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The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

Results: Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides’ personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching atmosphere. Based on these findings, we have a better understanding of how to assist foreign nurse aides in the future.

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<p>Does Work Stressors Lead to Abusive Supervision? A Study of Differentiated Effects of Challenge and Hindrance Stressors</p>

<p>Does Work Stressors Lead to Abusive Supervision? A Study of Differentiated Effects of Challenge and Hindrance Stressors</p>

Abusive supervision, as a special form of supervisors ’ negative behavior, refers to persistent hostile verbal and non- verbal behaviors of supervisors perceived by subordinates, excluding physical contact. 18 Typical behaviors include humi- liating and ridiculing subordinates, putting subordinates down in front of others, rude to subordinates, and so on. 19 Many studies con fi rmed that abusive supervision has a host of dele- terious effects on employees ’ psychology, behavior, perfor- mance even that the sustainable development of organizations. 20 – 26 Therefore, researchers have devoted great effort to probe why and when supervisors are engaging in such behaviors. 19 Empirical evidence has identi fi ed some work stressors (ie role overload, exceedingly dif fi cult job goals) are antecedents of abusive supervision behavior from the perspec- tives of resource depletion. 27,28 In the workplace, work stres- sors often cause the depletion of individual self-regulation resources, leading to self-regulation failure and negative lea- dership behaviors. This makes the resource depletion mechan- ism in the logic of “ work stressor-resource depletion-negative leadership behavior ” have a good explanation for the emer- gence of abusive supervision. 29 However, it ’ s worth noting that

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The contribution of work and non work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

The contribution of work and non work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

Our study confirms previous findings of independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD (Phelan et al. 1991 ; Griffin et al. 2002), albeit using a broader range and multiple measures of work and non-work stressors. Non-work stressors do not appear to make a person more susceptible to work-related stressors. Weinberg & Creed (2000) found indepen- dent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD in a small UK healthcare sample, which we replicate in a representative population sample. They found that lack of management support and conflict of work role were independently associated with CMD, while using theoretically based measures, we found effects for job strain and ERI. Taken together, the evidence supports the suggestion that models of stress in the workplace need to incorporate stress outside of the workplace, together with social support (Phelan et al. 1991). Moreover, the findings suggest that it is ben- eficial for employers to tackle workplace stress even if the employee’s home life is stressful. The independent effects of work and non-work stressors imply that, potentially, gains can be made from improving the work environment alone.

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A Study Of Acceptance, Work Stressors And Occupational Well Being In Health Industry In India

A Study Of Acceptance, Work Stressors And Occupational Well Being In Health Industry In India

In the present study acceptance was examined as a protective factor against the aversive effects of daily work stressors. We hypothesized that the habitual tendency to be accepting of one' s negative emotions would be associated with better daily well being. Daily well being was operationalized as low negative affect, low end of day fatigue and high work engagement. Furthermore, we predicted that acceptance would buffer the aversive impact of work stressors on the three variables. A micro longitudinal study was carried out to gather the data of 92 employees of the health care sector on 10 working days. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Acceptance emerged as an important predictor of lower negative affect, lower end of day fatigue and higher work engagement across the day diary period. Furthermore, acceptance moderated the effect of stressor occurrence on daily well being. Specifically, accepting individuals experienced less change in negative affect and work engagement after experiencing at least one stressor during the day than less accepting individuals. However, no moderation effect of acceptance was identified for the prediction of end of day fatigue. Our findings emphasize the benefits of accepting negative emotional states. For practice, it appears sensible to teach employees acceptance skills that can help them deal with work stressors and ultimately increase wellbeing.

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The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

Our study confirms previous findings of independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD (Phelan et al. 1991 ; Griffin et al. 2002), albeit using a broader range and multiple measures of work and non-work stressors. Non-work stressors do not appear to make a person more susceptible to work-related stressors. Weinberg & Creed (2000) found indepen- dent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD in a small UK healthcare sample, which we replicate in a representative population sample. They found that lack of management support and conflict of work role were independently associated with CMD, while using theoretically based measures, we found effects for job strain and ERI. Taken together, the evidence supports the suggestion that models of stress in the workplace need to incorporate stress outside of the workplace, together with social support (Phelan et al. 1991). Moreover, the findings suggest that it is ben- eficial for employers to tackle workplace stress even if the employee’s home life is stressful. The independent effects of work and non-work stressors imply that, potentially, gains can be made from improving the work environment alone.

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Correlations among Work Stressors, Work Stress Responses, and Subjective Well-Being of Civil Servants: Empirical Evidence from China

Correlations among Work Stressors, Work Stress Responses, and Subjective Well-Being of Civil Servants: Empirical Evidence from China

The one-way ANOVA analysis results of the ef- fects of educational background on work stressors of civil servants are illustrated in Table 6. Educa- tional background could significantly act upon scores of superiors, job responsibility, interperson- al relationship, work particularity, perfectionism, and career prospect and total scores (P < 0.01). Table 7 reveals that except for career prospect, the scores of principal civil servants in other di- mensions and general sources are higher than those of deputy positions and common positions. According to the one-way ANOVA results of work stressors scores of civil servants in different posts, significant differences were only observed on job responsibility, interpersonal relationship, and career prospect and total scores (P < 0.05).

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Hospital physicians’ work stressors in different medical specialities: a statistical group comparison

Hospital physicians’ work stressors in different medical specialities: a statistical group comparison

As the sample was relatively large, it was possible to compare eleven different specialities. However, a selec- tion bias cannot be excluded. For example, it is possible that unusually stressed physicians took part in this sur- vey. Despite that, the current sample corresponds to the physician statistics of the German Medical Association [21] and the German Federal Bureau of Statistics [22], with respect to age, gender and medical specialities. Ano- ther advantage of this study is that it considers two po- tential stress-outcomes. Nevertheless, the relationships between stressors and health aspects should be inter- preted with caution. Because of the cross-sectional design, no causal interpretations are possible. Hints for causal conclusions can only be drawn from longitudinal studies or studies with experimental designs [25]. Moreover, it should be emphasised that several situation-related stres- sors were considered in the current study, which represent a large part of the hospital physician’ s everyday work. Although the current analyses focused only on stressors, a further emphasis on resources should be considered because work-related resources are found to be relevant to health as well [26], as mentioned in the transactional stress model of work and organizational psychology.

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Relationships among Stress, Positive Affectivity, and Work Engagement among Registered Nurses

Relationships among Stress, Positive Affectivity, and Work Engagement among Registered Nurses

Additional research is needed. Longitudinal studies can be conducted to explore the casual relationships among stress, positive affectivity, and work engagement in Singapore and other countries. Our study identified the common sources of work stressors but did not measure the intensity of work stress experienced. In addition, it did not measure other variables that may affect how nurses perceive stress (such as coping strategies, personality, and family-related variables). Future research should be directed at these areas to provide a comprehensive view of the phenomena. Our study may be replicated in nurses with other specialty (such as mental health, critical care, and pediatric nursing), healthcare facilities, ethnic groups, and countries. Additional research should be di- rected at developing interventions for enhancing stress management skills; and strengthening of positive affec- tivity and work engagement.

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A meta analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: examining main and moderating effects

A meta analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: examining main and moderating effects

From a theoretical perspective, these findings provide support for the model postulating that stressors are detrimental to job performance (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), thus concurring with earlier quantitative and qualitative reviews of the relationships between work stressors and vari- ables often used as proxies of organizational effectiveness and produc- tivity, including absenteeism (Johns, 1997), counterproductive behaviors (Lau, Au, & Ho, 2003), accidents (Taylor & Dorn, 2006), and turnover (Griffeth, Hom, & Gaertner, 2000). However, our meta-analysis also pro- vides evidence indicating that different stressors tend to have differential relationships with performance, and consequently, there is a need to fur- ther theorize and examine the causes for these differential relations. In our study we provided theoretical arguments in support of the differential relationships between different stressors and performance. However, there is a clear need for future research to further examine the circumstances, which contribute to the experience of stress, and the process by which employees combine and integrate threat and challenge appraisals in as- sessing a situational demand. Enhancing our understanding of the process of stress appraisal as combining and integrating challenge and hindrance appraisals would enable a more valid testing and a better understanding of the effect of a stressor on performance. For example, research should explore how the relative weight of perceived challenge versus threat in a given situation affects the individuals’ experience of the situation as an opportunity or a threat. In addition, research would benefit from exploring the circumstances in which a situation is more likely to be perceived as a challenge or a threat. For example, role ambiguity may be perceived as a challenge in organizations that facilitate and reward involvement in new and challenging initiatives. In contrast, role ambiguity is more likely to be perceived as a threat in organizations that emphasize standardized operations and that reward performance based on the pursuit of well estab- lished processes and procedures. Individual differences, such as tolerance for ambiguity or need for clarity (Kahn et al., 1964), may also contribute to the experience of a challenge or a threat. Thus, individuals with high tolerance for ambiguity are more likely to perceive a potentially stressful situation as a challenge rather than a threat, compared to individuals with lower tolerance for ambiguity. Another example refers to role overload. It may be that role overload is perceived as more of a challenge when the organization is in a stage of growth and more of a threat when the organization is in a stage of decline.

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Work Stressors: Work stress according to the transactional theory is the connection between an individual and the environment, which the individual recognises as pertinent to his or her wellness, in which the individual’s resources are assessed as being challenged or depleted (Lazarus, 1991). Through the transactional theory, the manner that an individual assesses occurrences in the environment towards comprehending his or her mental and physical responses can be conceptualised. In this process of assessment, the linkage between the person and the environment is established (Lazarus, 1991). There are two suggested types of assessments; firstly, determining the pertinent risk that the individual is exposed to and its impact on his or her wellness. Secondly, appraisal of available personal means of coping with a stressor and decisions to be made on how to reduce the adverse effect of the stressor. As a result, drawing on Lazarus’s (1991) transactional theory, this study proposed that individual employees at a metropolitan municipality in South Africa daily contend with work and family stressors. It further projected SOC as a personal resource that could mitigate the effect of work and family stressors on WFS. Scholars suggest that people search for balance among challenges and resources by seeking for ways of bringing down the effect of the challenges and/or finding ways of increasing resources that assist them in managing present challenges (Hobfoll, 1989, 2001, 2011). This is explained through the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, which proposes that the loss of resources is the major determinant variable in stress development (Hobfoll, 1989, 2001, 2011a, 2011b). Fundamentally, COR supposes that resource conservation conditions result from life’s overall events and severely persistent resource loss conditions (Hobfoll, 2001). For example, where work and family stressors are high and persistent, individual employees may tend to conserve their personal resources (SOC in this case) to cope with the work stressors. This could lead to efforts being channelled to the management of work stressors and inversely the neglect of family stressors and/or the achievement WFS. Hence, workstressors (job stress, absence of autonomy, function vagueness/role conflicts) were investigated in this study.

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Article Title & Authors

Article Title & Authors

Many reasons for stress were addressed. These included: overwork against tight deadlines, communication failures among employees, a lack of interpersonal relationships, lack of team cohesion, unpleasant interpersonal conditions, low remuneration, lack of knowledge to do the job, exorbitant collection and the petition of commission for the WhatsApp off the record. More and more people take work home, which has consequences in terms of relationships with family, spouse and friends. In other words, work is increasingly intruding on private life, and stress permeates this condition. There is a common perception about the relation between working time and free time: that paid working time significantly affects, increasing and negative free time.

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Preservice teacher stressors and their reactions to those stressors: resilient responses

Preservice teacher stressors and their reactions to those stressors: resilient responses

Responses preservice teachers gave to the question “What, if anything, did you find stressful in your learning journey in [the subject]?” were listed as the ‘risk factors’. ‘Risk factors’ are the stressors or circumstances that place teachers ‘at risk’. An analysis of the data showed major perceived stressors associated with coursework as being: workload pressures; anxiety associated with meeting online requirements of the subject; time management issues; and doubts about their personal competencies for the tasks. Major stressors associated with professional experience were: apprehension about behaviour management; lack of confidence in their ability to cope with the demands of the school experience; concerns about managing the workload in terms of planning and preparation; anxiety about their relationship with their School Based Teacher Educator (their mentor in the schools) and with their relationship with the students; and doubts about possessing adequate teaching skills.

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Technological Stressors in Developing Countries

Technological Stressors in Developing Countries

be more productive. Increased workload with the advent of new technology is not often planned since collec- tions of data and reports can be made available at the click of a button. The pace of work thus becomes faster, and it continues to rise up at a faster speed. This sometimes frustrates an individual’s trying to cope. There is no doubting the fact that mobile computing devices make it possible to process real-time information, but this often results in information overload, interruptions, and multi-tasking, which, according to [68], can to lead to “infor- mation fatigue” since it expose users to more information. Multitasking implies professionals simultaneously working on different applications and tasks, trying to do more in less time, and experiencing tension. Moreover, work is very often interrupted with e-mails, text messages and office correspondence, which arrive at a fast rate than individuals can cope with. All these put more pressure on users, making them to attend to information as soon as it arrives, creating anxiety, tension and workflows disconnects, and making sustained mental attention difficult. Techno-invasion simply describes a situation in which employees must be constantly available 24/7 since the technology is also available. It is a situation where professionals can potentially be reached anywhere and anytime and feel the need to be constantly connected, even when they are on leave or vacation. With the advent of ICTs, virtually almost all office work can be done online while the employee is as easily accessible as the information. The problem is that an employee’s day is constantly interrupted. This often leads to an expe- rience of intrusion on personal time and space, hence, they experience frustration and stress.

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Work & Stress: A General Overview

Work & Stress: A General Overview

 Hierarchical structure and atmosphere: An authoritative culture of unpaid overtime or "presenteeism" causes stress. Then again, a culture of including individuals in decisions, keeping them educated about what is occurring in the association, and giving great civilities and amusement and recreational facilities decrease stress. Organizational change, particularly when consultation has been insufficient, is an enormous wellspring of stress. Such changes incorporate mergers, migration, restructuring or cutting back, singular contracts, and redundancies inside the association. It additionally incorporates variables, for example, poor correspondence, low levels of support for critical thinking and self- awareness, absence of meaning of organizational goals.  Home-Work Interface: The grisly demands of the

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Differential Effects of Workplace Stressors on Innovation:An Integrated Perspective of Cybernetics and Coping

Differential Effects of Workplace Stressors on Innovation:An Integrated Perspective of Cybernetics and Coping

REPLY: Unfortunately, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no statistical test that can be applied to our data that would provide an additional test of the stressor–outcome effect. While Study 1 suffers from a methodological limitation, in the light of previous research, we still assume that results may be valid. First, research with more rigorous designs as ours (i.e., longitudinal designs that control for Time-1 level of the outcome variable, or cross-lagged panel designs) has shown long-term effects of stressors (or other work variables) on discretionary work behavior (and other employee outcomes). Time lags ranged from four months to two years (see Caesens, Marique, Hanin, & Stinglhamber, 2016; Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010; Fay & Sonnentag, 2002; Oliver, Mansell, & Jose, 2010). Likewise, there is some evidence for the long-term effects of stressors (role ambiguity) on commitment (Johnston, Parasuraman, Futrell, & Black, 1990). Taking this together lends some plausibility to our interpretation of the stressor – outcome linkage.

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Evaluating the Role of Environmental Stressors and Sensitive Parenting on the Emergence of Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

Evaluating the Role of Environmental Stressors and Sensitive Parenting on the Emergence of Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

Although results did not support hypotheses, the present investigation had a number of strengths and weaknesses and raises issues for future research. Regarding the strengths of the study, observational measures of sensitive parenting were used, which reduces the concern of shared method variance. Although mothers reported on social contextual stressors and children’s behavior problems, observational measures of parenting reduce the risk of inflated correlations between sensitive parenting and environmental stressors due to perceptual biases when using the same person to report on both constructs. Second, the majority of research regarding the effects of parenting on children’s problem behaviors examines harsh or overcontrolling parenting. As compared to previous research, less support for sensitive parenting as reducing risk for behavior problems emerged indicating that sensitive parenting alone may be insufficient to protect children from experiencing behavior problems within a stressed context. Finally, a number of alternative competing models were considered in addition to the expected mediational model. A focus on competing mechanisms helps advance understanding of how social contextual stress affects adjustment. Results of the present study provide some support that stress may condition the effect of parenting on adjustment rather than diminish levels of sensitive parenting.

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Predictors of Cognitive Reactivity in Depression

Predictors of Cognitive Reactivity in Depression

Similarly, it may also be the case that stressors in the achievement domain ‘bleed’ into the interpersonal domain, thus activating both types of cognitive structures. That is, rather than being categorical in nature, it may be the case that stressors are better thought of as dimensional constructs that impact cognitions in multiple domains. Supporting this notion, previous research has found that negative social and achievement-related life stressors impact perceptions of self-worth in both the social and achievement domains (Frewin & Dozois, 2006). These authors argue that such findings suggest that the impact of interpersonal and achievement stressors are highly correlated, thus supporting a dimensional perspective of life stressors (Abramson, Alloy, & Hogan, 1997; Kwon & Whisman, 1998; Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Indeed, secondary post-hoc analyses carried out to confirm that individuals recalled a memory consistent with their assigned prime- type revealed that 14 of the 136 descriptions of memories 3 recalled during the prime were

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An exploratory study of burnout, coping, and social support in home care staff working with older people

An exploratory study of burnout, coping, and social support in home care staff working with older people

Maslach and Schaufeli (1993) view bumout as a concept that has a relative rather than a discrete identity with regard to other related concepts. The distinction between stress and bumout is described as one of time; bumout being a long term process of depletion of personal resources. Cordes and Dougherty (1993) also distinguish bumout from other forms of stress in terms of a response to extreme chronic work demands implying the element of time. Brill (1984) differentiates between the two concepts describing the mental and physical symptoms accompanying stress as a temporary process of adaptation as opposed to the chronic malfunctioning accompanying the breakdown of adaptation that occurs in bumout. In terms of the transactional model of stress (Fig. 1), Cox, Kuk and Leiter (1993) propose that the concept of bumout can be seen as a section cut across the stress process and that the components of bumout can be mapped onto the appropriate level of analysis of work stress.

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The role of personality and physical fitness as mediators between life events stressors and illness among middle-ranking army officers

The role of personality and physical fitness as mediators between life events stressors and illness among middle-ranking army officers

In recent years the topic of stressor-related illness has reached pre-eminence in the Western world. A proliferation of books, sound and video recordings, agencies, 'health-farms', consultants, cults, communes and professionals have been spawned in an attempt to combat the effects of the stressors inherent in modern society. The trend in early research was to concentrate

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A cross sectional study exploring the effect of work place stressors on individual psychological and behavioural indicators of safety

A cross sectional study exploring the effect of work place stressors on individual psychological and behavioural indicators of safety

Inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of stress also contribute to gaps in our understanding of the mechanics of the stress-safety relationship. It is likely that stress as a stimulus may affect behaviour via a different set of processes compared to stress as a response. For example, stress has been implicated in accident risk through cognitive failure leading to human error (Day, Brasher and Bridger 2012), but there is little research exploring how stressors may impact more reflective processes involving attitudes and intentions.

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