was used to test the robustness of these bivariate relationships. Findings confirm that workers who do not seek a bounded working life are less likely to have one: although there was no significant difference between those who agreed (the reference category) and agreed strongly with the statement ‘I like to leave work behind when I leave the salon’, disagreeing (and thereby indicating a willingness to continue work outside of the salon) multiplies the odds of doing hairstyling outside the salon by a factor of nearly eight (p<0.05). Socio-demographic variables had no effect: neither gender, age, nor family composition variables (marital status; household including school-age or pre-school children) were significant. However, membership of an equal-earner household reduces the odds of doing hairstyling outside of the salon by 70 per cent (p<0.1). The distance of the salon from the stylist’s home is also significant (p<0.05): for every extra minute the stylist takes getting to work his or her odds of doing hairstyling at home increase by 4.7 per cent. Other workplace characteristics were insignificant. However the effect of workrelations, found in bivariate analysis, persisted. Trainees were omitted since all but one did extra-salon styling (and so almost perfectly predicted the dependent variable). The analysis therefore considered qualified stylists only. Owners’ odds of doing styling work outside of the salon are 84 per cent lower than non-owners’ (p<0.1). This is not a by-product of career stage since a variable measuring the years respondents had worked in hairstyling was included in the model and had no significant effect.
This step completed, it can fits the proposition of reflection about the school’s importance and each one’s par- ticipation as educators by the light of education-workrelations, centrally after the 1990s permeated the discourse of decentralization of education, in response to the legitimacy State’s crisis, from which one must think and value the school as a place of organization where workers must construct their identity, and thus should work more with the plurality than with equality, with more significance than the specific content, having a lot of clar- ity on the issue of culture and local government in its relations with the global, and in the limit this new school will have to bring all those involved to reflect and act in favor of a school able to think in organizing situations, activities and enabling environments for the teaching-learning process. Given this scenario, it is impose the need for:
In response, factory owners attempted to spearhead two major changes in Pakistan’s apparel sector. The first of these involved shifting from a system that relied on casual male workers who were paid piece-rates under informal contracts to a more industrial, salaried model with a detailed division of labour and managerial supervision. The second change involved recruiting female workers who received a minimum wage at approximately half the average pay of the males they replaced. These changes encountered considerable hostility and resistance, to the surprise of factory owners, who then mobilized other agencies – notably, the state, multilateral organizations, and local community leaders - to promote and legitimize the desired restructuring. This led to the doubling of female employment from 10% of the total of 700,000 workers employed in the apparel industry in 2004 (USITC, 2004) to 20% of the work force by 2009 (Haque, 2009). Table 2 outlines key events that were salient in this process.
Although the presence of social bonds may be important, there is further evidence that the quality of the bond matters (e.g., Giordano, Cernokovich, and Holland 2003; Sampson and Laub 1993). For example, persons who report being more satisfied with their marriage are even less likely to participate in substance use than married persons who are unsatisfied with their relationship (Haynie et al. 2005; Daly 1994). However, questions remain as to whether this negative relationship holds among cohabiters (Bachman et al. 2002). Our romantic satisfaction variable is comprised of 10 survey items that capture various aspects of relationship quality. Using a 5–7 category response, respondents were asked to report on their relational permanence, commitment, enjoyment, happiness, and closeness as well as their satisfaction with their partner listening, being faithful, expressing love and affection, decision-making in financial matters, and sexual relations. We recoded each item such that higher scores indicate higher levels of relational satisfaction and combined the 10 items into a single summation measure. 1 Thus, higher scores reveal higher quality of bonds.
The psychosocial characteristics of a job have been widely studied as determinants of employees’ job related well-being and functioning [9–11]. Two of the main models in this regard, the Job Demands–Control–Support (JDCS) model and the Job Demands–Resources (JDR) model, dis- cern two types of job characteristics [12–15]. The first type includes the job demands, which are considered to exert their influence on well-being and functioning through an energy depleting pathway. Job demands include the quantita- tive, emotional, and cognitive demands the job poses on the employee. The second type of job characteristics includes the job resources, which are expected to have a positive effect on functioning through a motivational pathway . Job resources are positive job aspects that are functional in achieving work goals, reduce job demands and the asso- ciated costs, and stimulate personal growth, learning, and development. The resources most commonly studied are autonomy, and social support from colleagues and supervi- sor. Research has related job demands and job resources to various indicators of work ability (see e.g., ). High job resources were associated with high employability , high engagement, and low burnout . In contrast, high demands impeded work ability , and were related to burnout and low engagement . In a longitudinal study, Airila et al.  found high job resources to be predictive for work engagement and future work ability. Furthermore, changes in job demands and resources have shown to have an impact on burnout, work engagement, and sickness absen- teeism .
Alain Trudeau explained the impact the work would have on traffic on Saint-Jacques and De Maisonneuve: Décarie Boulevard north will need to be closed to traffic, but Décarie Boulevard south will be open for local traffic only and for trucks exiting the Glen Campus. The reason for this change is primarily due to the construction trucks and cranes that will be in the east lane and part of the centre lane as work progresses in phase 2. These factors will hinder traffic and increase the risk of accidents.
Thus although, at face value, these acts suggest a totally selfless approach to recruitment, they are often carried out in anticipation of future payment by workers. The foregoing discussion highlights the adversity in recruitment agencies and practices for international and internal migrant domestic workers in Ghana. Fully registered brokerage agencies work by the book and supply domestic workers where labour laws can be observed and employment is through written contracts which specify working hours, days off and other working conditions. The formal brokers interviewed for this study sought minimal personal involvement with their clients and were reluctant to engage new arrivals from rural areas – whom they refer to as ‘village people’ and preferred Accra residents instead, who may have been in the city for varying periods of time and transformed themselves into urban residents. Informal brokers, on the other hand, tended to recruit less-educated rural girls and to have a more personal relationship with them based on principles of trust and reciprocity.
The main attraction in the book is a quite radical treatment and selection of Treu- mann’s works. On the cover Boom depicts all 700 works Treumann did in his life in miniature size. Then throughout the pages she progressively zooms into his work (the works get repeated up to five times on one page). In the middle she shows about 30 works full bleed—stamps and posters scaled to the same size. Finally the last 16 pages get filled with crops, which Boom took out of Treumann’s works. The crops indeed get compositions / works of their own, which have little to do with the originals. Boom herself said regarding the book: “Sometimes books are a success and sometimes they are a failure. I thought … [it] was really nice, but the subject Otto Treumann didn’t like it at all” 40 . In the end nobody was pleased with the book because artist and interpret could not relate. “His generation of designers did not like it and I thought … well … fuck you” 41 . The constellation underrated the enormous responsibility that comes with the monograph. Otto Treumann ( 1919 † 2001 ) who used his design skills to forge passports for jews during the German occupa- tion, died being dissatisfied about the way his oeuvre got preserved.
chains relationships between people are even more likely to be masked as relationships between disembodied commodities. Thus, more scholarship is needed to uncover the role of social relations underpinning global economic exchange.
The conventional literature on global value chains (GVC) has generally privileged economistic explanations of commercial relationships between firms. Gereffi and colleagues’ (2005) influential framework offers an analysis of structural relations in supply chains based on an actor’s economic power (Gereffi, 1994; Gereffi et al., 2005). It identifies dominant lead firms and explains their ability to extract economic rents and impose conditions in terms of their oligopolistic position in relation to a fragmented global supply base. While this offers important insights into coordination across firm boundaries, it explains coordination in terms of commercial dynamics: transaction costs economics, the complexity of inter-firm relationships and asset specificity. By neglecting the role of social relations within which the economic relations are embedded, the GVC literature “abstracts in principle from any social or institutional influence” (Barrientos, 2013: 46). But as Granovetter (1985: 487) famously argued, even in market-based contexts, economic activity is inherently “embedded in concrete, ongoing systems of social relations.” Consequently, this article aims to go further and foregrounds the role of social relations in global supply chains and the diverse actors making up supply chains both at the upstream and downstream end of supply chains, and connecting both ends. We first explore where and how social relations may come into our analysis of global supply chains.
Because job crafting is a strategy used to establish a ﬁt between the person and the environment, not only the social context (in the context of this study, the degree of social support at work) but also the person and his or her speciﬁc characteristics are of great importance, which is reﬂected in the JD-R theory ( Bakker and Demerouti, 2017 ). According to this theory, job crafting has a positive eﬀect on both job resources and personal resources. Therefore, in this study, we also focus on personal resources that are operationalized by the well-established concept of PsyCap, which is conceptualized as a state-like, higher-order factor that contains four subdimensions: hope, self-eﬃcacy, resilience, and optimism ( Luthans and Youssef, 2004 ). Regarding the relevance of PsyCap for the ﬁeld of occupational health psychology, Avey et al. (2010) found that PsyCap was positively related to extra role organizational citizenship behaviors and negatively related to organizational cynicism, intention to quit, and counterproductive workplace behaviors. Additionally, these authors were able to predict self-evaluation, person-to-organization ﬁt, and person- to-job ﬁt by applying PsyCap. To study PsyCap, we integrate them into two hypotheses, that stem from self-eﬃcacy research. To our knowledge, neither the enabling nor the cultivation hypothesis were veriﬁed with PsyCap, additionally, not in the work context. Beyond that, this study contributes to the ﬁeld as it oﬀers a broad picture by integrating relevant variables into a joint model.
Public relations and its role in the development of institutional work: Public Relations is one of the most important departments in the various institutions. It is an integral part of the activity of these institutions and is a fundamental component of the policy of these institutions. Public relations contribute to enhancing the positive image of the institutions among the target audiences and clarifying the good idea between these institutions and customers. Correcting misconceptions and responding to rumors about the institution and its services. Public relations is currently working on a new concept, namely the concept of excellence in the practice of institutional public relations, in order to support the building of continuous efforts to build Establishing effective communication links between institutions and their clients and enhancing communication channels to support the continuous exchange of information between the organization and its customers. This results in enriching the public relations programs in the various institutions and continuous development of public relations programs and systems. The first is that internal customers, employees of the organization itself, are part of the target audience, and must receive and support the communication expertise that comes from them, and must work to meet their requirements and achieve levels of satisfaction and have access to the file And integrated public relations that support the process of development in different institutions and provide the feedback required by these institutions through the use of tools to measure the views of diverse audiences and work on continuous improvement in all aspects of work in those institutions and enhance the positive image provided by the media as well Which contributes to attract more customers and achieve the expected advancement of different institutions.
communities. Someone may refuse the honi as a sign that they do not wish to share energy with someone whose energy they perceive as negative, and new outsiders may not be invited to practices honi for a range of reasons. ES felt that the more established staff member’s daily refusal to engage with her in the rituals of greeting spoke to her status as an outsider, marked by her light skin. At the same time, she recognised that perhaps there were other motives or meanings for these occurrences, and she was also worried about her own ability to fit in as a diasporic person with the more established group leading ʻāina work. Whatever the reasons for her experience, ES’s sense that her light skin affected how she was read by other Hawaiians conveys some of the ongoing ways that racialising schema and associated conceptions of indigenous ‘authenticity’ may continue to affect ʻāina work practices. As Kauanui has described, these tensions within decolonising work are always suffused with contradictions, ‘given that the quest to reclaim particular cultural traditions is always selective’ (2017: Location 1492–1495). The intersecting gendered politics of these efforts are explored in greater depth through the example of stonework in the next section.
One reason customers patronize a business is they like the product or service provided. To In a work setting, territorial rights may de-
velop. Territorial rights are unwritten rules concerning respect for the property and terri- tory of others. Some workers come to feel that they control a certain office, area, or sales ter- ritory. When you are on their turf, they expect you to behave as they wish. An example might be that you are not supposed to use some- one’s tools without asking permission first. Be alert for such things. Try to respect others’ ter- ritorial rights.
Face to face dialogue leads to people developing a better understanding of one another, including celebrating the values held in common as well as acknowledging distinctiveness. This two-day event is a living example of that. We’re drawn together by the thread of a core belief in positive action to tackle global poverty, whilst learning from and valuing our different perspectives and approaches. As a result, I hope we’ll all leave today with a greater understanding of the issues and each other. And that should carry through into the future work we do to in pursuit of the aims I described above – having direct impact, better UK policy, better international policy, public support for development. The value of face to face dialogue in poor countries is also clear. Too often, religious differences have contributed to conflict around the world. But we know that when faith leaders and institutions come together around issues, multi-faith initiatives can actually help to bridge the differences between communities. One example is the way that Muslim and Catholic partners have worked on interfaith peace building in the Philippines, West Papua and East timor, supported by British organisations such as Progressio. Side by side collaborative action involves people and groups working together to achieve change. There are many examples to draw upon. If we look first at initiatives seeking direct impact, I know that Christian Aid, Islamic Relief and CAFOD have often worked together on development in areas such as Pakistan, Darfur and the Northern Causcaus. And as part of the humanitarian effort following the tsunami,
This study also investigated the influences of core evaluations constructs on affective states at work. Previous research on core self- and external-evaluations has been conducted only for testing associations with other affective trait or personality measures. Results of the present study provided support for core self- and external- evaluations as dispositional constructs within the AET (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) framework. The findings of this study suggest that individuals who positively evaluate themselves and their capabilities are less likely to experience unpleasant affective states in the work setting. This finding is consistent with past research, showing that positive evaluation of the self is predictive of individual differences in positive and negative affectivity (Schimmack & Diener, 2003), which predisposes the individual to experience similar emotional states at work (George & Brief, 1992). An individual who scores high on core self-evaluations is proposed as someone who is well-adjusted, positive, self-confident, efficacious and emotionally stable (Judge et al., 2003), thus more capable of emotional regulation in response to events taking place at work. In their review of hedonic well-being, Ryan and Deci (2001) state that perceived competency and self-efficacy are associated with the enhanced well-being of individuals. In line with these propositions of positive psychology (Snyder & Lopez, 2007), one can argue that positive core self-evaluations facilitate the well-being of employees in the work setting and contribute to the experience of desirable affective states in reaction to work events.
Abstract: In this paper we try to start the first work experience. In our explanation we will use the careership theory (Hodkinson P., and Sparkes A., 1997) a sociological theory of career decision making. The purpose of this article is to test on the basis of two logistic regression models which are those factors (demographic and psychological) that predict the relative chance of successful employment among young people in Romania. Our data come from a longitudinal study on a sample of 1509 young people who were interviewed at an interval of two years. If the first wave of the survey, in 2012 when our sample were young students in twelfth grade high school, 76.6% stated that they will work in the next 2-3 years, in 2015 50.4% of the same young people say they have a work experience. What are the factors that influence the decision to start the work of this young people?
! #*! “Conservative Muslims claim that we are agents of a Western Agenda” (Wakhit, 7 february, 2014)
The ideas and assumptions expressed by their criticisers mainly concerned that “real Muslim men” should not work with women´s issues, feminism and gender equality since this focus is not compatible with conservative, Islamic values or the expectations that are included in the male gender role. Connells discussions on masculinity are interesting in this context, since masculinity can be applied on this criticism. It is a clear statement that “a real Muslim”, which was the term some critics used, according to his gender role, should be focusing on certain “masculine” things, which not include gender issues. The negative approach towards Muslim men working with gender issues is on many levels a clear sign that these men are a challenge towards the traditional male role in Islam, since none of the women met the same criticism based on their sex. Working with gender issues was somehow defined as a “feminine” task and not in line with traditional, masculine ideals. Having a gender perspective, as highlighted by Connell, too often in policy discussions seems to be similar to addressing only women´s concerns (Connell, 2005:1805) Masculinity and femininity are thus two important concepts in this context, not least because it also gives a picture of the working conditions for men who wants to be an active part in the gender movement – and how traditional stereotypes can be an obstacle for many men since they want to conform to these masculine stereotypes and feel pressured or afraid of being ridiculed by other men (Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2005:11). The great involvemnet of both younger and older men working in both NGO A and B thus is a step in the right direction in trying to challenge these stereotypes – not least in a religious context. In many of their meetings and workshops, they also highlighted patriarchy within the Pesantren system.