The World Economic Forum states that NCD’s have a substantial and negative impact on the economy due to decreased labor supply, capital accumulation and both country and global gross domestic product (GDP) . This is largely due to the reduced number of employees, resulting in a decrement in the quantity and quality of the labor force . Organizations and companies should therefore be aware of the impact that NCD might have on their employees’ productivity, potential loss of skill, and increased healthcare-related expenditure . Consequently, worksite health promotion programs, including HRA programs are becoming an increasing concern and vital component of employee care . Indeed, implementing worksite intervention programs that targeted healthy eating and obesity resulted in an improvement in labor productivity of 1-2% in a range countries .
and safety. It enables managers and workers to increase control over their own health and to improve it and to become more energetic, positive and contented WHO (2009). In other words, worksite health is a comprehensive and integrated approach to health which focuses on the general population at a workplace and the organisation as a whole. Its strategies are not limited to a specific health problem, or to a specific set of behaviours but enables people to increase control over and to improve their health. Worksites, where most adults typically spend half or more of their waking hours, have a powerful impact on individuals’ health. Healthy People 2010 included two major worksite-specific objectives. The first is for most employers (75%), regardless of size, to offer a comprehensive employee health promotion program. The second, and related, objective is to have most employees (75%) participating in employer-sponsored health promotion activities. The 1999 National Worksite Health Promotion Survey reveals that employee health promotion programs are becoming more prevalent and more comprehensive. Many employers are also finding it rewarding to take part in larger community-based health promotion coalitions that address priority health issues.
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The six-month health programme was conducted during working hours, in accordance with the approaches of previous studies (8,12). It is recommended that increased physical activity in a working group involve engaging in moderate physical activity for 30 minutes on most days of the week (13). This moderate intensity and duration of exercise have also been shown to improve aerobic capacity (14). Exercising for a minimum of three days per week at an energy level of 300 kcal can lead to fat loss, based on American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines (15). In order to lessen the chance of bone and joint injury, ACSM recommends that exercise be engaged in on alternate days (14). As aerobic dance exercises have a similar level of effectiveness to jogging (16,17), they were included in the health programme. A single session of group exercise was conducted with an instructor for an overall duration of 30 minutes, and the subsequent exercise sessions were conducted by a qualified physiotherapist. The types of exercises included in the group exercise session were stretching exercises, free exercises, strengthening exercises with minimal weights and aerobic exercises. Activities such as fast walking, jogging and active limb movements involving all major joints were also included in the exercise programme. All of the subjects were advised to perform their exercises at a self- paced intensity. Question and answer sessions on exercise techniques were conducted after each exercise session. The subjects were instructed to carry out self-directed exercises according to guidelines clearly described on workout sheets. These workout sheets, which involved at least 30 minutes of exercise, were distributed monthly. They were used as exercise guides for the subjects, and also to measure the participation of the subjects in the recommended exercise programme. Each subject was required to keep records on the workout sheet as evidence of his or her involvement in the programme, as was done in previous studies (18,19).
Employees identified to be at ‘increased’ or ‘high’ risk for cardiovascular disease are eligible to take part in the re- search study. Risk status will be determined by using an adapted Framingham Score  together with habitual physical activity levels, and Body Mass Index. This score incorporates age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status and ranks individuals according to their level of risk, ranging from very low to very high 10-year risk of fatal CVD . Those members presenting for health risk appraisal with a risk of 10% or higher will be consid- ered eligible. Independent of risk status, those employees who are obese (Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2) also will be eligible to take part in the study. Only those employ- ees who are include18 years or older and who have a contract with employer until end of 12-month measure- ment period will be invited to participate.
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Our findings from the one-year pilot of the intervention program suggest that a worksite health prevention pro- gram may improve health behaviors of employees. The program encourages health behavior changes. In conclu- sion, this study at a logistics company showed that phys- ical activity training combined with nutrition counseling can be implemented successfully during working hours on a long-term basis with initial effects on health behav- ior changes. Effects on body weight decrease were min- imal. Our findings highlight the need for worksite health promotion strategies that provide increased motivation, support and skills to enable employees living their life in a healthy way. Similarly, the results suggest a need to promote time-efficient physical activity options and al- ternatives. Additional strategies that recognize the per- ceived barriers to physical activity and healthy eating faced by employees are particularly required.
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8 Background: Physical activity (PA) has been identified as a central component in the promotion of health. PA 9 programs can provide a low cost intervention opportunity, encouraging PA behavioral change while worksites have 10 been shown to be an appropriate setting for implementing such health promotion programs. Along with these 11 trends, there has been an emergence of the use of pedometers as a self-monitoring and motivational aid for PA. 12 This study determines the effectiveness of a worksite health promotion program comprising of a 10-week,
We conducted a questionnaire survey among employees who completed a web-based HRA with tailored feed- back. This HRA was applied as part of a worksite health management program at seven Dutch companies with mainly white-collar workers between 2007 and 2009. During this period 6790 employees were invited to com- plete the HRA. E-mail invitations were sent by the human resources department, with a single reminder after two weeks. The invitation e-mail included a description of the HRA and informed employees that participation was voluntary, at no cost, that all personal data would be treated confidentially, and that no results would be shared with their employer or any other party. Employees who completed the HRA, were sent an elec- tronic satisfaction and health-behaviour change ques- tionnaire, four weeks after they had received their tailored feedback. The questionnaire measured overall satisfaction with the HRA and initiation of health-beha- viour change. It was sent to the employees using an e- mail survey program, with a single reminder after one week, and took about 10 minutes to complete.
In addition to focusing on mediators of change, there is a need to compare traditional SMT interventions (such as SIT) with the mindfulness-based approaches that have emerged within the CBT movement. In particular, there is increasing interest in the theory and practice of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), not only as a treatment for a range of psychological and behavioural problems, but also for promoting workplace mental health (Biglan, Hayes, & Pistorello, 2008; Bond & Bunce, 2000; Hayes, Bissett et al., 2004). ACT’s model of change promotes six interrelated therapeutic processes: acceptance, defusion, contact with the present moment, self-as-context, values, and committed action. These six processes serve to enhance psychological flexibility, which is defined as the ability to contact the present moment, and based upon what the situation affords, to change or persist in behaviour in accordance with one’s values (Hayes, Strosahl, Bunting, Twohig, & Wilson, 2004).
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The aim of this work was to characterize the laboratory bitumen fume generation system developed, which should produce fumes similar to real worksite fumes with respect to total organic matter quantification. In the first step, generation parameters such as temperatures, humidity, granulometry, particles and vapour concentra- tions were checked to assess stability, homogeneity, repeatability and aging. Then, the fumes generated in the laboratory were compared to real road paving worksite samples to evaluate the capacity of the system design to produce similar bitumen fumes in the laboratory. Finally, the similarity of the condensate produced by the con- densation system was evaluated by comparing a condensate produced in the laboratory with field samples.
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The concept of work ability includes both the characteris- tics of the individuals themselves (their health and func- tional capacities; their competence, knowledge and skills; and their values, attitudes and motivations) and the char- acteristics of their working environment. Work ability will be evaluated before and after the intervention in all sub- jects by questionnaire using the Work Ability Index (WAI) [17,18]. The WAI includes 7 subjective estimations on work ability in the light of job demands and psychophys- ical resources, and also includes information about ill- nesses and work absenteeism.
strengthening resistance) physical activity, 3 days/week with a day of rest between each session, for a period of 12-weeks. The intervention was offered as both a morn- ing (6 a.m.) and noon (12 p.m.) session with participation restricted to one session per day. For each session, par- ticipants reported to the exercise physiology laboratory which included multiple gymnasiums and equipment for group-based activities. These gymnasiums were inde- pendent of the student recreation center, which allows employee participants to engage in physical activity at a separate environment than the students. The 60-min ses- sions included 5-min warm-up and cool-down periods. A variety of instructor-led group-based physical activity choices were offered during each session. These choices included, but were not limited to, group walking and run- ning, aerobic dancing, yoga, basketball, dodgeball, bad- minton, and various boot-camp style classes. In addition, participants were offered a more independent alterna- tive which included a room with cardiovascular equip- ment and fixed-weight machines. Previous work shows that having a greater variety of activities may enhance adherence through increased enjoyment and decreased boredom [19, 20]. Participants were encouraged to pro- gress to more challenging activities as the intervention continued. All activities were instructed, supervised, and monitored by trained exercise specialists. All facilities used by the intervention were during periods of non-con- flict with university courses. All equipment used for the intervention were pre-owned by departments within the Kent State University College of Education, Health, and Human Services and were not being used otherwise.
Asthma affects approximately 6.8% of the Bank One employee population. This is similar to the prevalence reported in the adult U.S. population. In addition to direct healthcare costs, employees may have significant lost on- the-job productivity and absences from work if asthma is not controlled. A population ap- proach to the management of common chronic diseases in the workplace has already been demonstrated to be effective in managed care organizations. Buchner et al. studied 2,734 adult asthmatics in a 500,000-member managed care organization. 18 The asthma health man-
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The purpose of this research was to generate practical knowledge by analyzing the student experience of reflection-based safety literacy education both in the classroom and subsequently on the worksite. The research was focused on developing an interpretive understanding of the lived experiences of participants in a specific safety literacy course. In interpretive research, findings emerge through the engagement of the participants, the researcher, and the research methods (Creswell, 2013). Subjectivity is valued in this approach, based on the assumption that complete objectivity on the part of the researcher or the participants is unachievable (Ajjawi & Higgs, 2007). It is understood that the research is constrained by the values inherent in the questions being asked, the values of the researcher, and the methods used to generate and interpret data (Ajjawi & Higgs, 2007). Student experiences are shaped by the situatedness of their learning and work environments. The interpretive paradigm was chosen as the best starting point for a long-term project that seeks to generate new understandings of the complex phenomena of reflection-based learning in a post-secondary setting.
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To better understand and address these issues, we conducted an exploratory qualitative research study as part of a larger community-based participatory research project. The project, Protección en Construcción: The Lawrence Latino Safety Partnership, is a National Insti- tute for Occupational Safety and Health-funded study conducted by the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Laborers International Union of North America Local 175, the City of Lawrence, MA Mayor’s Health Task Force and Lawrence Community Connections, a health and community development non-profit organization. Focus groups were conducted with both union and non- union workers to explore their perceptions of work- related hazards and potential factors associated with the disproportionate number of fatal and non-fatal accidents and exposures experienced by Latino construction work- ers (we use the terms “ Latino ” and “ Hispanic ” inter- changeably). An additional aim of this research was to identify potential intervention elements. Finally, the intention of this work was to cultivate relationships with workers and to build community networks in prepara- tion for the development of an intervention to reduce hazards. We have found focus groups to be successful in research aimed at building and strengthening com- munity relationships (Sprague Martinez, L.S., Freeman, E., Peréa, F.C., From engagement to action: Assessing community readiness for disparities mobilization. Sub- mitted manuscript).
Activity monitor data were processed in SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC), with reference to participant logbooks. Quality controls were conducted before (e.g. diary entry errors) and after processing (vi- sual checking). For activPAL data, events were coded as: awake, non- wear, or at work when they were mostly ( ≥ 50%) within these periods. Non-wear time and sleep were excluded. Workplace time was taken as all work hours for this employer from any location. Days were consid- ered valid for workplace time when the device was worn for ≥ 80% of work hours (see Edwardson et al., 2016 for details of compliance). Times spent sitting, sitting for ≥ 30 min continuously (prolonged sit- ting), standing and stepping during work hours were averaged from the totals for valid days and standardised to an 8-h day. Time, rather than the number of prolonged bouts, was used as the outcome as it pro- vides a more informative measure of the extent or duration of exposure to this potential health risk.
The protocol of this systematic review has been published elsewhere (PROSPERO, CRD4201401056) . In this study, we adhered strictly to a protocol based on the Cochrane Systematic Review method . We included randomized control trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs and ex- cluded quasi-RCTs and crossover RCTs. Studies were in- cluded based on the following criteria: (1) participants were employees at any worksite and included both men and women; (2) intervention types were organization-based, food-based, incentive-pricing strategies or social marketing applied to workplace cafeterias, vending machines, and ki- osks. The primary outcomes of the study were changes in weight (kg), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ), and changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (%). The secondary outcomes were blood pressure (mmHg), changes in cholesterol levels (mg), food consumption (changes in vegetable consumption [g or serving (SV)], changes in fruit consumption [g or SV], changes in fruit and vegetable consumption [g or SV], changes in the consumption of sugary beverages[g], changes in the consumption of sweets [g] and other foods [g] ), and nutritional intake (changes in fat and oil intake [g], changes in fiber intake [g], and changes in energy intake [kcal]).
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The plasma des-acyl ghrelin level was inversely correlated with Worksite BP. Negative associations of des-acyl ghrelin with SBP change from Sleep to Work were also observed. This preliminary study found a negative corre- lation between ambulatory blood pressure at work and plasma des-acyl ghrelin concentrations in obese male workers. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to determine if raising plasma concentrations will favorably affect the blood pressure in workers. Acknowledgments This research was supported in part by Grants- in-Aid for Scientific Research (25460820) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
A current solution to preventing and reducing chronic disease and decreasing healthcare costs is to implement health promotion and disease prevention activities in settings such as workplaces (Baicker, Cutler, & Song, 2010; Hansen, 2008). Since most adults spend the majority of their day at work, this type of setting can be the best place to educate and promote health among employees. Even though healthcare costs are doubling, wellness programs have been proven to save employers three to four times their investment on each employee (Hansen, 2008). Workplace wellness programs have the potential to not only lead to cost savings, but can also increase worker productivity, job satisfaction, and decrease absenteeism (Bertera, 1990; Berry, Mirabito, & Baun, 2010; Thompson, Smith & Bybee, 2005).
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As traditional methods of controlling cardiovascular risk factors (largely consisting of patients seeing their health care provider to get screened and treated) have not fully optimized risk factor control, additional approaches are needed. Given that Canadian workers spend an average of 30 hours per week at work, worksite cardiovascular risk screening and management programs represent a promising option to improve risk factor detection and control in working-aged Canadians. 8 In a recently performed cross-sectional survey of
Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as one reason of the phenomenon. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia. Methods: This study, based on observational studies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University of Occupational and Environmental Health), Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December. Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement and work-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental health program at Riken Company that was covered of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational mental health program of workers mostly on job stress issue. Conclusion: It was concluded that although many efforts has made to anticipate the problem of job stress in Japan, it is still need further studies to find the most appropriate instruments for the indicator of job stress and methods of intervention which are most effective for employees and company, as well as general improvement for well-being of workers and their family as they are a part of community.