubbles along the rating scale so that you can indicate the extent to which you believe the concepts to be low or high arousal. Please try to use the entire range of the scale.”
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We looked deeper into some of the examples of Karmina and found something interesting. The ma- jority of the hooks that we met have some similar syntactic and semantic patterns. We analyzed the examples and came out with a set of schemas to generate the hooks. One property of Karmina that we think makes the generation of the hook possible is that a sentence in Karmina usually consists of only 4-5 words. We defined around 19 schemas for the hook. Some of them differ only in their word order, e.g. a sentence with a word order of X Y Z and a sentence with a word order of X Z Y , where X , Y , Z can be noun, verb, adjective, etc. These schemas are not exhaustive. They cover some of the hooks that we found on our small examples. Other forms of hooks may also present.
Repair Instructions: If you experience trouble because your equipment is malfunctioning, the FCC requires that you disconnect the equipment from the network and not use it until the problem has been corrected. Repairs to this equipment can only be made by the manufacturer, its authorized agents, or by others who may be authorized by the FCC. In the event repairs are needed on this equipment, please contact the Lucent Technologies Technical Service Center at 1 800 643-2353. For warranty information, see Appendix C.
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In this study, only four pain quality descriptors – five if one considers the Nepali word kat-kat as representing “achy” pain – were common among both the Nepalese and US patients. There were 12 words used by 3% or more of at least one US sample that were rarely, if ever, mentioned by the Nepalese participants, with “sharp”, “throbbing”, and “dull” pain being among the most common of these. In addition, there were three descriptors used by the Nepalese sample – translated as “piercing”, “heavy”, and “stretch- ing” – that were rarely used by any of the US samples. Thus, merely translating one of the common pain quality measures into Nepali and administering such a measure to a Nepalese sample of patients with chronic pain would mean 1) many of the items would not be useful, so the measures would add assessment burden with little benefit and 2) important pain quality descriptors used by the Nepalese patients would not be assessed, that is; a direct translation would not be valid.
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This paper compares several word ranking methods and evaluate them using two approaches. The first approach is based on a crowdsourcing task in which participants are provided with a document and a list of topics then asked to identify the correct one, i.e. the topic that is most closely associated with the document. Topics are represented by word lists ranked using different methods. The effectiveness of the re-ranking approaches is evaluated by computing the accuracy of the participants on identifying the correct topic. The second evaluation approach is based on an information retrieval (IR) task and does not rely on human judgements. The re-ranked words are used to form a query and retrieve a set of documents from the collection. The effectiveness of the word re-ranking is then evaluated in terms of how well it can retrieve documents in the collection related to the topic. Results show that re-ranking topic words improves performance in both experiments.
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Conf usion(a, b) = #c(a, b) + #c(b, a) #p(a, b) + #p(b, a) (4) where #p(a, b) is the number of times a verse from artist a is presented for evaluation and a verse from artist b is shown as one of four choices; #c(a, b) is the number of times the verse from artist b was chosen as the matching verse. The re- sulting confusion matrix is presented in Figure 4. We intend for this data to provide a gold standard for future experiments that would attempt to en- code the similarity of artists’ styles. For example, if we were to try to embed an artist, we could use the confusion results as gold standard similarity scores between the artists’ embeddings to deter- mine how effective the embedding methodology is.
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‘And then I discovered, you can do things with words!’ This enthusiastic exclamation marked the turning point of an academic career as it was once narrated to me at a conference dinner. The narrator had been trained in mainstream economics, but as he moved on from his PhD (a very complex, very sophisticated piece of quantitative research, I was given to understand) a certain uneasiness with the dogmas of the dismal science began to trouble our protagonist. Accordingly, he went on a quest to broaden his disciplinary horizons and had his eureka moment when stumbling upon J. L. Austin’s seminal work on speech act theory. Now, with the zeal of the convert, he eagerly preached the good word to anyone willing to lend an ear – or polite enough not to leave the table.