CWB-S refers to organizational members ’ voluntary, potentially destructive or detri- mental acts that harm their leaders (Spector and Fox 2002). As suggested in previous studies, the poor quality of social exchange is one major antecedent of CWB-S (Thau et al. 2009). In contrast, leader humility is more likely to engender supportive leader- follower relationships and thus reduces CWB-S (Morris et al. 2005; Peters et al. 2011). Although the extant research has introduced leader-member exchange (LMX) to ex- plain the mechanisms underlying leader humility and employee work behaviors (Wang and Zhang 2018; Yu and Wang 2017), it has not elaborated the social exchange process between leader humility and employees’ supervisor-directed behaviors. According to de Coninck (2010), fairness and trust are two important facets that reflect the quality of social exchange. When employees perceive that they are fairly treated and view their leaders as trustworthy, they reciprocate by engaging in more positive behaviors and re- ducing negative behaviors (Dirks and Ferrin 2002; Sousa-Lima et al. 2013). Thus, the present study introduces interpersonal justice and trust in supervisor as two mediators to enhance understanding of the social exchange mechanisms underlying the relation- ship between leader humility and follower CWB-S.
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Subordinates at times are the source of rousing for their bosses at various organizations which always give a jump to the working relations among them. Primarily the focus of this paper is to interrogate the various constructs and the proxies of subordinates work behavior which motivate to their bosses while revealing the impact of subordinates those work behaviors on the motivational levels of the bosses and then the bosses and subordinates relationships due to such work behaviors. Personal survey via random sampling technique was used to acquire data from 1700 managers of various working units which includes Departments of research and development, admin, HR and accounts, of various organizations. Optimal scaling is used to conclude the relationships between the outlined variables. The findings reveals that there is strong and positive relationship between subordinates various work behaviors and the motivation level of their bosses.
Within the actual practical day to day activities, even within an academic setting, counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) exist. Taking note of the harm that CWBs are able to induce on both individuals and organizations, it would seem appropriate that antecedents of CWBs be clearly understood. More so within an academic setting, wherein there is a system of monitoring and sanctioning in placed, CWBs should be kept to a minimum. However, this is not the case, previous CWB studies suggests a moderate occurrence of deviant behaviors within academic institutions. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study hypothesized that perceived loafing (PL) of peers is mediated by an individual’s revenge motive (RM), which in turn affects the prevalence of CWBs. Furthermore, the current study also investigates the role of monitoring and sanctioning (MAS) towards an individual’s tendency to loaf. Participants are 935 teachers employed during the 2015 school year in Taiwan. Survey items include the Mulvey and Klein’s (1998) loafing scale, Jones’ (2009) revenge motive scale, Fine, Horowitz, Weigler, and Basis’s (2010) monitoring and sanctioning scale, and Hu, Hung, and Ching’s (2015) CWB Taiwan scale (CWB-T). Using the statistical method of structured equation modelling (SEM), results suggest that PL has an increasing effect on both RM and CWB-T. In addition, RM seems to act as a mediator between PL and CWB-T, while MAS exhibits a decreasing effect on PL. In sum, findings suggest that in order for academic institutions to minimize the occurrence of CWBs, appropriate monitoring and sanctioning must be implemented.
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Individual levels of self-monitoring reflect the extent to which individuals observe, regulate, and control the words and behaviors they display in social settings and interpersonal relationships (Snyder, 1987). Individuals with high levels of self-monitoring are more likely to change their words and actions to produce favorable impressions on others while those low in self-monitoring are less concerned with making such impressions and therefore act more in line with their actual attitudes and values (Snyder & Gangestad, 1986). Self-monitoring is a reliable and valid predictor of several organizationally relevant attitudes and behaviors such as job performance, leadership emergence, organizational commitment, and job involvement (Day, Schleicher, Unckless, & Hiller, 2002; Day & Schleicher, 2006) however it has received less attention in the CWB literature. One study found that high levels of self-monitoring can promote chameleonic behaviors and either amplify or mitigate the relationship between personality and CWBs depending on whether a situation is public or private (Oh et al., 2014). In order to maintain a positive public image high self-monitors performed fewer CWBs in social situations. Conversely, in private situations high self-monitors were more concerned with self-enhancement and therefore were more likely to perform CWBs when such behaviors benefited them.
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Occurrence of CWBs inside the school is a reality. Results of the current study clearly noted that the perceived CWB-T factors TT and RAD as the two highest occurring deviant behaviors within the school. Analyzing the results, the TT item “Doing personal stuff while on duty” was perceived the highest with a mean value of 0.86, this roughly translate to occurring around 86% of the time. Within the RAD items, “Unwilling to undertake administrative responsibilities” with mean value of 0.75 and the item “Miscommunication between teachers and administrators” with mean value of 0.69, both are crucial to the smooth operations within the school. Furthermore, ISR item “Favoritism or discriminating specific students” with mean value of 0.72 and item “Improper student punishment” with mean value of 0.62, LOP item “Too few or too much assignments/class activities” with mean value of 0.69, AP item “Lacks teaching enthusiasm” with mean value of 0.73 and item “Wrong use of educational resources” with mean value of 0.75, and PT item “Gossiping” with mean value of 0.72, all of which can be said to occur more than half of the time.
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flexibility in Hr practices can also induce innovative work Behaviors. flexible Hr practices give employees adaptable work plan making them motivated to perform adequately according to the demand of situation (Prieto & Santana, 2013). Organizations which carry Hr practices ﬂexibility basically create an environment in which its workforce can adapt to respond to changing environments more dynamically (Kumara & Pradhan, 2014). Hr practices when ﬂexible prepare their employees to act and mold in every soft and hard condition (Kohli, 2011) inducing diverse and versatile behaviors Kkumara & Pradhan, 2014) giving them a feel of self-reliance to act innovatively. furthermore Shipton et al. (2006) argue that employees behave considerable more innovatively when their Hr practices gave them autonomy and empowerment to make changes.
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in addition to contributing to the existing literature conceptualizing integrity test results, the present ﬁndings also provide valuable information for CH-S consumers by oﬀering additional correlates of potentially underlying belief systems associated with integrity test score results. for example, these ﬁndings would suggest that examinees endorsing support for theft or rule violations in the workplace may also have an underlying sense of personal entitlement (i.e., TCU CTS Entitlement). Similarly, examinees condoning rule violations, manipulating others, and deceptive behaviors for personal gain (i.e., CH-S rules & Deception) may also have an underlying sense of entitlement (i.e., TCU CTS Entitlement), struggle with personal responsibility (i.e., TCU CTS Personal irresponsibility), and have a heightened propensity for minimizing antisocial acts and justifying their actions (i.e., TCU CT Justiﬁcation). Knowing that elevations on speciﬁc integrity test factors (e.g., eft) may co-occur with more ingrained or underlying beliefs supporting and justifying antisocial activity and personal entitlement may add to the overall conceptualization of that particular job applicant. On a psychometric level, these ﬁndings provide empirical evidence for the content validity for the CH-S as a measure of criminal thinking and attitudes. e intention of the CH-S, as well as other pre- employment integrity measures, is to investigate the applicant’s propensity to hold problematic attitudes or beliefs around key counterproductive work behaviors. By identifying signiﬁcant relationships between CH-S factors and TCU CTS factors this study provides supportive evidence that the CH-S measures constructs as intended.
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.610014 186 Open Journal of Social Sciences cial exchange theory that explains the psychological contract. According to the theory of social exchange, there is an exchange relationship between employees and organizations, based on the principle of reciprocity. Therefore, when an employee perceives that the psychological contract is fulfilled, he feels that his or her contribution has been rewarded, and accordingly the organization should be rewarded (for example, more organizational citizenship behaviors). Conversely, when the psychological contract is breached, the employee’s efforts don’t pay off, and they pursue psychological balance by reducing organizational citizenship behaviors (Suzanne, Lewis, & Taylor, 2000) . We believe that this inconsis- tency arises from the fact that the relationship between psychological contract breach and employees’ work attitudes and behaviors is indeed extremely com- plex, and this relationship is affected by many other factors. In addition, some of our samples are college teachers, which may also have a partial impact on this outcome. Shi Ruokun (2011) found through in-depth interviews that when col- lege teachers’ psychological contracts were breached, they rarely resort to re- venge such as negative absenteeism and attacks on schools, and the majority of them mainly complain . In other words, when psychological contract breach occurs, their job satisfaction may be reduced, but their work behaviors will not become negative.
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This study uses survey research methods, the research determined by taking a sample of the population and the use of a questionnaire as a main data collection instruments. Judging from the time this study using cross-sectional design with the nature of the research is to give an explanation (explanatory research), based on the perception of respondents, which explain the causal relationship between variables based on respondents' answers through hypothesis testing. With the goal of finding an explanation of the symptoms that occur are Work Environment, Quality of Nursing worklife and Self- Concept nurses used to compile the module Caring Behaviors based on the theory of Watson (2007). The approach used was a cross sectional study. In the early stages of this study is to examine the influence, Quality Of Nursing worklife and Self-Concept nurses Caring Behaviors for Nurses in Nursing Hospital.
The resulting competency models comprised eight compe- tency domains for both assessor and simulator roles. Table 1 provides summary descriptions for these domains, classified into four areas, with examples of positive/negative behavioral indicators provided. As expected, there is substantial overlap between the competency domains for assessors and simula- tors; however, for each model the behavioral indicators vary, reflecting the specific knowledge, skills, behaviors and attitudes required for each role. For example, while ‘‘knowledge’’ requirements for an assessor include knowledge about the selection process, employment law and an under- standing of the GP role; a simulator is only required to have
Given how self-care emerged as an important aspect of motivation to adhere, doctors, nurses and social workers should focus on the aspects of self-care and explore how patients can adopt self-care routines. Encouraging the patient to imagine adherence as a part of a more general self-care plan can help initiate and maintain adherence and other evidence based care practices. Motivational interview techniques can be used to elicit the goals of self-care routines and help patient work through challenges and barriers. Different patients may have different goals for engaging in self-care (looking good, enjoying good health, living for others, avoiding morbidity and disability) as shown by the results, hence, providers need to elicit and discuss these with their patient- clients. Orem’s theory of care in nursing practice claims that nursing care is basically a way to bridge the gap between capacities of self-care and the need for care (Orem, 1991). Especially for chronically manageable diseases like HIV, where most patients do not need intensive everyday medical care from professionals, practitioners can expect better health outcomes from inculcating an ethic of self-care among their clients.
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We translated the questionnaires from English to Malay Language via back to back translation. First, an expert team of translators translated the English version into Malay. Second, the questionnaires were back translated into English by a different translator’s team and the mismatched items were retranslated. Pre-test was conducted among 10 working women other than study subjects to ensure the easy understanding and proper wording of the questionnaire. In the next step, a pilot study was conducted among 50 randomly selected working women (other than study subjects) to evaluate the internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. The obtained Cronbach’s alpha yielded satisfactory results which indicate adequate reliability of the Malay version of questionnaires used in this study. The Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire has been previously validated in Malaysia 23 .
A k-gram denotes a contiguous substring of length k that can be comprised of letters, words, or opcodes in a binary program . In this analysis, the set of k-grams generated from the behavior automaton is used to abstract a malicious behavior. Then, the set of k-grams is compared with a sequence of API function calls to calculate the similarity between the behaviors and API function calls. The k-gram method only considers the limited k consecutive subsequence of a full sequence of API calls in comparison. Although there is minor mutation in the behavior of malware, such as insertion or omission of a few calls of API functions, the mutation can affect only a few number k-grams adjacent to the change. So, the remaining k-grams of the API functions, which are not affected by the mutation, still can be matched with each other. If the similarity between the set of k-grams and the sequence of API function calls is considerably high, it can be a good evidence of partial inclusion of malicious behaviors in software.
A majority of conflict studies in the last decade have focused on the relationship between conflict perceptions and performance. In fact, more studies have focused on this relationship than on than those for any other core process, including behaviors. These studies typically use surveys and questionnaires that ask participants to recall some aspect of conflict they experienced. These self reports of perceptions are then compared to outcomes. Undoubtedly, there is value in examining the relationship between perceptions and performance since, initially interpersonal conflict is almost always perceptual. However, given that conflict research has largely focused on perceptions, the link between conflict and performance outcomes has remained a black box of sorts, with little insight gained on the mechanism through which conflict affects performance.
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justice. The authors evaluated how the perception of fairness affected managers’ decision-making process of supporting work- life balance within their organizations. Results demonstrated that decision-making processes were empowered by the manager’s subjective interpretation of fairness, gender roles, and beliefs. Hence, it was then inferred that the fair allocation of work-life balance programs was subjective to the managers’ beliefs and interpretations of their organizational context. Also, the study reported that managers’ subjective notion of fairness defines their position in the decision-making processes of how to address a work-life balance situation. Adopting one position rather than another depended on their interpretation of the context, equality, equity, and needs. In addition, managers selected a formal or an informal channel for allocating resources because they had concerns about their management role and how it would affect the operation of the business. Managers with traditional point of view chose to solve issues on an informal basis while taking into consideration loyalty and certain behaviors of their employees. On the contrary, managers who held egalitarian positions preferred formal channels of allocation, which are considered more transparent (Daverth et al., 2016).
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validity of the central limit theorem for normalized random sums of (). Since the appear- ance of the Robbin’s work, various limit theorems concerning the asymptotic behaviors for randomly indexed sums of independent random variables and rates of convergence, either in the central limit theorem for random sums or in the weak law of large numbers for random sums have been studied systematically (for a deeper discussion on limit theo- rems for random sums of independent random variables with the rates of convergence, we refer the reader to Robbins , Feller , Renyi , Gnhedenko and Korolev  and , Kruglov and Korolev , Cioczek and Szynal , Rychlick and Szynal , Gut , Hung and Thanh ).
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taken from the scale devised by Bettencourt and Brown . The scale was originally used to assess prosocial service behaviors demonstrated by contact employees. Among the three components originally identified to assess prosocial service behaviors, the items pertaining to extra-role customer service were included in the present scale. The original study was carried out with bank tellers and customer service managers of the same bank. Considering the heterogeneous nature of the present sample the items were generalized by changing the word “customer” with “people in contact with my organization, such as customers, suppliers, students, patients etc.”. Only one item in this factor had a different source. As a shared item of two other scales, it was previously associated with both the altruism component of OCB  and OCBI . The item’s specific reference to new employees can be interpreted as indicative of their status as an out-group member, close enough to provide help for their orientation but not yet accepted as a member of the work group.
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Shared repertoire. Shared repertoire is the third dimension or characteristic of CoP. The joint pursuit of an enterprise creates resources developed over time for negotiating meaning such as routine words, tools, ways of doing things, stories, gestures, concepts or other reifications that members of the CoP know and use, and which have become part of the practice. Members need to participate enough to recognize, understand and use the repertoire of the CoP. However, these shared repertoires are not only used within the CoP, but also are shared with the larger organization. This introduces the practice elements to others and influences their practices, meaning making and identities (Wenger, 2004). Others often deal with artifacts connecting them to CoP they do not belong, thereby forming a bridge as well as learning opportunity for those within and outside of the CoP. An example provided is when employees adopt safe practices at home based on the safety requirements at work (Wenger, 1998).
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Although supportive manager behaviors (SMB; Rooney and Gottlieb, 2007; Yarker et al., 2007) and perceived supervisor support (Shanock and Eisenberger, 2006) have received considerable attention, the effects of unsupportive manager behaviors is less commonly examined (UMB). What is known typically stems from the more extreme side of negative leadership, such as abusive supervision (Mitchell and Ambrose, 2007) and destructive leadership (Schyns and Schilling, 2013). Even less attention has been given to the idea that managers can exhibit different types of leadership behaviors (Kelloway et al., 2006), and little is known about the possible interactions between SMB and UMB. Consequently, this study examines the construct of SMB and UMB using Social Exchange Theory (SET) in relation to three common employee measures: engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention (See Figure 1 for proposed model). The selection of engagement reflects the interest 3
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As mentioned previously in the introduction, the main purpose of this work is to characterize the behaviors of the magnetic radiation of a power electronic MOSFET with regard to the following parameters: power supply voltage V and current I , cyclic ratio k, excitation signal operating rate or frequency f and number of transistors with reference STW12NK80Z fabricated by STMicroelectronics which constitutes the active CUT. The configuration shown in Figure 4 was considered for the transistors set up in order to facilitate the scan of the magnetic NF expected.
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