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Analysis of Direct Human Influences and Its Adverse Impacts on the Ecosystems of World Heritage Site (Sundarbans)

Analysis of Direct Human Influences and Its Adverse Impacts on the Ecosystems of World Heritage Site (Sundarbans)

Abstract: The Sundarbans is the largest single tract of mangrove forest in the world, occupying about 6,029 km 2 in Bangladesh and the rest in India. At the advent of British rule in 1765, the Sundarbans forests were double their present size. Although, Sundarbans importantly supports local societies and economics, it is suffering a serious killer disease (top dying) which is affecting millions of the trees. The loss of H. fomes will have a major impact on the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem and economic losses as well.The forest is seriously threatened by human destruction and by ecological pollution. The cause of this dieback is still unknown. The present work investigates one of the possible factors that might be causing this top-dying namely the concentrations of various chemical elements present in the soil or sediments, particularly, exchangeable Kand heavy metals concentrations, though other chemical parameters such as the pH, moisture content of the soil or sediment and nutrient status were also assessed. A questionnaire survey was conducted among different groups of people inside and outside of Sundarbans to explore local perceptions as to the possible causes of top dying This confirmed the increase in top-dying prevalence due to human destructions and environmental pollutions.
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Selling Concept: Strategy for Improving the Marketability of Nigerian World Heritage Sites

Selling Concept: Strategy for Improving the Marketability of Nigerian World Heritage Sites

The Nigerian World Heritage Sites are experiencing a low turn-out of tourists, visitors, researchers and Nigerian dignitaries. The sites are hardly known outside their area of existence. Their international recognition and importance bears no significance to many. This paper therefore examines the root causes of Nigerians’ lukewarm attitude to these sites. Through systematic and purposive sampling techniques, 150 respondents in 10 villages of 5 selected Local Government Areas were sampled. A structured interview schedule was used in the collection of data administered through the heritage Site manager and his staffers. For clarification of responses, unstructured interview and physical condition and linguistic observation were used to support the interview schedule. The result of the analysis showed a positive correlation between awareness level and people visiting the sites. The awareness for the existence and new status of these two sites were low or none existence. Among the five competing marketing philosophies, the application of selling concept comprising of advertisement, promotion, personal selling and public relation was found to be more appropriate in creating awareness. The paper concluded by recommending other marketing principles that can ensure the maximum use of these two sites thereby fulfilling the real purpose of their new status and bringing in foreign exchange.
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Site of Jesus Baptism: From Discovery to World List Heritage

Site of Jesus Baptism: From Discovery to World List Heritage

“Bethany beyond the Jordan” is of immense religious significance to the majority of denominations of Christian faith, who have accepted this site as the location where Jesus of Nazareth was baptized by John the Baptist. This reference encouraged generations of monks, hermits, pilgrims and priests to reside in and visit the site, and to leave behind testimonies of their devotion and religious activities, dating to between the 4th and the 15th century CE. At present, the site has regained a popular status as pilgrimage destination for Christians, who continue to engage in baptism rituals on site. In 2002, faithful Christians commemorated the baptism of Christ there for the first time since the site’s discovery in 1997, after the area was demilitarized following the 1994 peace treaty with Israel.
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Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

The core diet of the inhabitants of the region is rice, wheat, pulses and a wide variety of local wild and semi-domesti- cated plants. Protein requirements are supplemented with animal products such as milk and meat. Most households grow domesticated vegetables in their kitchen gardens. Wild foods are considered by the local inhabitants in the region as necessity rather than as a supplement and are eaten frequently [14]. While several studies were con- ducted to document the diversity of resources [30,31] and their ethnobotanical uses [16,17,32], very few studies pri- oritized the species of local importance and quantified their availability, use pressure and method of use [11]. The purpose of the present study was to document plant species consumed as traditional and leafy vegetables and their ecological biodiversity in a world heritage site Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. In this study we attempted to prioritize the leafy vegetables extracted from wild and documented their status and consumption.
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Local World Heritage: relocating expertise in World Heritage management

Local World Heritage: relocating expertise in World Heritage management

Disciplinary theoretical shifts over the last few decades, especially in archaeology, and the various social and political movements that occurred from the 1960s onwards, have served to allow for the increasing emphasis of social values in the management of heritage in many countries (e.g. Merriman 2004, Okamura and Matsuda 2011). Much of the literature on these developments has emerged from heritage professionals working with Indigenous and other communities in the United States, Canada, and Australia. This literature explores how professionals may engage with, incorporate and emphasise potentially incompatible viewpoints (e.g. Swidler et al. 1997, Habu et al. 2008, McGuire 2008, Wylie 2008). Often the status of the traditional heritage expert is shifted from a position of almost sole authority to a position of collaborator or advocate for others (e.g. Colwell-Chanthaphonh and Ferguson 2008a, Nicholas 2010). In the UK, the social benefits of heritage had been also more explicitly explored in the 1970s, but the election of the New Labour government in 1997 allowed for a renewed emphasis (Pendlebury 2009). Indeed, New Labour’s policy priority of reducing social exclusion in the UK became the grounding for much heritage policy (e.g. English Heritage 2000), and complemented UNESCO’s call for a more representative World Heritage List. The 1999 UK Tentative World Heritage List emphasized industrial landscapes, whereas previous UK World Heritage Site nominations can be considered as largely monumental and elitist.
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Conserving the Ifugao Rice Terraces World Heritage Site: Financing cultural landscapes in a less-developed country through an ecosystem services framework

Conserving the Ifugao Rice Terraces World Heritage Site: Financing cultural landscapes in a less-developed country through an ecosystem services framework

Attracting large numbers of tourists does not come without consequences. The development of tourism infrastructure requires space. Since maintaining the view of the rice terraces is required for retaining the World Heritage status, developers have recently looked at the woodlots as alternative construction areas (Guimbatan and Baguilat, 2006, 63). The provisional ecosystem services of the terraces depend largely on the regulating services of the woodlots (Serrano et al. 2005, 103). The destruction of the latter consequently results in a decrease of agricultural output. The local farmers know this all too well. When the IRT became a national landmark in the 1970’s, the indigenous woodcarving industry grew rapidly at the expense of the woodlots (Guimbatan and Baguilat 2006, 65). This had a negative effect on the irrigation water, which decreased the yield for the farmers. Many locals abandoned and neglected their rice field in search of employment elsewhere (UNESCO 1995, 50). Though much effort has been made to restore the woodlots, uncontrolled development may once again threaten them.
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Park, People and Biodiversity Conservation in Kaziranga National Park, India

Park, People and Biodiversity Conservation in Kaziranga National Park, India

Kaziranga National Park (KNP), geographically located in the state of Assam in the North Eastern part of India, refers to a vast forest area spreading over two districts, namely, Golaghat and Nagaon. It is a ‘World Heritage Site’ with two-thirds of the world’s one-horned Rhinoceroses, and it hosts a very highly dense tiger population. The park has an area of 430 sq.km and there is an additional area of 429 sq.km with a latitude of 26°33’ N – 26°45’N and a longitude 93°9’E – 93°36’E. The additions have been made at different points of time for extending the habitat of wildlife. The main source of data to conduct the study comes from a household survey carried out in the periphery villages of KNP using two stage-
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Cultural heritage and one of the UNESCO world heritage list, Cumalikizik

Cultural heritage and one of the UNESCO world heritage list, Cumalikizik

urbanization and excessive increase in the heights of buildings with the recent development zoning rights have negatively affected historical buildings and even made them impossible to be perceived. Due to being surrounded by extremely high constructions, the effects of historical spaces on the silhouette have considerably decreased. Likewise, density has been causing pressure on the extension of narrow streets in historical settlements. Not to mention the fact that visual integrity and harmony of historical environment has been fading away since the undesired technological elements got involved. Cumalıkızık Village, however, has been added to UNESCO World Heritage List by the year 2014. Established
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Browse Title Index

Browse Title Index

Changes in human values and technological advancements have led to the reinvention of museum interpretation. Studies have shown that the transformation of museums’ functions and emerging typology of museums occur globally. Initially, museums’ function was to educate society and preserve artefacts for public access, but nowadays, museums have expanded their functions and have become market driven. The increasing number of museum establishments in George Town, Penang has mixed impacts to the curatorship and interpretation of museums. The strategic location of George Town, Penang, its branding as a World Heritage Site, cultural heritage attractions, and local values have gained popularity as a touristic destination. Museums and galleries are the top attractions reviewed by users in TripAdvisor. This article investigates the transformation of functions and typology of museums on the basis of the top 20 museums in Penang listed in TripAdvisor. Content analysis from the secondary data was conducted to establish the pattern and trends of museums’ diversification in Penang. Findings revealed that the diversification of museums in Penang has expanded from histories such as natural, science, human, and art to history and art, technology, and specialty. Considering that George Town has been nominated as a World Heritage Site, museums have become consumer-oriented, and private ownership and collaborative partnership have grown drastically. This study contributes by showing that the diversification of museums’ function enhances creativity to meet future needs.
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Browse Title Index

Browse Title Index

This research presents the value of historic urban landscape (HUL) elements in influencing the character of George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS), Penang, Malaysia. The values were perceived by the local community of different social-cultural groups that occupied the study area. The historic urban landscape elements constitute towards the protection of its townscape. The identification of the heritage elements influenced by the community interaction with their environment. This study also helps to define the character of a place, as well as reflecting its historical significance. The study adopted four techniques to gather both qualitative and quantitative data, including questionnaire survey, in-depth interview, visual survey and content analysis. In general, the local community has the capability in valuing the historic urban landscape values. The outcomes of their perceptions became the statement of the historic urban landscape values, which are expected to lead to the development of the areas. The community evaluation and perception can be expanded in implementing any development of the historic urban area by the authority.
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The Preah Vihear Temple: Roots of Thailand-Cambodia Border Dispute

The Preah Vihear Temple: Roots of Thailand-Cambodia Border Dispute

The first clash occurred in October 2008,with Thai and Cambodian troops exchanging fire over the temple and area around the site. The confrontation between the two countrieselevated into violence many times during 2008-2011,with loss of life and severe bodily injuries for people on both sides. This paper attempts to analyses roots of the dispute between Thailand and Cambodia over the PreahVihearTemple by examining the development of the boundary dispute through history and domestic politics. This author does not aim to express judgment on which country should have possession of the temple or to condemn both Thailand and Cambodia for the violent clashes. The present paper comprises two parts: first, this author considers the historical background of the boundary settlements made between France and Siam in the period 1904-1908. This author then examines current domestic politics within both Thailand and Cambodia, especially political turmoil in Thailand, which has major influences on the dispute between the two neighbors.
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Conservation and Livelihood Conflict of Kaziranga National Park: A World Heritage Site of Assam, India

Conservation and Livelihood Conflict of Kaziranga National Park: A World Heritage Site of Assam, India

livelihood for the local people. Earlier famous as a game reserve, the conservation process of KNP began in 1908. Killing animals for sport and exploitation of natural resources of the park was prohibited. KNP was crowned a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950 and was eventually declared a national park in 1974. UNESCO recognised it as a World Heritage Site in 1985. Later, KNP was given ‘maximum protection under Indian conditions’ at all levels of administration under the Biodiversity Conservation Act, 2002, and was segregated according to zones and conservation strategies were applied (Mathur et al., 2005). Timber harvesting and use of forest produce were banned for local people as conservation efforts took a strict turn (Das, 2017). Despite this, official reports and relevant studies suggested the death of around 567 rhinos between 1980 and 2005 due to poaching, with their regeneration rate on a declining trend (Mathur et al., 2007). Over the years, the anti- poaching network has been effectively strengthened with more than 200 monitoring camps spread across KNP which includes floating camps as well. An outcome of the conservation efforts was positively witnessed when the latest rhino count was observed to be 2,413, an increase of a dozen rhinos since the last 2015 census. It is imperative to mention here that in 1905, Indian rhinos were merely 75.
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An art and design perspective: The development of a 3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site

An art and design perspective: The development of a 3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site

3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site project is intended to build an interactive educational exhibition space for interactive play via the web and is also planned to be located on site at Saltaire. The international and UK visitors to Saltaire receive limited educational cultural or historical engagement in Saltaire. “Saltaire has become the Mecca for thousands of visitors who spend hours trawling through the pristine streets, trying to imagine life as it was 100 years ago and the inspiration behind this extraordinary development.” [CHR09]
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Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site

Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site

The development of tourism in urban areas results from the increased popularity of holiday destinations as well as mass tourism. Cultural and heritage aspects have been used to strengthen the competitiveness of the given cities and to attract more tourists (Timothy, 2011). Historic resource is largely seen as a powerful tool from the social and economic dimension. This is mainly because heritage is among the growing segments in the tourism industry for which its economic, social, and environmental importance has been duly recognised (Timothy, 2011; Park, 2014). Heritage destinations can positively stimulate cultural revival, provide new experiences, as well as enrich tourism products in urban areas. Ashworth and Page (2011) added that many development strategies entirely based on urban heritage are now being given more priority. This is in an effort to manage heritage attributes, particularly at attractions where tourism is the main economic source. Basically, there are several key stakeholders in WHS management. However, despite several studies on WHS (Jaafar et al., 2015; Su et al., 2016; Su and Wall, 2017), too much attention has been given to the contribution of local authorities and communities, whereas the perspective of tourists has largely been neglected.
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Everyday World Heritage

Everyday World Heritage

Aside from the society/nature dualism, the (Western) intellectual world is fraught with fundamental binary oppositions (Brubaker 1993) or what is referred to as modernity’s ‘great divides’ (Goldman and Schurman 2000; Braun 2004) such as agency/structure, material/symbolic, mind/body, micro/macro which, as demonstrated above, often means that researchers study phenomena within an either/or framework of logic and almost necessarily refrain from crossing disciplines. The obvious effect of these binaries on the practice of studying society and the environment is to obstruct heuristic practice and conceal the existence (or non-existence) of both “oppositional” elements in the phenomena under study. Viewed from a traditional sociological perspective, this thesis is a study of relationships between people and their World Heritage listed natural environment. Sociology, as well as its environmental sociology and human ecology cousins is perhaps not up to the task of providing nature with that ever- elusive materiality. And so it is at this point in the chapter that the theories of traditional sociology must be left behind in the search for those more able to adequately bridge the social/nature divide. Additionally, this point in the chapter introduces a second pervasive dichotomy in sociology: the agency/structure dualism. The sociologist who wishes to study society and nature is now faced with the prospect of navigating two separate, but interconnected, dichotomies. While society/nature focuses on relations between humans and objects, agency/structure focuses on relationships between human action and social context, or as Layder (1994: 4) puts it, 'in general terms the action-structure distinction concentrates on the questions of how creativity and constraint are related through social activity (1994: 4). Agency then is ascribed through the process of social relations to humans making the issue of ascribing agency to ‘nature’ immediately problematic. The society/nature dichotomy cannot be addressed without first ascribing agency or action to nature. The question is how?
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Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

3D recording of heritage using laser scanning, structured light or photogrammetry are better proxies to reality as they capture a snapshot of the present visible state of objects, including the imperfections of reality. Whilst each technique has advantages, photogrammetry is inexpensive and portable, particularly suited to crowdsourcing works, for landscapes, large structures and small objects. A good 3D laser scanning system typically costs in access of £50,000 and requires specialist skills and software, structured light scans are relatively inexpensive but are unsuited to difficult scanning situations such as narrow, enclosed spaces, etc. In contrast, photogrammetry techniques require high-resolution cameras or modern smartphones and software to produce results seen in Section 4, within a pipeline of work which allows for crowdsourcing activities (Figure 1). Furthermore, aerial photogrammetry with inexpensive, consumer-level drones for capturing entire sites can be part of the documentation process, subject to the country’s current UAV laws. For brevity of this paper, articles reviewing the techniques and applications of 3D imaging techniques are provided here for reference [20–24].
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Africa, Archaeology and World Heritage

Africa, Archaeology and World Heritage

that can be used to defi ne the Outstanding Universal Value of a property, of which the fi rst six can be applied to cultural properties. As defi ned in UNESCO 2008, paragraph 77: ‘Nominated proper- ties shall therefore: (i) represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; (ii) exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on develop- ments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design; (iii) bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; (iv) be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or tech- nological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) signifi cant stage(s) in human history; (v) be an outstanding example of a traditional human settle- ment, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change; (vi) be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal signifi cance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria)’.
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The future of World Heritage in Australia

The future of World Heritage in Australia

In the absence of an official Tentative List, many people and groups have identified possible sites for nomination by Australia. Some suggestions have considerable antiquity, others are new. There are over 200 natural or mixed sites already on the World Heritage List including 16 such sites in Australia. A starting point for many is the 1982 IUCN publication that identified many possible natural heritage sites around the world. For Australia there were 13 sites identified in the ‘Australian Realm’ plus another 3 in the ‘Antarctic Realm’. Of these 16 sites most are now listed, the exceptions being Cape York Peninsula; Western Australia’s Southwest Floral Region; The Kimberley (but Purnululu is listed, but nothing in the western Kimberley yet); The Channel Country and Australian Antarctic Territory. Our proper Tentative List could at least begin with these
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Tourism Specialization and Economic Development: Evidence from the UNESCO World Heritage List

Tourism Specialization and Economic Development: Evidence from the UNESCO World Heritage List

development. We estimate standard growth equations augmented with a variable measuring tourism specialization using instrumental variables techniques for a large cross-section of countries for the period 1980–2002. We introduce an instrument for tourism based on the UNESCO World Heritage List. We find that there is a positive relationship between the extent of tourism specialization and economic growth. An increase of one standard deviation in the share of tourism in exports leads to about 0.5 percentage point in additional annual growth, everything else being constant. Our result holds against a large array of robustness checks.
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A critical examination of the World Heritage nomination, listing and management procedures in Australia

A critical examination of the World Heritage nomination, listing and management procedures in Australia

The World Heritage list is a list of all those properties that have been nominated by State parties and subsequently accepted by the World Heritage Committee as being of outstanding univ[r]

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