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Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator

Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator

dislocations that can happen at various joints present in our body. One of the most important joint is the wrist joint. The crucial functions of our hand is partly controlled by our wrists. Fractures occurring at the wrist are identified using advanced x-ray technologies and the Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator project is developed as an add-on to this function. This proposed system is used to measure the range of motion of the wrist with which we can also check the efficiency of the treatment that is provided. It is basically a wrist wearable unit that consist of kinematic and temperature sensors that is used to sense the wrist movements in real time. A wireless access point is used to connect the hardware and software components of the project. The software platform that is used in this project is python.

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A Biomechanical Investigation of Scaphoid and Lunate Kinematics During Wrist Motion

A Biomechanical Investigation of Scaphoid and Lunate Kinematics During Wrist Motion

Carpal kinematics have been previously investigated, yet there remains no consensus regarding the relative contribution of each bone to total wrist motion. A more detailed understanding of carpal kinematics is essential in the effective diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the wrist, as many injuries manifest as an alteration in intercarpal kinematics. The scapholunate (SL) ligament is one of the most commonly injured intercarpal articulations resulting in a cascade of degenerative changes included cartilage wear and altered joint kinematics. The SL ligament is considered the primary stabilizer of the SL joint but is surrounded by a complex network of secondary ligamentous constraints, each contributing to the maintenance of normal SL kinematics. The ligamentous anatomy of the SL ligament and secondary stabilizers has been well established, although the functional and stabilizing role of each structure remains unclear. This work investigates the relative role and contribution of the scaphoid, lunate, and surrounding ligamentous restraints during planar wrist motions. An in vitro study examined the kinematics of the scaphoid, lunate, and capitate during planar motions of wrist flexion and extension. Scaphoid and lunate motion was found to correlate linearly with wrist motion throughout flexion and extension, with the scaphoid contributing at a greater degree throughout flexion-extension. Both the scaphoid and lunate were found to contribute more to wrist motion during flexion when compared to extension. A subsequent in vitro study examined the effect of the sequential sectioning of the SL ligament and two secondary stabilizers, the scaphotrapezium-trapezoid (STT) ligament and the radioscaphocapitate (RSC) ligament, on scaphoid and lunate kinematics during wrist flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. The SL ligament was found to be the primary stabilizer of the SL joint, as sectioning caused the largest angular change in SL kinematics, and the STT and RSC ligaments are secondary stabilizers, as the additional sectioning induced further postural changes in SL kinematics. A more detailed understanding of role and stabilizing function of the SL ligament and secondary stabilizers may assist in the development of more effective treatment strategies following injury to the SL articulation.

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Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator

Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator

dislocations that can happen at various joints present in our body. One of the most important joint is the wrist joint. The crucial functions of our hand is partly controlled by our wrists. Fractures occurring at the wrist are identified using advanced x-ray technologies and the Wrist Motion Detector cum Efficiency Evaluator project is developed as an add-on to this function. This proposed system is used to measure the range of motion of the wrist with which we can also check the efficiency of the treatment that is provided. It is basically a wrist wearable unit that consist of kinematic and temperature sensors that is used to sense the wrist movements in real time. A wireless access point is used to connect the hardware and software components of the project. The software platform that is used in this project is python.

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A Biomechanical Investigation of Load Sharing at the Distal Forearm

A Biomechanical Investigation of Load Sharing at the Distal Forearm

The biomechanical studies presented in this thesis have many strengths. This work provides new insight to the axial distal forearm bone loads produced for a variety of motions that occur during the activities of daily living. The study presented in Chapter 4 provides a novel contribution to the literature on the effect of radial length changes on forearm bone loads during active forearm rotation. The sample sizes used were relatively small, however still large enough to allow for a repeated measure ANOVA for statistical analysis. Highly accurate optical tracking was utilized and allowed for the real-time measurement of joint angles throughout wrist and forearm motion. A previously established, repeatable active wrist motion simulator was used to perform all biomechanical testing. The experimental devices used to collect axial loads through the distal radius and ulna were evaluated to ensure their reliability for use in the additional biomechanical studies. These included uniaxial loads cells located along the anatomical axis of the radius and ulna, negating the requirement to accommodate eccentric loads. Both the magnitude of load and the proportion of total forearm bone load were reported separately, providing two distinct insights and contributions to biomechanical literature on distal forearm loading. Almost all soft tissues structures, excluding the distal interosseous membrane, were maintained in order to most accurately represent in vivo conditions. All incisions were closed throughout testing to maintain tissue hydration and retain the viscoelastic behaviours of in vivo soft tissues. Lastly, flexion-extension motion was simulated from 50° of wrist extension to 50° of flexion which is an increased range of motion previously reported for active wrist motion studies.

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Association of wrist and forearm range of motion measures with self reported functional scores amongst patients with distal radius fractures: a longitudinal study

Association of wrist and forearm range of motion measures with self reported functional scores amongst patients with distal radius fractures: a longitudinal study

In our study, we found that wrist flexion, wrist exten- sion, ulnar deviation, and forearm supination were sta- tistically significantly associated with QuickDASH scores over time. Specifically, on average, an IQR increase in these ROM measures was associated with 4.1 to 9.0 points lower QuickDASH scores (Table 3). Using a dif- ferent outcome measure such as the QuickDASH, our results expand on previous findings [26] indicating that wrist extension and ulnar deviation ROM were corre- lates of functional activities. Our interpretation of these findings is that wrist extension and ulnar deviation form part of the dart thrower’s motion, which describes a dir- ection of oblique wrist motion from radial extension to ulnar flexion [27]. As the dart thrower’s motion is highly functional and is required in a variety of occupational, household, and sporting activities [28–30], our results are not surprising.

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Development of an in-vitro passive and active motion Simulator for the investigation of wrist function and Kinematics

Development of an in-vitro passive and active motion Simulator for the investigation of wrist function and Kinematics

The understanding of wrist kinematics in-vivo is crucial when quantitatively analyzing repar- ative methods such as fracture fixation, arthroplasty, and ligament repair with respect to the healthy state. In Chapter 2 the process behind the design and development of an active mo- tion simulator was outlined with emphasis on the rationale for the methods of actuation and tracking. The seven tendons of interest for controlling wrist motion and forearm rotation were sutured and attached to a manifold of seven electric servomotors (SM2316D-PLS2, SMI An- imatics Corp., CA) responsible for applying forces. Each motor was instrumented with a full bridge style strain gage (Vishay Precision Group, Raleigh, NC) and calibrated (Appendix B) to provide force feedback. The simulator was able to maintain target tendon loads and ef- fectively simulate passive motion trials comparable to the simulator used by Nishiwaki et al. [1, 2]. Using optical tracking methods (Certus Optotrak, Northern Digital Inc., VT), the rel- ative positions of the third metacarpal, radius, and ulna were obtained to provide real time positional feedback to the system without restricting the material compatibilities present with electromagnetic tracking. The tendons were divided into four quadrants; flexors, extensors, radial deviators, and ulnar deviators to influence motion of the wrist in flexion-extension and radioulnar deviation. Using a minimum tone load of 8.9 N the muscle groups were activated to produce motion in the desired direction. A cascade PID controller was developed to limit positional error between the actual and desired wrist position by adjusting the balance of forces between the muscle quadrants.

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Alligator mississippiensis sternal and shoulder girdle mobility increase stride length during high walks

Alligator mississippiensis sternal and shoulder girdle mobility increase stride length during high walks

Crocodilians have played a significant role in evolutionary studies of archosaurs. Given that several major shifts in forelimb function occur within Archosauria, forelimb morphologies of living crocodilians are of particular importance in assessing locomotor evolutionary scenarios. A previous X-ray investigation of walking alligators revealed substantial movement of the shoulder girdle, but as the sternal cartilages do not show up in X-ray, the source of the mobility could not be conclusively determined. Scapulocoracoid movement was interpreted to indicate independent sliding of each coracoid at the sternocoracoid joint; however, rotations of the sternum could also produce similar displacement of the scapulocoracoids. Here, we present new data employing marker-based XROMM (X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology), wherein simultaneous biplanar X-ray video and surgically implanted radio-opaque markers permit precise measurement of the vertebral axis, sternum and coracoid in walking alligators. We found that movements of the sternum and sternocoracoid joint both contribute to shoulder girdle mobility and stride length, and that the sternocoracoid contribution was less than previously estimated. On average, the joint contributions to stride length (measured with reference to a point on the distal radius, thus excluding wrist motion) are as follows: thoracic vertebral rotation 6.2±3.7%, sternal rotation 11.1±2.5%, sternocoracoid joint 10.1±5.2%, glenohumeral joint 40.1±7.8% and elbow 31.1±4.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of sternal movement relative to the vertebral column ( presumably via rib joints) contributing to stride length in tetrapods.

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Hand anthropometry in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study with a matched control group of healthy volunteers

Hand anthropometry in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study with a matched control group of healthy volunteers

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hy- pothesis that the CTS is related to hand morphom- etry. Factors not directly related to anthropometric measurements was also considered in this study and included: age, BMI, place of residence and daily phys- ical activity to find potential links to CTS occurrence. Previous authors have stated that CTS is more common in people above 40 years old, and that risk increases with age [18, 31, 34]. This is why our control group consisted mainly of mature individuals (Table 2) to best match patients in the CTS group. Other fac- tors in addition to age are equally important. Phys- ical factors such as repeatable pressure, systematic bending or torsion of the hand with the wrist during work activity, using vibrating tools, some everyday activities, as well as hand trauma can lead to CTS [4, 13, 22, 23, 33]. In addition, individual factors such as gender, pregnancy, endocrine disorders, diabetes or connective tissue disorders could indirectly and directly influence CTS manifestation [17, 26]. Two other medical factors predisposing to this condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis and kidney failure can be also included in that list [5].

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The effect of observing different information on learning the basketball jump shot

The effect of observing different information on learning the basketball jump shot

A comparison of the intra-limb coordination (shoul- der-elbow, and wrist-elbow) of the participants with that of the model was made using Normalized root-mean- square error (NoRMS). This measure provides the similarity of two joints of the participant (for example shoulder and elbow) in relation to the two joints of the model (Hodges et al., 2005). This measure is a method to quantify the angle to angle plots. NoRMS is a modi- fied version of the procedure proposed by Sidaway, Heise, and Schoenfelder-Zohdi (1995). It provides a measure of similarity to the model’s performance, with lower values indicating greater similarity (Hayes et al., 2007; Hodges et al., 2005). Since all the participants were right-handed and the task was performed with the right hand, the kinematics of the right side of the body was compared to those of the model. These included elbow-wrist coordination. The first flexion in the elbow was considered as the starting point and maximum extension after the jump shot was considered as the end- ing point of the movement. The data were smoothened with a recursive 4th order Butterworth filter, with a cut- off frequency of 7 Hz, and a linear interpolation was performed to normalize the data to 100 points (Winter, 1990). During acquisition, kinematic data from the first three trials of the first block (attempts 1–3), the last Data collection

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Optimizing the Composition and Delivery of Assessment and Treatment Following Distal Radius Fracture

Optimizing the Composition and Delivery of Assessment and Treatment Following Distal Radius Fracture

There is a paucity of evidence in the literature surrounding treatment efficacy for many treatment techniques used by therapists. One of the most common treatments used for treatment of DRF is some form of superficial heat during therapy. While the exact mechanism of how heat improves ROM is unknown, it is often used at the beginning of the therapy visit to precondition the wrist and make it more amenable to stretching. The potential risk of using heat, especially after recent trauma to the wrist, is that vasodilation may lead to increased edema in the hand, leading to secondary stiffness once the immediate effects have worn off. Having used superficial heat in my own practice with seemingly positive effect, I remain surprised that very little empirical data exists for the relative effectiveness of the various methods of heat used for the upper extremity.

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Letters to the Editor

Letters to the Editor

The physical examination revealed a positive Finkel- stein’s on the right, with the patient stating it recreated her pain. Ranges of motion of the right wrist revealed de- creased active, passive and resisted extension (by 50%), painful active and passive pronation, ulnar deviation (active, passive and resisted) and active and passive radial deviation. Thumb ranges of motion on the right revealed painful active and resisted abduction, passive adduction, flexion (at the end of active and passive), resisted exten- sion and active and resisted opposition. Soft tissue pal- pation revealed tight and tender right abductor pollicus longus, extensor pollicus longus and brevis (tendon pal- pation recreated the pain and not palpation at the muscle belly), as well as the wrist extensors.

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Modified minimally invasive extensor carpi radialis longus tenodesis for scapholunate dissociation: a prospective observational study

Modified minimally invasive extensor carpi radialis longus tenodesis for scapholunate dissociation: a prospective observational study

Primary study endpoint was hand function as measured via range of motion and grip strength assessed with a hy- draulic hand dynamometer (SH5001, Saehan Cooperation, Changwon, South Korea), as well as symptoms after modi- fied ECRL-tenodesis measured with Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) Question- naire including the high performance Sport/Music as well as Work sections [11, 12]. Additionally, patients were asked to categorize their post-operative satisfaction in one of 5 stages: one - fully satisfied, two - satisfied, three - in- different, four - unsatisfied, five - fully unsatisfied; as well as whether they would repeat the treatment or recom- mend it to a friend or not. Secondary study endpoint was the onset of post-operative complications.

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Would a thermal sensor improve arm motion classification accuracy of a single wrist-mounted inertial device?

Would a thermal sensor improve arm motion classification accuracy of a single wrist-mounted inertial device?

Results showed that addition of thermal sensor data significantly increased accuracy, Fig. 4. Comparison of accuracy from individual sensors also indicates that the thermal sensor was a strong contributor to accuracy and yielded significantly higher classifica- tion accuracy than gyroscope-derived features but was not significantly more accurate than accelerometer-derived features for this study, Fig.  5. While this study applied the same set of feature calculations to each sensor, a future investigation could determine the highest performing features for each sensor and propose specialized features to maximize the contribution of each sensor. Additionally, data rate of the system could be increased if the number of primary features (sensor channels) was reduced or if onboard motion classification was introduced, removing the need for wireless transmission of primary feature data to a processing computer. The increased operating frequency of the system may indeed provide an opportunity to increase classification accuracy; however, Gao et al. [53] and Krause et al. [54] note that the classification accuracies increase mar- ginally with an increased sampling rate and that this can decrease the battery life of the system. Future work will expand on this examination of feature selection and determine the effects of sampling rate on classification accuracy.

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Comparison of DC Motors and Dielectric Elastomer Actuators For Wearable Wrist Exoskeletons

Comparison of DC Motors and Dielectric Elastomer Actuators For Wearable Wrist Exoskeletons

The control system manages the behaviour of the rehabilitation devices. The control system used for wrist exoskeleton devices will depend on the task that the device is being used for. Most of the devices in Table 2.1 have used a PID controller for trajectory control of each joint in the exoskeleton. The PID controller is used often because it is simple and easy to implement. For rehabilitation, the PID would likely be used as a low level controller in the control system. More complex control systems are dynamic model control systems. The dynamic model treats the limb as a mechanical system with rigid links and rotational joints in which the model will predict the torque generated from inertial, gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis effects [31]. The dynamic model can then be used for control systems such as an inverse dynamics controller for joint trajectory control, or an impedance controller [25] for a force interaction controller. Another type of model based controller is one that uses a muscle model. A muscle model based control system predicts the torque generated at a joint based on the muscle activation signals [32].

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Myoelectrically controlled wrist robot for stroke rehabilitation

Myoelectrically controlled wrist robot for stroke rehabilitation

EMG signals reflect the activities of the muscles, and generate before the formation of muscle force, therefore they are often used to represent the subject’s intention and trigger the robots in prosthesis control [9,10], and robot- aided rehabilitation [11]. Recently, many researchers used EMG signals to continuously control exoskeleton-type robots. These robots were designed like human’s joints and could be worn by the human operators as an assistive devices. The systems were under the voluntary control, functioning like additional muscle groups to provide additional forces [12-16]. However, the robotic system developed by Rosen et al. was applied to share the loading for normal subjects [12,13], and Cheng et al. investigated the movement performance when subjects after stroke were assisted by the system within their voluntary range of motion [14]. The therapeutic effect of myoelectric control during rehabilitation training have not been reported in these studied. Our previous studies had reported the therapeutic effect of myoelectric control to restore motor function of affected elbow [15,16]. The effect of myoelectric control on the sensorimotor control and the therapeutic effect during rehabilitation training of the affected wrists for stroke survivors are not well investigated. In this study, we designed the myoelectrically controlled robotic system and evaluated its effects on joint movement and muscle groups of the paretic side, moreover, the therapeutic effect during robot-aided rehabilitation training was also investigated in terms of clinical scales and robot measured parameters.

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Chiropractic Research Journal Editors Council

Chiropractic Research Journal Editors Council

A 74-year-old woman reported an acute onset of left wrist pain following a slip and fall on the ground and landing on an outstretched, extended hand. She was immediately taken to a hospital facility where a routine series of plain film radiographs revealed a non-comminuted Colles’ frac- ture. Figure 1 displays the radiograph of a similar injury. She was placed in a plaster cast for 4 weeks at which time she was referred to the clinic for assessment and rehabilita- tion.

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The Effect of High Baseline Pain on Impairment Outcomes One Year After Distal Radius Fracture

The Effect of High Baseline Pain on Impairment Outcomes One Year After Distal Radius Fracture

Distal radius fractures (DRFs) are common upper extremity fractures caused by a fall on a overextended wrist (Rubin, Orbach, Chezar, & Rozen, 2017; MacIntyre & Dewan, 2016). A DRF usually occurs due to the displacement of the lower end of the radius within 1.5 inches from the wrist joint (Young & Rayan, 2000). Depending on the amount of movement of the fractured segment, DRFs are broadly categorized into extra-articular and intra-articular fractures. In extra-articular DRFs, the fractured segment does not translate into the articulating surfaces forming the wrist joint. In intra-articular DRFs, the fractured segment translates into the wrist joint causing internal derangements within the carpals. DRFs are also characterized as either open or closed. In open DRFs, the fractured segments are exposed through the skin and may need surgical intervention. In contrast, the fractured segments are not exposed in the closed type of DRFs. Among various identified factors that determine poor functional recovery after surgical reduction of DRF, higher age, lower grip strength, and the low underlying status of bone mineralization are known to be few of the key predictors (Roh, Noh, Gong, & Baek, 2017).

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Management of injuries in snowboarders: rehabilitation and return to activity

Management of injuries in snowboarders: rehabilitation and return to activity

consider return to sport with the use of a wrist splint or cast. During wrist immobilization, the patient should begin pas- sive and active range-of-motion exercises of the unaffected upper-extremity joints, in order to limit stiffness and decon- ditioning. Once the period of immobilization is complete and pain minimal, the patient can begin strengthening and proprioceptive exercises of the wrist. In instances of acute, unstable ligamentous injuries, operative management may be indicated. 11 If so, rehabilitation afterward mimics that of non-

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Minimal detectable difference of the finger and wrist range of motion: comparison of goniometry and 3D motion analysis

Minimal detectable difference of the finger and wrist range of motion: comparison of goniometry and 3D motion analysis

The protocol of the goniometric measurement followed the recommendations of the American Society for Hand Therapists for the wrist joint and the finger joints [17–19]. Each volunteer placed their elbow on the table with the forearm in neutral position. Dorsal placement of a plastic goniometer (Zimmer®) on the wrist was applied. For the measure- ment of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), raters instructed patients to maximal extend the metacarpo- phalangeal joint (MCP) while maximal flexion of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint and DIP joint, making a hook fist. During pronation and supination of the forearm, the volunteer was sitting with the shoulder in 0° of flexion, extension, abduction, and rotation so that the upper arm was close to the side of the body. The elbow was in 90° of flexion, and the goniometer was placed just proximal to the radial and ulnar styloid process while performing maximal pro- nation and supination.

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Development and validation of a novel questionnaire for self determination of the range of motion of wrist and elbow

Development and validation of a novel questionnaire for self determination of the range of motion of wrist and elbow

Common self-administered questionnaires for the determination of hand- and upper limp specific results of the wrist (e.g. patient-rated wrist evaluation, PRWE [8]) and of the elbow (e.g. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow, ASES-E [1]) enable the patient to assess the functional impairment of the joint, but they do not formally assess the range of motion, and patients have to attend clinic for this to be measured [10]. Therefore im- portant data regarding the ROM would be lost in patients who are unable or unwilling to come to the outpatient clinic at the regular follow-up or for clinical research.

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