The development of the WPDQ followed three principles. First, the referent-shift consensus model (Chan, 1998), where the intended nesting is used as the item referent, was used to phrase the items. Here, the referent was participants’ workplace, which consists of co- located and interdependent individuals, focusing on one type of work activity, and reporting to one line manager. Within-group agreement tends to be higher when items have a group referent such as the first person plural personal pronoun “we” (Klein & Kozlowski, 2000a). Consequently, respondents were asked to indicate how true a range of statements were: “Considering the working conditions in your workplace in the last three months, indicate how true the following statements are for you. In my workplace…”. Second, a 7-point Likert response scale was used (1=strongly disagree to 7=strongly agree) as seven points provide a better approximation to an interval scale than five points. Finally, because negatively worded items do not always denote opposites of the construct but can form a distinct dimension (Idaszak & Drasgow, 1987), all items were positively worded.
Spatial comfort designs (workplace environmental designs) are among the key factors that determine how satis- fied and motivated workers would feel in the workplace.  points out that the majority of the industries are de- scribed as unsafe and unhealthy for the fact that there are poorly designed workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, inappropriate lighting, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies, and lack of personal protective equipment. However,  report that studies reveal that workers who are comfortable with their work environment have the tendency of generating better work. This is so because their physical en- vironment positively affects their job perception, attitudes, and job satisfaction. Similarly,  examined the im- pact of the spatial qualities of the workplace on architects’ job satisfaction in Belfast, and they discovered that their job satisfaction has been rated to be relatively high. They identified factors such as control over thermal conditions, acoustics, views, lighting, and ergonomics as particularly significant determinants of job satisfaction. The studies of  have revealed that as a result of proper workspace design, workers’ satisfaction increased. For instance,  survey on the US workplace environment showed that eighty-nine percent (89%) blamed their working environment for their job dissatisfaction, and almost ninety percent (90%) of the survey respondents believed that better workplacedesign and layout result in better overall employee performance.  survey of 2000 employees showed that nine out of ten indicated that an appropriate workspace quality positively affects the attitude of employees and increases their productivity.
In an effort to curb employees’ disengagement from the workplace, it has become a new challenge for top management to develop work environment that attracts, retain and motivate its workforce. Organizations are stepping outside their time-tested policies and comfort zones to develop new work environment that satisfy both the psychological and the physical needs of the employees at its core. They are creating work environments where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose, have pride in what they do and are allowed to reach their full potential. This paradigm may not be unconnected with the new thinking that the work environment affects employee morale, productivity and engagement- both positively and negatively. Furthermore, it is not just a twist of fate that new programs addressing lifestyle changes, work life balance, health and fitness that were previously not considered key benefits are now primary considerations of potential employees, and common practices among the most admired companies. Today’s work environment is different, diverse and constantly changing. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been modified significantly. Workers are living in a growing ICT driven economy, hence, information and access to job opportunity information are easier and closer. This combination of factors has created an environment where the business needs its employees more. The Nigerian telecommunication industry is witnessing a “close race” competition, making it expedient for telecommunication companies in Nigeria to strive to retain their talented workforce. Beyond competitive remuneration, telecommunication companies are leveraging workplacedesign (ergonomics) to attract and keep highly skilled personnel in the industry. How well this work environment design contributes to employees’ performance is the task
Cellular Manufacturing is a model for workplacedesign, and has become an integral part of , which seeks to take full advantage of the similarity between parts, through standardization and common processing The major advantage is that material flow is significantly improved, which reduces the distance traveled by materials, inventory and cumulative lead times Cellular Manufacturing employs setup reduction and gives the workers the tools to be multi process, operating multiple processes, and multi functional, owning quality improvements, waste reduction, and simple machine maintenance. Rather than processing multiple parts before sending them on to the next machine or process step (as is t he case in batch-and-queue, or large-lot production), cellular manufacturing aims to move products through the manufacturing process one-piece at a time, at a rate determined by customers' needs. Cellular manufacturing can also provide companies with the flexibility to vary product type or features on the production line in response to specific customer demands. The approach seeks to minimize the time it takes for a single product to flow through the entire production process.
Research on the formality of Industry 4.0 is abundant. However, they are mostly targeting the technical aspect of this industrial evolution. As far as the human factor is concerned, the studies we reviewed looked into the implications of these industrial changes on workplacedesign, occupational safety and health and labor unions. While introducing robots and machines to previously less-automated workplaces certainly calls for changes to workplacedesign and ergonomics, the psychological and motivational needs of employees should not be ignored. Research on the impact of this industrial evolution on human labor and motivation is significantly lacking. Since the transition from current manufacturing methods to new more developed methods is likely to create an atmosphere of uncertainty, it’s important that employee motivation be adequately addressed to ensure that this transition is successful at all levels. Future research should address the human aspect of industry 4.0 and provide sound and scientifically valid solutions to safeguard the employee well-being in the wake of this industrial revolution.
.Working in conditions that are not ergonomic can cause various problems, one of which is neck muscle pain . Working in a standing position that carried out continuously or for an extended period causes muscle tension and limitations of neck movements that cause the occurrence of neck muscle complaints become complaints that are often experienced by welding employees when doing welding with standing position for hours . One effort to increase efficiency productivity is through the application of ergonomics. Ergonomics can define as a study of human aspects and the work environment that reviewed in anatomy, physiology, engineering, and management .Through the ergonomics approach in the design of the workplace is to be a harmony between humans and the work system (human-machine system), or it can say that the work system design must make the workforce work properly . It requires expertise in design of tools and equipment, workspace layout, work organization so that workers can work well and efficiently. Understanding ergonomics is to increase labor productivity in an institution or company can achieve if there is a match between workers and their jobs. Moreover, through this understanding it hoped that workers could increase their knowledge about the importance of ergonomics in carrying out their work .Chapanis , mentioned ergonomics is the science to explore and apply information about human behavior, abilities, limitations, and other human characteristics to design equipment, machinery, systems, work, and environment to increase productivity, safety, comfort and effectiveness of work human. Ergonomics related disciplines in workplacedesign include a study of work methods, anthropometry, workspace layout and facilities, work physiology and biomechanics, occupational safety and health, maintainability, relations of human behavior, and work time management.Ergonomics began in 1949, but research activities related to it had sprung up decades before, as done by Frederick W. Taylor was an American engineer who applied scientific methods to determine the best way to do a job . Furthermore, in a series of activities related to the uncomfortable work environment felt by the operators in the workplace. Thackrah , observes posture at work as part of health problems. At that time Trackrah observed a tailor who worked with the position and dimensions of chairs that were not anthropometrically suitable, as well as non-ergonomic lighting which resulted in bowing and visual sensory
Though the organizations we studied are doing great in terms of fostering innovation and creativity at the workplace through implementation of initiatives which are at par with industry standards. However, when it comes to continuous growth and improvement, then there is no limit to it because nothing is perfect and everlasting in today‟s VUCA world. Competitive advantage today will become obsolete tomorrow; therefore organizations like Mahindra and Flipkart have to improve and evolve themselves over the time continuously. After the limited amount of interaction we had with the people working at both the organization, and after learning about the organizations‟ initiative from the secondary research we have come up we the following recommendations:
A modelling framework incorporating workplace populations would be suitable for the assessment of potential new store locations, providing robust estimations of the volume and composition of non- residential trade to support an evaluation of trading potential. They could also support the identification of existing stores that are performing above/below their modelled potential, enabling retailers to look more closely at the specific trading characteristics of individual stores, in conjunction with demand and supply side data (for example related to competition) and micro level location factors (such as the presence of transport interchanges), in order to understand more about the specific drivers of performance at a store level. In turn, such an assessment would enable pre- and post-investment review to consider not only overall store performance, but also suitability of store format, marketing, ranging and operational characteristics.
Technology-supported remote assessment is a feature of a pilot program for apprentices some hundreds of kilometres from the organisation campus. Using an internet connection, soldering boards and web cam equipment, candidates are able to demonstrate the practical skills they have developed in as close as possible a simulation of the workplace setting. The timing of assessment is negotiated with students, who identify when they are ready for a ‘formal’ assessment. Computer-assisted assessment is conducted in a secure room, and bar-coded student ID cards are swiped at the time of the assessment event. This information is linked to the computerised learning and assessment management system.
Despite the various approaches to modern technology on agricultural machinery/equipment design, human drudgery in farm operations have not been fully arrested in Nigeria especially in the South-eastern part of Nigeria. In western countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference. The anthropometric data bank assembled and maintained by the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Dayton, Ohio, is the largest and most comprehensive data in the world . However  noted that it does not contain any data on the Nigeria population. The anthropometric data of Nigeria agricultural workers are not by any means considered in the design of agricultural equipment and yet most of the equipment being used are imported from western countries.
Flexible working practice is another, but not the least, component of age management. (Fuertes et al., 2013) stress that “opportunities for flexible working are crucial if older workers are to remain in, and re-enter, paid employment beyond a certain age” (p. 285). (Loomes & McCarthy, 2011) also support this statement. They argue that flexible workplace is the one of the needs of the mature worker, which should be taken into account. According to Boston College The Sloan Center on (Aging & Work, 2012), the definition of workplace flexibility is very board and includes many ways of flexibility. As a result, table 2 excludes certain groups of flexible working
DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.812103 1562 Modern Economy tention should be given to the workplace conditions which are prerequisites for improving productivity and quality of outcomes. According to Cole  as cited by Yankson , the fundamental factors that affect employee productivity and performance fall into two categories: management driven factors which include the development of organisational plans such as the allocation of responsibilities at all levels of the organisation, the definition of job descriptions and the degree of access to the management and administrative support needed to complete their tasks, working patterns, shift-working, break times, absence or holiday cover and health and safety policies, including the provision of training, devel- opment of safe working practices and the adequate supply of protective clothing and equipment.
The three component model of organizational commitment, developed by Meyer and Allen (1991), has become the leading model for studies of workplace commitment. While some studies have shown that the model is not consistent with empirical findings, it has been proven to be a valid measurement of organizational commitment and employee turnover if it is associated with other commitment research studies (Meyer et al., 1993; Irving et al., 1997; Snape& Redman, 2003; Huang & You, 2010; Smith & Hall, 2008).
user movements inside newly visited locations that were not used for training. The volume of training data will be strongly related to the amount of complexity seen in the users daily movements. For individuals which follow a strict routine between home place and workplace, training with a small amount of data consisting of 24 hour movement patterns will allow accurate predictions. In the case of user with highly complex movement patterns that make often visits to a larger number of locations, testing revealed that accurate predictions were possible after training with at least 2 week movement patterns.
The research was applied and developmental in terms of purpose and the method of data collection was mixed of sequential exploratory design type which carried out in three stages. In the first stage (view documents), for the purpose of comprehensive and accurate access to the dimensions of the organizational factors affecting learning transfer and identification of credible documents in this field, valid foreign and internal citation databases were used. Sampling was purposive at this phase. After removing repetitive cases and those that had a weak relationship with the research objectives, 30 closely related articles were analyzed. In the second phase, semi-structured interviews were used to achieve a rich description of the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of the interviewees on the dimensions of learning transfer. The participants of this
Female interviewers of matched ethnicity asked the selected qualifying woman whether she would be interested in participating in a survey. If the woman agreed, the interviewer would make an arrangement with her about the place and time of the interview. Before starting the interview with a woman who expressed interest, the interviewer would read the standard consent letter describing the study, potential risks and benefits, protection of confidentiality, and the recompense (200 rubles, equivalent to roughly 7 USD at that time). If the selected woman refused to participate in the study at the initial contact or did not grant her consent, the interviewer would thank the woman and moved on to the next establishment on her list. The interview would proceed only after consent. The 25-page survey included seven modules and took, on average, 54 minutes to complete. The study design was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the co-authors’ respective institutions. The sampling and interviews were monitored throughout the fieldwork. Upon completion of the fieldwork, the interviewers were debriefed on their experience of data collection and specifically on difficulties encountered in the process.
This systematic review sought to report on the level and quality of process evaluation in workplace stress management interventions (SMIs) for the period 2004 – 2013. The second aim was to determine the extent to which ‘therapist variables’ have been adequately considered for their effect on implementation and outcome in workplace SMIs. The inclusion criteria comprised empirical studies: (a) published in the English language, (b) focused on analysis of a workplace SMI aimed at changing employee’s response to job stress and (c) involving an SMI that includes face to face contact between the employee and the therapist/program provider. Forty-four studies were included in the analysis and of these around half evaluated between three and five components of process evaluation. Reporting about fidelity, dose delivered and implementation components, was more challenging for researchers. Around 50% of studies linked a component of process evaluation to outcome but only six studies provided a quantitative link. The majority of studies involved an
Given that there has been so much written on the benefits of workplace consultation (for example Davis and Lansbury, 1996; Palmer and McGraw, 1996), it is surprising that few dispute resolution procedures actually provide for consultation within their operation. The dispute resolution clauses from 1000 federally registered enterprise agreements were examined by the author (Van Gramberg, 2001 PhD thesis, unpublished) to determine the extent of utilisation of participative mechanisms such as consultative committees, disputes committees and bargaining units. It was found that committee structures appeared in only 20 per cent of these formal procedures. Instead, most organisations ratify their enterprise agreements utilising standard hierarchical type processes (see ‘Dispute resolution procedures’ below). Further, the use of other internal mechanisms of dealing with disputes, such as an internal ombudsman or specialist contact officer was virtually non-existent. This means that the majority of organisations in Australia, may not be optimising their own internal capacity to resolve workplace disputes. This article aims to explore three consultative mechanisms: peer review, internal ombudsman and voluntary voice systems which operate to resolve workplace disputes internally according to the principles of workplace justice and in a cost effective manner.
Feedback from two SMEs stated that workplace cyberbullying should be defined without assuming that it creates a ‘hostile work environment’. Instead the relationship between workplace cyberbullying and outcomes should be examined empirically using appropriate research methods. We therefore changed the workplace cyberbullying definition to: a situation where over time, an individual is repeatedly subjected to perceived negative acts conducted through technology (e.g. phone, email, web sites, social media) which are related to their work context. In this situation the target of workplace cyberbullying has difficulty defending him or herself against these actions. Due to this definitional change, all the behavioural descriptions produced during phase one of the study were re-examined to ensure they were still consistent with the adapted definition. No items were removed as a result of this examination.