Worker Participation

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Decadal Pattern of Female Main and Marginal Worker Participation in India: A Spatial Evaluation

Decadal Pattern of Female Main and Marginal Worker Participation in India: A Spatial Evaluation

Authors like Olsen et al.(2006),Choudhury (2011) and Neff,et al.(2012) have argued that social and cultural barriers in a predominantly patriarchal society like India can explain women’s work choices. That is why having comparatively liberal societies,tribal states showed a very good performance regarding work participation from 1991.But in these states also, with the introduction of New Economic Policy the participation rates gradually declines. A comparison between male and female employment by occupation shows that female employment growth between 1994 and 2010 largely took place in occupations that were not growing at all and Less than 19% of the new employment opportunities generated in India’s 10 fastest growing occupations were taken up by women [Bourmpoula,E., Kapsos, S. Silberman, A.(2014,). A large body of literature is devoted to quantifying the role of education and income in explaining the decline in female LFPR in rural areas, including studies by Choudhury(2011),Himanshu(2011),Rangarajan, et.al (2011), Kannan et.al(2012),Neff et.al (2012), Abraham (2013) and Klasen and Peters(2013) . Across the process of economic development, the adult women labour force participation rate is U- shaped.When incomes are extremely low and when certain types of agriculture dominate,women are in the labour force to a great extent. As income rises,often because of an expansion of the market or the introduction of the new technology, women labour force participation rates fall. [Goldin,2014].But if we see the trend of the female worker participation of India, then we get the idea that In India that increasing educational attendance and higher household income are not the cause of declining main as well marginal worker participation in India. Rather it is the result of the low employment opportunities for women.There is evidence that available employment opportunities ...... for women have declkinedOne reason is that employment generation has not kept up with the rise in the working- age population,due to increased competition with men for scarce jobs and an increasing reluctance of women to take up informal(and partly remunerated ) work. Another possibility is that industrial and occupational segregation may be hindering an increase in female employment,that is if industries and and occupations that are experiencing job growth tend to be male dominated, women would be less likely to be benefitted from overall job gains and may remain out of the work force given the limited opportunities. (Chowdhury,2011)
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Worker participation, and the management of health and safety in Britain and Germany

Worker participation, and the management of health and safety in Britain and Germany

This is the notion of cumulation Streeck,1984:407; the idea that the range of statutory rights to information and consultation possessed by the works council, combined with the high degr[r]

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You’ve just cursed us : precarity, austerity and worker participation in the nonprofit social services

You’ve just cursed us : precarity, austerity and worker participation in the nonprofit social services

Unitarist values are evident in Canada in union avoidance strategies such as efforts to establish non-union forms of worker voice (Taras and Kaufman, 2006) and efforts to keep unions out or limit their influence. This can been seen in unfair labour practices such as employer discrimination against union activists and organisers, threats of job loss or plant closure in the case of union drives and activism, and failing to bargain in good faith (Taras, 2006). Non-union forms of participation in Canada claim to promote a unity of interest within organisations or to complement union structures (Taras and Kaufman, 2006). Many NPSS managers share harder unitarist, anti-union views, however. As Kimel (2006) notes, NPSS employers resist unionisation, claiming they are a hindrance to mission and service delivery because they introduce division and a lack of flexibility in workplaces where otherwise everyone would be part of one big, happy “family” or “team” (Cunningham, 2000; Capulong, 2006). In NPSS workplaces where unions do exist, unitarist views can emerge in the
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Workplace relations in East Germany after unification: Explaining worker participation in trade unions and works councils

Workplace relations in East Germany after unification: Explaining worker participation in trade unions and works councils

subservient "co-management" role. There is also the widespread feeling of being increasingly excluded from management and works council decision-making, which makes the workforce retreat into individual survival strategies. Similarly, Andretta et al. (1994:13) observed in their sample that workers increasingly perceived their chances of realising their interests in the enterprise as low. Thus, only 12% of the sample totally agreed that "you can achieve your interests in the company quite well"; nearly the same amount (8%) agreed to the same question which related to the interest representation in the old socialist firm. They conclude that these new interest institutions have not yet achieved a significant change in these people's minds. Mahnkopf (1991:280pp) speculates that there is a general feeling that "co-management" resembles the old "triumvirat" negotiations — which evokes the perception that nothing has changed at all. That is, the works council often tries to be accepted by management as a reliable partner in difficult times instead of trying to gain trust and support among the workforce — without acknowledging that its power rests on this support, and that without it, management will not continue to accept them. The previously mentioned argument of the Berlin/Gottingen group (e.g. Jander and Lutz 1993) that works councils as an imported western institution have no legitimacy on the shopfloor, since they do not derive from any worker-led social movement at shopfloor level, is related to this.
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Designing Reasonable Accomodations through Co-Worker Participation: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Confidentiality Provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Designing Reasonable Accomodations through Co-Worker Participation: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Confidentiality Provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act

L. The development and implementation of laws have therapeutic and anti-therapeutic consequences. The doctrine of.. ADA should not be implemented in a manner that foreclo[r]

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aime201608160-m160626.pdf

aime201608160-m160626.pdf

Findings graded as having low SOE supported the effectiveness of TWH interventions for increasing rates of smoking cessation over 22 to 26 weeks, increasing fruit and vegetable intake over 26 to 104 weeks, and reducing sedentary work behavior over 16 to 52 weeks. Evidence was insufficient to assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions for improving quality of life, stress, blood pressure, weight, overall and work- specific levels of physical activity, consumption of red meat, safety behaviors, and safety compliance. Effective interventions were informed by worker participation and included comprehensive program content that highlighted the potential additive or synergistic risks of hazardous workplace exposures and health behavior.
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Participation or democracy at work?

Participation or democracy at work?

This book will interest anyone who wishes to know more about the current state of this field in its broadest sense or is looking for a text to recommend that encapsulates the scope of the subject. The frequent danger of edited books is that the substantive chapters can seem eclectic, with the editors struggling to impose a coherent theme on the contributions. Such an accusation cannot be levelled at this volume, which consists of an introduction by the editors followed by eleven substantive chapters from authors well-known in their fields that cover most of the aspects and forms of worker participation that one would expect to see. Thus, for example, Andrew Pendleton investigates financial participation through employee share ownership, Jos Benders writes on team-based forms of direct participation, and so on.
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Eurofocus: a newssheet for journalist. No. 18/82 (Week of May 10-15), 17 May 1982

Eurofocus: a newssheet for journalist. No. 18/82 (Week of May 10-15), 17 May 1982

The debate recently surfaced again when the European Pavliament debated whether worker participation should be adopted in the European Community.. The majority of the Parliament voted by[r]

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Adapting Work to the Worker: the Evolving EU Legal Framework on Accommodating Worker Diversity

Adapting Work to the Worker: the Evolving EU Legal Framework on Accommodating Worker Diversity

Looking at the existing and proposed duties in EU law, an understanding of their diversity allows us to appreciate that law reform is more complex than a simple question of whether to extend the disability duty to other discrimination grounds. The absence of legal regulation does not prevent workers from seeking to vary their terms and conditions with the consent of the employer, but legal intervention has the potential to strengthen the worker’s bargaining power when seeking change (Collins, 2005: 119). This article has shown various ways in which the law can aid the worker in this process, including requiring the employer to conduct a risk assessment (and to make changes in response); requiring an employer to engage in a dialogue and to explain a refusal to accommodate; and requiring an employer to accommodate the worker, subject to disproportionate financial or other costs. The perspective of bargaining power does, however, expose the tendency of accommodation duties to focus on the worker as a lone individual. With the exception of OSH legislation, it is notable that existing EU instruments on accommodating workers ascribe little (if any) role for collective actors. This is an oversight that neglects the ‘real world’ dynamics of a worker asking her employer for a change to her terms and conditions. A right for workers’ representatives to participate in the process could aid workers’ bargaining position. Workers’ representatives may have access to sources of training and advice that improves their knowledge of the legal obligations on the employer. They may also possess memory of accommodations that the employer has already granted in the past to other workers.
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The Linkage of Employee Satisfaction and Loyalty in Hotel Industries of Pakistan

The Linkage of Employee Satisfaction and Loyalty in Hotel Industries of Pakistan

Most of the industries make their different training programs like worker‟s training, their performance appraisal system, working conditions, different rewards according to their different company‟s laws and policies. The aim of these types of rules is to get employees loyalty with the organization and maketheir tenure long with the organization. If an employee will spend long time with the organization, he will have more value with his organization.

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CONDITIONS OF WORK AND RIGHTS OF THE FEMALE DOMESTIC WORKERS OF KOLKATA

CONDITIONS OF WORK AND RIGHTS OF THE FEMALE DOMESTIC WORKERS OF KOLKATA

The survey was conducted for over a period of three months (December. - 2006 to March-2007) 1 . Prior to the survey, pilot survey was done. We, in this survey, adopted stratified random sampling methods whereby the sample is divided into two strata – part time female domestic workers and full time female domestic workers. The term ‘domestic’ denotes a class of ‘menials’ which includes many types of workers like ‘ayah’, kitchen helper, cook, sweeper, house cleaner, clothes and utensil cleaner etc. Actually a domestic worker is employed to work in a private home. The strata are formed on the basis of working hour of a sample female domestic worker in the employer’s house. If a respondent at one or more than one house performs some definitive duties and goes away daily when the assigned work is over within not more than two and a half working hours from a particular house on monthly salary basis is treated as part-time domestic worker. But a full-time domestic worker is attached to a particular house only in a single day and her working hour is not less than seven hours but with in twelve hours in a day. During that period she has to do whatever is assigned to her. She may continue in a particular house through out the month and in return enjoy salary at the end of the month or may work under different employer in a particular month on casual basis. In this
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Employment protection regimes in worker co operatives: dismissal of worker members and distributive fairness

Employment protection regimes in worker co operatives: dismissal of worker members and distributive fairness

This proposal is addressed to worker cooperatives only, not to other forms of business, because only in worker co-ops the worker-members have full control over the management and governance of the company and are therefore in the best position to modulate wage dynamic optimally with respect to the company's economic results. They are also accountable for their choices concerning wage dynamics. Different choices can lead to higher or lower wage dispersion, to higher or lower turnover, and to higher or lower probability of bankruptcy (e.g. a too high minimum wage for the whole membership implies higher risk of default). Since there are no conflicting interests between property and workers (the enterprise does not maximize profits by lowering wages), the problems coming from information asymmetry and abuse of power are dampened (Navarra and Tortia, 2014; Albanese, Navarra and Tortia, 2015, 2019). Strong wage fluctuation, as observed in worker co-ops, is not applicable to capital companies. In capitalism, moderate and intermediate forms of worker representation, like German co-determination, can be observed, but not radical forms like in co-ops. Such radical differences imply that dedicated legislation can be developed to regulate co-ops
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Equilibrium unemployment as a worker insurance device  Wage setting in worker owned enterprises

Equilibrium unemployment as a worker insurance device Wage setting in worker owned enterprises

increase work pace (Albanese, Navarra and Tortia, 2015). Appropriation of net residuals by investors increases with decreasing wages and increasing work pace. Workers can anticipate and react to the danger of exploitative labour relations by demanding higher wages and by limiting effort contribution. In other words, the risk of employers behaving in a morally hazardous way and abusing their authority can lead workers’ to reduce effort and employers’ to strengthen control or to increase wages to counteract this possibility (Sacconi, 2012). However, when workers cannot be perfectly monitored because of asymmetric information and/or contract incompleteness, unemployment can be interpreted as a worker discipline device. As in Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984), higher efficiency wages causing non-zero equilibrium unemployment are paid to dissuade workers from shirking. The NSC is shifted left and upwards, since monetary incentives (higher wages) and a more severe threat of lay- off substitute increased monitoring activities (Crf. also Albanese et al., 2015). Coherently, a co-operative economy in which workers have control over entrepreneurial decisions, since this condition reduces asymmetric information on worker behaviour, and the danger of the employer behaving opportunistically, would be characterized by the NSC shifting downward and to the rights, implying this way lower unemployment and wages. We dissect these theoretical premises of our model in the following paragraphs.
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Worker/wrapper/makes it/faster

Worker/wrapper/makes it/faster

Unfortunately, there are a number of problems with this approach. Firstly, we calculated revcat using the fold-unfold style of program calculation [2]. This is an informal calcu- lation, which fails to guarantee total correctness. Thus the resulting reverse function may fail in some cases where the original succeeded. Secondly, while we are applying the com- mon pattern of factorising a program into a worker and a wrapper, the reasoning we use is ad-hoc and does not take advantage of this. We would like to abstract out this pattern to make future applications of this technique more straight- forward. Finally, while intuitively we can see an efficiency gain from the use of associativity of + +, this is not a rigor- ous argument. Put simply, we need rigorous proofs of both correctness and improvement for our transformation.
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Managerial attention and worker performance

Managerial attention and worker performance

Worker Engagement.” We thank Dirk Bergemann, Simon Board, Patrick Bolton, Alessandro Bonatti, Sylvain Chassang, Wouter Dessein, Marco Di Maggio, Bob Gibbons, Ricard Gil, Chris Harris, Ben Hermalin, Johannes H¨ orner, Navin Kartik, Amit Khandelwal, Qingmin Liu, Michael Magill, Jim Malcomson, David Martimort, Niko Matouschek, Meg Meyer, Daniel Rap- poport, Paolo Siconolfi, Matt Stephenson, Steve Tadelis, various seminar and conference audi- ences, and four anonymous referees and the Co-editor for helpful comments. Enrico Zanardo and Weijie Zhong provided excellent research assistance.

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The Flâneur, the Badaud and Empathetic Worker

The Flâneur, the Badaud and Empathetic Worker

Thus, on Facebook we engage in building our identity and it allows for self-discovery, as building a Facebook profile is in a way a reflective act. While building the profile we ask questions about ourselves: what do I want to project? How will others perceive me? What shall I include in the profile and what is most important for me in terms of how others per- ceive me? This involves the creation and maintenance of profiles, but also interaction of us- ers through status updates, the uploading of pictures, participation in groups, etc. Users of Facebook log in on Facebook to see what their friends and relatives are doing, and experi- ence feelings and emotions when they see the news from their friends. If someone feels lonely and puts this fact on the status update, we usually try to cheer this person up through a reply. Thus, we directly show that we care, but also other people can see that we care and this contributes to the building of our own identity. We participate on the site empathetically, by reading status updates of our friends, by sharing moments of our lives, by commenting on the moments of lives of others. All this, however, is used by Facebook to create personalised advertisements. The Facebook user who logs on Facebook to communicate works for Face- book at the same time.
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Share capitalism and worker wellbeing

Share capitalism and worker wellbeing

reduce overall job satisfaction, and in both cases the interaction term with bonus/profit share receipt is positive, although it is only statistically significant in the case of unpaid overtime hours. The size of the estimated coefficients in column 1 implies that unpaid overtime hours significantly reduce satisfaction, but only for those who do not receive incentive payments. Columns 3 and 4 show the results holding worker-job fixed effects constant: these are very similar, although the interaction term between bonus/profit share and commuting time is now statistically significant at the 10% level. In essence, being in receipt of a bonus/profit share appears to substantially mute the negative consequences of these work disamenities on job satisfaction, and this continues to be the case even in our estimates holding job-matches constant. As a result, they do not seem to result from either unobservable worker or job characteristics that jointly influence job satisfaction, working conditions and payment type.
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Worker Recruiting with Favoritism and Bribery

Worker Recruiting with Favoritism and Bribery

This paper discusses the corruptive action widespread in the organizations’ worker recruiting: favoritism and bribery. The managers of the firm are actually able to discern the type of the prod- uctivity of the job-seekers, but they utilize the information advantage through the two types of misconduct—favoritism and bribery, at the expense of the profit share of the principal (the owner) and the workers’ wage rent. The key conclusion is drawn from this paper as follows: neither the intensity of favoritism nor the wage level matters in determining whether there’s profit or loss in the firm, whereas the key variable is the relative situation of exterior labor market.
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Technology and Knowledge Worker Productivity

Technology and Knowledge Worker Productivity

Literature Review section focuses on Labor and Automation, Knowledge Work and Information Workplace, Productivity Paradox, and Technology Cycles Discussion section focuses on Our Empiric[r]

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Worker wellbeing and workplace performance

Worker wellbeing and workplace performance

The third issue is the possibility of heterogeneous effects. The evidence on the impact of SWB on cognitive processes and work attitudes would suggest that higher levels of SWB can raise a worker’s productive capacity. However it is clear that this potential has to be harnessed within the workplace, and there may be barriers which prevent increased levels of SWB from being translated into increased output at the level of the individual worker. For instance, one can expect that the effect of higher SWB in raising levels of creativity, aiding problem-solving and improving social interactions will generate greater returns for employees in jobs with a substantial degree of autonomy and those that involve team work or customer interactions. In jobs where work tasks are routine and output is not dependent on social interactions with others, the opportunities for higher SWB to raise worker productivity will be more confined to energy-related effects (e.g. raising physical endurance). 37 Equally, the employee must also view it as beneficial to utilise any higher level of SWB in pursuit of higher levels of work output: the alternative is to utilise their enhanced productivity to maintain output constant and to reduce the
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