Another important consideration for the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian carers was that employment in the care sector provided an op- portunity to improve their English language skills. As with the African carers, the European interviewees mentioned the ﬂexibility of care work as an attraction. The negative aspects of care work that were mentioned tended to relate to particular aspects of the job as opposed to mistreatment by co-workers, care-recipients and management. Frustration was highest amongst those who worked in institutional settings, for many believed that they invested considerable eﬀort in their work but received little recog- nition or acknowledgement. They felt that their work was not valued, respected or remunerated adequately, which in turn led to low job satis- faction. Low levels of appreciation and morale were the main issues voiced by those working in the private institutional care sector as opposed to the public sector. While the development of inter-personal relationships was mentioned as a positive aspect of care work, this facet of work was not alluded to as frequently by the European care workers as by the others. One likely explanation is that a higher proportion of the European interviewees worked in institutional care settings, where it was thought that there was little scope for the development of inter-personal relation- ships between carers and care recipients. The European interviewees seemed more transient than the South Asian and African care workers. With a few exceptions, the majority regarded employment in the long- term care ﬁeld as entry-level work and were likely to say that it was temporary.
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Materials and Methods: The samples were confirmed type 2 diabetes patients who had been attending to 20 CCM-based clinics in Tehran for at least one year. Repeated measurements of the same variable (including demographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables) on the same individual in 5 serial time points were used. Results: Totally, 7190 patients (4793 females and 2397 males) with the mean age of 56 years old fulfilled inclusion criteria and entered the study. HbA1c ( P -value: 0.001), fasting blood sugar ( P -value: 0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressures ( P -value: 0.001), low density lipoprotein ( P -value: 0.001), total cholesterol ( P -value: 0.001), triglyceride ( P -value: 0.001), and body mass index ( P -value: 0.001) have significantly decreased during 4 measurement intervals. Conclusion: Implementation of CCM frame in primary health care clinics as the first model-based participatory care has been relatively successful in the field of diabetes management in Iran. Our findings support the idea that multifaceted interventions provided through a collaborative team work could relieve various health risk factors in diabetics.
While translation plays a key role in Latour’s understanding of how technology travels within different socio-technical networks, enrolling some actors and excluding others, Bourdieu’s work focuses on the processes of authorisation invested in the technology. This is not an attempt, however, to discuss differences and similarities between the work of Latour and Bourdieu, as this has already been done elsewhere (see Fuller, 2000; Prior, 2008; Schinkel, 2007; Sterne, 2003; Turnbull and Antalffy, 2009). Instead this article investigates how a mundane communication technology such as the PDA becomes a skeptron through the symbolic capital invested in it and that creates its performative power. Our analysis of this process allows us to address some important issues regarding how technologies perform regarding the construction of reality. Our analysis involves two primary steps. First, we show how the state authorised the PDA and gave the PDA its illocutionary power through its symbolic investment in it. Second, we show how its magical powers are used in the everyday work life of home care workers.
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Body work is work that focuses directly on the bodies of others: assessing, diagnosing, handling, treating, manipulating, and monitoring bodies, that thus become the object of the worker’s labour. It is a component part of a wide range of occupations. It is a central part of health care, through the work of doctors, nurses, dentists, hygienists, paramedics and physiotherapists. It is a fundamental part of social care, particularly for older people in the form of personal care and the work of care assistants (Twigg 2000a). Body work is also a central theme in alternative medicine (Sointu 2006). It is at the heart of the body pleasing, body pampering trades such as hairdressing, beauty work, massage, and tattooing (Black 2004, Sweetman 1999), and it extends to other, more stigmatised occupations, such as sex workers (Sanders 2004, Brents, Jackson and Hausbeck 2010) and undertakers (Howarth 1996). The contexts within which these practitioners operate, the knowledge systems they draw on, and the status hierarchies in which they are embedded, vary greatly; however, as we have argued elsewhere (Twigg 2000b, 2006, Wolkowitz 2002, 2006), there are certain commonalities that can be traced across these contexts that make the concept of body work sociologically useful.
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While their importance to the sustainability of elder care is increasingly acknowledged , these workers are his- torically understudied in Canada — in part because they are unregulated and, in most provinces and territories, unrepresented in the health workforce. An expanding scope of work and increasing demands for more com- plex care are suggested as factors in the incidence of burnout, absenteeism and turnover among these workers in Canada and other countries [8 – 10]. Exploring these relationships is the purview of work psychology, and health workforce psychology, researchers. Our study of- fers several novel and timely insights into the nature of HSWs ’ work psychology. Arguably, all aspects of the work environment that we examined (perceptions of organizational support-supervisor, perceptions of work- place safety, and QWL) are within the power of manage- ment to modify; however, our analysis suggests that those that we highlight above — QWL, perceptions of supervisor support, and perceptions of workplace safe- ty—offer particularly promising means by which to influ- ence HSWs’ work attitudes and work outcomes. Even modest modifications to some aspects of the work envir- onment could precipitate a cascade of positive effects. Both LTC and HCC are sectors in which “visibility” is low for HSWs, their residents/clients, and episodes of care. Our findings raise this visibility. We have insights now into how HSWs’ perceptions of their work environ- ments influence how they feel about their work, and how these work attitudes in turn influence their work behaviors and performance. HSWs play a critical role in elder care; these early insights into their work psych- ology lay a foundation for further studies, ultimately leading us to respond in an informed and effective way to their work-related needs. This may go some way to- ward addressing system sustainability concerns about the care of older adults [59, 60].
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ABSTRACT: The study is based on the significant contribution of women towards unpaid care work in the economy (home based care work, providing care to the children, elders and disabled family members). India accounts a large portion of unpaid household chores and activities by women. Despite the important contribution of invisible care work in overall economic development, countries are still failed in focusing and measuring the contribution of this sector. Neglecting unpaid work leads to limit the effectiveness of policies across socio- economic areas, notably gender inequality and other women empowerment segments. These activities are excluded from the accounts of almost every country’s GDP, because these are considered as voluntary community services towards their family members. The UN (united nation) statistical commission, which is responsible for estimating a country domestic income, has not specified care economics in its range of system of national accounts (SNA) on the ground that it is difficult to measure monetary value of these services. These unpaid activities affect the wellbeing of women and limit their priorities towards education, health and their participation in economic activities. Despite of these tremendous services rendered by women in shaping others future has neglected and shows the government failure in computation of their efforts in monetary terms. This paper has an attempt to analyse the methods through which participation of women can be calculated and how it effect economic growth.
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The majority of CSWOs reported a sharp reduction in the need for secure care in their area, as a result of concerted national and local policy development and service development. Several described how they were involved in radical review of their area children’s services, including various fostering, residential childcare and children and families social work teams and in some cases CAMHS; with some areas engaged in service redesign which could, as one CSWO put it, “pay dividends’’ in the future through further reduced need for secure care. However, many also outlined a lack of choice in relation to ‘preventative’ and ‘alternative’ Intensive Support Services. Two CSWOs were clear that there are young people who are in secure care only because there are inadequate alternative community or close support placements for them. Commissioning processes and practices, could for example make it difficult to purchase flexible 24/7 out-reach type family support in a crisis. Some CSWOs also referred to stark financial constraints. Others described lack of either the existence or poor availability in their areas, of services such as specialist ‘wilderness’ and ‘respite’ provision.
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As per Ž. Roja, I. Roja and H. Kal¸k¸is , most part of Latvian population do not have current information on negative stress and workplace violence, on health disorders caused by psychosocial work risks and the possibilities to assess the mentioned risks. In authors’ opinion, there is also no information on any preventive measures to reduce/prevent psychological terror (mobbing, bossing, disagreements and discrimination among workers of different ages, etc.). European data reveal that the proportion of health care workers who believe that their work threatens their health and safety is higher than the average in all other sectors (Health-care staff health protection and labour safety) and the studies show that the workers in health care facilities are especially exposed to workplace violence . Also Ž. Roja, I. Roja, H. Kal¸k¸is have noted in their book “Stress and violence at work”  that the National labour safety and health protection institute recognizes the violence in the workplace of health-care workers as a dangerous labour risk factor. The existence of physical violence, e.g., pushing, beating, kicking, shooting, etc., at workplace is recognized rather long ago. Cases of physical violence at work are registered also in Latvia .
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Referring to the labour market the overall conclusion for the EHM sectors is that there is a shortage of level three care employees. All case study organizations have their own manner of dealing with this shortage. For example, Warande is recruiting Polish students during holiday. For the future they do not exclude that they will recruit Polish students throughout the year. As a reaction on the tight labour market in their region, Careyn was the first maternity care provider that announced a client stop in a national newspaper last year. The Provinciale Kraamzorg started a short training program in collaboration with the local ROC, to ensure new trained maternity care employees for their organization. AxionContinu offers more fulltime contracts to attract new employees to their organization. Laurens did not mention a specific problem of a tight labour market. Laurens illustrates that there is no shortage in the home care department. Although the employees of the home care department indicate that they are eager to have more 0-hours contracts within their team, they prefer more flexibility in their working hours. Also their team leader encourages them to actively recruit new employees by distributing application forms in schools and sport clubs of their children. A major problem for Laurens (near Rotterdam) is the shortage of immigrant employees in the home care sector. Laurens is recruiting immigrants because of immigrant’s policy made especially for their immigrant clients. (The research of Prismant stated that for young immigrants it is not likely to go to work in the EHM sectors, immigrants are likely to choose for the administrative and economic studies). Also AxionContinu from utrecht did not notice a specific tight labour market in the elderly care and home care sectors.
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So, why should we be concerned about ‘care’ and ‘care relationships’ in workplaces? Firstly, we note that workplaces are sites in which practices associated with care take place. The concept of care is contested. Managers and workers may help out one another, or show concern, support and solidarity for each other in a wide variety of ways. Workers and employers may care about the progress and future of trainees, may offer sympathy and support to a colleague who has been bereaved, experiencing relationship breakdown or is unwell. Workplace friendships are often important for the everyday morale of employees, whilst poor working relations can lead to tensions and anxieties. These are important elements in organisational cultures and affect everyday work experience.
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An original finding of this research was that the social workers who participated in this research argued that like any caring relationship, the care that occurs between social workers and their clients is not always about being gentle and being ‘nice’. This was particularly evident in the data provided by Billy, Lesley and RM. They spoke about times when the caring thing for them to do was to be brutally honest about impacts and consequences of clients’ actions. There were also times when social workers in this study needed to make hard decisions and take measures that protected both their client and/or third parties who could be harmed or exposed to significant negative consequences as a result of circumstances and behaviour. This was not seen to be about being paternalistic or maternalistic, but instead helping clients face the reality of their situation. Therefore, there were occasions when it was considered necessary to interfere with the self-determination of the client. It is important to note that such interference was not deemed to be uncaring and the social workers continued to work ‘with’ their clients as much as possible. Ultimately, social workers concurred that attempting to avoid serious harmful outcomes was the most caring thing to do in the long-term, even if a client’s self-determination was not always retained in the process. These findings reflect the particular role of social workers to not only protect and care for their client, but to also consider the impact of certain circumstances and/or behaviours on others and society as a whole.
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sociable with neighbours or members of my local community). I used to get irritated when it was that time of the week or month when I felt I ought to visit my relatives, and when I went shopping I completely ignored the people working in the shops, and if anyone should so much as try and start a conversation with me on a bus or train, well I was very grumpy indeed, indignant - how dare they talk with me can’t they see I’m busy... So there was a facade, I was to many very outwardly sociable, extrovert, and able to handle large groups of people, and present to big audiences, but as I went about my daily life, I was actually quite introspective, and down right grumpy about having to have any human interaction. What I realise now is that this has changed because of the way I now interact with myself. I am (work in progress) developing a much deeper relationship with myself, getting to know myself if you will through reflecting, self observation and trying and testing new ways of self-care regularly. This deeper relationship with myself has come from taking the time over these last few years to get to know myself, to experiment with things that support me, to give myself time to develop and to reflect, to give myself time to do the important regular practical things that support me such as dental appointments, weekly food shopping, dry cleaning, and so on. From this, I have relaxed a lot more, and have realised just how much I actually love being with people, and interacting with people. In fact I find the days when I see no one else, that I miss the interaction and connection with others. My life has changed ten fold in relation to my relationships with the outside world to the degree that when I am at work in a large hospital I love talking with everyone I meet, I love sharing moments with people by the water cooler, and I love connecting with people on trains and buses, and I have so much more fun when I am out and about. In giving myself time and space in the world, I am now able to give time and space to others and I can feel how my work relationships have dramatically benefitted from this.”
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parents who have experienced trauma or difficulties must prove their ability to properly care for their children before regaining custody. But, these parents do not need to be punished – these parents need help and the proper tools to prevent them from repeating their mistakes. These parents need someone who is there to support and guide them because most of them do not have their own support system. A parent experiences a whole new trauma by having their child taken away. If these parents want to secure custody and provide a safe, stable home for their family, they will need a lot of support.
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This paper presents concepts about ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) describing its historical process and addressing the implications of this disorder. In addition, the paper describes the nurse in mental health and demonstrates the attributions of this health professional in this thematic. Objective: To describe the mental health care activities performed by the nurse to the ADHD patient. Methodology: A integrative literature review was used as a method, the search was done through the VHL database, in which 23 articles were found, but 6 articles repeated, 1 article could not be accessed, and 1 article did not demonstrate the criteria required in this research. At the end, only 15 articles were selected. Results: In the majority of the articles the subject was predominant in the field of psychology, nursing participates in this issue in only two articles. Topics were found on psychosocial interaction, medicalization, comorbidities, behavioral signs, risks and forms of treatment. Discussion: From the topics found in the results, it was possible to analyze that ADHD can be a triggering factor of other pathological factors. Depending on the predominant factor of ADHD, comorbid factors may coexist causing more severe damage to the mental health of the person with ADHD. Final considerations: The research concluded that the nurse's role in mental health in the processes of caring for ADHD patients is extremely important, since it uses interdisciplinary methods. In this context, the nurse is a professional motivator, educator, able to establish an integral vision of the bearer, capable of promoting communication in all assistance processes, and actions that can intervene in the sociocultural environment of the bearer with their relatives and improve their coping strategies the diagnosis of ADHD.
ized by the transition from the Ford “total” factory to the “lean”, globalized factory, where the various functions (e.g., planning, production, commercial, managerial, and so forth) are no longer vertically integrated, in the same place (the factory) and often at the same time (production cycles and shifts), rather they spread hori- zontally in the space and time of the “global village”. The so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution started in the early 2000s, favoured by the increasing spread of the Internet, which allows to interconnect machines, per- sonnel and production processes in one or more con- nected production units. On the one hand, production gained unimaginable potentialities in terms of quality, punctual deliveries and absence of waste. Also, it was possible to avoid direct exposure of the worker to dan- gerous processes (with a consequent change of the professional risks and with implications also for health and safety tasks within the company). On the other hand, work adopted growing characteristic of hetero- directivity; differently than Fordism, when the human be- ing controlled and governed machines within the pro- duction processes, now it is the worker who undergoes a growing control by the information he/she receives, just in time, from the ultra-computerized and intercon- nected systems, even because the complexity of pro- duction processes often goes beyond the capacity of the human being to govern them. This paved the road to the reappearance in the production systems of some features of Fordism, for this named Neo-Fordism, which currently coexists with Post-Fordism (Tab. I).
The services offered by 23andMe draw on – and significantly benefit from – this new understanding of race. Roots into the Future, for example, aims to ‘increase understanding of how DNA plays a role in health and wellness, especially for diseases more common in the African American community’. It establishes an unmediated link between the genetic makeup of African Americans and their likelihood to develop hypertension, heart failure, or type 2 diabetes. While the attention to racial health disparities is, without doubt, much needed, the representation of a purely genetic relationship between racial group and disease predisposition is misleading at best, and dangerous at worst. The geneticisation of causality risks ignoring that existing inequalities are most often the result environmental racism, lack of health care provision, segregation in unhealthy neighbourhoods or constant exposure to stress (Duster, 2004). Higher rates of heart disease and hypertension among African Americans, for example, have mistakenly been interpreted as associated with intrinsic genetic factors rather than as, for instance, an outcome of constantly elevated levels of cortisol in the blood. High cortisol levels are often produced by the human body under stress and lead to severe disruptions in the endocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune systems (Roberts, 2011). Similarly, the exposure to industrial toxins or environmental pollution more generally has been shown to be linked to increasing cancer rates, and to neurological and developmental disorders such as autism (Pellow and Brulle, 2006). As racial minorities disproportionately tend to live near toxic waste facilities in highly segregated neighbourhoods, they bear a larger share of the harmful effects of such a hazardous environment. Environmental racism, the racial division of labour as well as everyday forms of racist discrimination, rather than only genetic makeup should also therefore be the target of scientific attention, and government policy and funding.
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reported that sleep deprivation and the abusive work envi- ronment have negatively affected their work. Moreover, the majority of surgical residents supported work hour limitations and believed that the new regulation would have positive effects on the quality of their personal life . Following the implementation, numerous investiga- tions confirmed the anticipated improvements of resi- dents quality of life (Table 1) [14-20]. According to the surgical residents, the regulation has had a positive impact on the lifes outside of the hospital; namely more time for reading, rest, time spent with their families and responsi- bilities apart of work . Improved moral and decreased fatigue were also reported and mentioned as positive aspects [14,16,17,20]. Interestingly, a different perception was found between junior versus senior residents with senior residents being less enthusiastic and more dissatis- fied with the new regulation [14,16]. The authors assumed that the internalized culture of surgery and trans- fer of work from junior to senior residents following the regulation affected the opinion of senior resident sur- geons. Although not specifically mentioned, it is assuma- ble that the differences in the daily activities may play a role. While junior residents are mainly involved in floor work, writing discharge summaries, and general patient care, senior residents spend a higher amount of time in the operating room and are learning the surgical profes- sion and the skills required.
It seems likely therefore that professional social work is going to be given a central role and range of responsibilities in these emerging new arrangements. Of, course this is far from new and, at one level, can be seen to simply confirm what was clearly stated in Every Child Matters: Change for Children in Social Care (DfES, 2004c) quoted earlier. However, in a context of much reduced resources, the high likelihood of increased unemployment and greater social and economic inequalities, the pressures and demands upon social workers are lilely to increase considerabley. Whether, and for how long, the new found trust in social workers will continue will be interesting to see, particularly in the context of the high profile media child death story which will inevitably emerge at some point. These are challenging times. What we are seeing, however, is the
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The second layer added to the politics of consumption outlined in this section is in consumers themselves being the labour that brings value. The literature on the work of consumption highlights that work and labour can come not only from producers, but also from consumers of commodities (Arvidsson, 2005; Lury, 2004). Glucksmann (forthcoming) actually positions consumers as part of the division of labour, with ‘consumption work’ often being undertaken by them to buy, (re)use and dispose of goods, services and ideas. Critical literature on prosumption, in its turn, has explicitly highlighted value creation by prosumption labour (e.g. Comor, 2011; Ritzer and Jurgenson, 2010; see also Charitsis, this issue; Merz, this issue). Producing consumers and those engaged in consumption work often do not know or do not care that they are themselves the labour, but create value that is sold in ‘the market’, nevertheless. Here consumption becomes a way of invisibilising labour not only of producers, but of consumers too. In contemporary times, labour is hence also subsumed to capital – by modulating the, non-paid, activities of working and producing consumers and making them ‘ready for valorisation’ (Hanlon, 2016: 7).
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to participate in preserving forests and the environment in line s of sustainable development. One of the Regencies that carried out the SP3K policy was Agam District, which is a district with extensive agricultural land ownership in West Sumatra with a total area of 222,870 ha. To increase in Agam, agricultural extension workers are needed. As for implementing the SP3K policy, the Regional Government of Agam District has agricultural extension workers in each sub-district as shown in the Based on Table 1 above, it can be seen that the number of extension workers in Agam District Agriculture Agency is just a few, where 1 (one) extension staff will take care of 3,183.86 ha of agricultural land. In addition to the number of extension workers as many as 70 people is not able with the number of villages that are as many as 82 villages. Based on Law Number 16 of 2006 and Government Regulation (PP) Number 41 of 2007, each village must have an agricultural extension agents of at least one extension worker. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH