Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Compositae) a medicinal plant commonly found as a weed, is widely distributed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia and hotter parts of India. The herb is traditionally used mostly in treating several ailments. Extracts of the whole plant, especially leaves, roots, fruits and seeds have been applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of leucoderma, poisonous bites of insects, epilepsy, salivation, long-standing cases of malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago, pruritis, bacterial and fungal infections. This comprehensive account provides a botanical description of the plant, its phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities are reviewed, focussing on antibacterial, antitumour, antitussive, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, antimitotic, antioxidant, antitrypanosomal, CNS depressant activity, diuretic effects, contact dermatitis, insecticidal and herbicidal activities. Most of the pharmacological effects can be explained by the constituents like sesquiterpene lactones, glycoside, phenols, polysterols present in all plant parts. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. Because of its multi-activity, in particular, anti-tumour, anti-cancer activity, so much attention is focussed on the herb. Finally, research needs quantitation of individual constituents and assessment of their pharmacological activities in humans.
11 Read more
Albino wistar rats of either sex weighing 160 to 220 gm were divided into four groups of six animals each. The first group received vehicle control (1% w/v SCMC, 1ml/100 g) whereas Group-II received standard drug (Diazepam, 4mg/kg) intraperitoneally, Group-III and IV, petroleum ether extract of Xanthium Strumarium L. (PEXS) (250 and 500 mg/kg/body weight) p.o respectively for 20 days. On the 20 th day, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (90mg/kg
Experimental Design: Albino wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group I received vehicle control (1% w/v SCMC, 1ml/100 g) whereas Group-II and III, received petroleum ether extract of Xanthium Strumarium L. (PEXS) (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) p.o respectively for 20 days. On the 20 th day, Seizures are induced to all the groups by using an Electro convulsiometer. The duration of various phases of epilepsy were observed. Pentylenetetrazole (90mg/kg b.w, s.c) was administered to other groups to induce clonic convulsions after above respective treatment. Animals were observed for a period of 30mins post– PTZ administration.
Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) is a large, summer annual broad-leaved weed and one of the most competitive and worst weeds in maize, cotton, peanut and soybean fields (Miller 1970; Holm et al. 1977; Charudattan & Walker 1982). Its significance as a troublesome weed in these crops is increasing across the Balkan area, including Macedonia, probably due to difficulties in its chemical control. In soybean, full-season competition by common cocklebur at densities of 3300, 6600, 13 000 and 26 000 plants/ha re- duced soybean seed yields by 10, 28, 43 and 52%, respectively (Barrentine 1974). Soybean seed yields were reduced 15–100% by common cock- lebur densities of 2000–64 000 plants/ha under drought conditions (Waldrep & McLaughlin 1969 – cit. Barrentine 1974). High densities of
The hydrodistilled essential oil from Xanthium strumarium L. leaves was analysed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Nine out of twenty two constituents were identified from X. strumarium oil. The main components of the oil were β-caryophyllene (17.53%), α-cadinol (6.66%), spathulenol (6.09%), limonene (5.66%) and 1,3,5-trimethyl-2[2-nitroallyl]benzene (3.29%). Phytol (2.42%), α-muurolene (2.08%), copaene (1.47%) were present in appreciable amounts. E,E,Z-1,3,12-nonadecatriene-5,14-diol (0.27%) was present in minor amount. The oil displayed high degree of antifungal effect against all fungal strains with 11.8-46.0 mm zone of inhibition at concentration range 8-250 μg/ml. The 8 μg/ml minimum fungicidal concentration along with being the minimum inhibitory concentration points to the potential of X. strumarium essential oil as a promising source of antifungal agents with useful biomedical applications.
Xanthium strumarium L. is an introduced and highly problematic weed distributed at very high magnitude in India .Besides causing several problems in agriculture and forestry it is also responsible for severe human and animal health hazards. The weed is difficult to control due to various reasons. It is commonly known as cocklebur, banokra, gokharu, chhota dhatura or Noogra burr and belongs to family Asteraceae. The taxonomy and biology of the genus has been extensively studied by many workers (Love & Dansereau’s 1959, Barrentine 1974, Shukla et al 1988, Ommachan et al 1996). It is most abundant in open moist sites specially waste places, luxuriantly grows on roadsides, railway
different locations allow general explanations of impact on species diversity and richness in plant communities. The current study assessed impact of Xanthium strumarium invasion on native plant diversity in Pothwar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings with two categorical factors: invaded and non-invaded plots under same habitat conditions. Differences in species frequency (N), species richness (R), evenness (J'), Shannon diversity index (H') and Simpson index of dominance (λ) were compared between invaded and control plots by t-test series. Control plots harbored by average 1.3 more species/10m 2 . The control category was more diverse (H'=2.00) than invaded category (H'=1.82). Non-invaded
10 Read more
Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur) is an an- nual weed, including 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae family, which grows in Iran between August and September with local common name, Tough or Zardineh X. stru- marium is traditionally used to treat trypano- somiasis, malaria fever, eczema, cancer, ulcer, fever, herpes, headache and skin sores such as leishmaniasis (7). The species contain a class of plant terpenoids called Sesquiterpene lac- tones (STLs) which are classified based on
11 Read more
Xanthium strumarium L. is an emerging invassive weed rich in phytochemicals diversity and wide range of pharmacological and ethnomedicinal uses. Several morphological, physiological factors and defence mechanisms that ranging from physical barriers including cuticle formation, lignification, spines and trichomes to the biosynthesis of toxic compounds contributes to its invasiveness. Phenols and tannins play significant role in several beneficial biological activities still act as as herbivore deterrents, and left allelopathic influence on other plants. In this investigation quantification total phenols, bound phenol, ortho dihydroxy phenol, tannic acid, flavanol, quinines, acid detergent fiber and lignin, acid and water soluble ash, crude fibre content is being done. Role of morphological and physiological factors responsible for making this plant invasive discussed in details. Potential benefits of this invasive weed are, photochemical diversity and wide range of pharmacological and ethnomedicinal uses. The plethora of bioactive compounds make it highly significant genus from biochemical and pharmacological point of view. Apart from many drawback of spreading new invasive weed specie, it is also enriching the gene pool of the existing plants and Gene banks with desirable genes. In future it may act as source of important genes contributing in resistance towards biotic stress for plant diseases, pests as well as for abiotic stress resistance.
13 Read more
hydrochloride, proline, valine and isoleucine were found to be present in leaves. From ethyl acetate fraction and methanol extract of X. strumarium phenolic compounds viz. Caffeic acid (1a), Xanthiazone, and Xanthiazone-(2-O-caffeoyl)-b-D-glucopyranoside (1d) were isolated . These compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR, Mass, UV and IR spectroscopy and chemical methods. Three new xanthanolides viz. xanthanol (1h), isoxanthanol (1c) and their C-4 epimers have been isolated from X. strumerium . From fruit new thiazinedione was isolated and characterized by a combination of spectral methods . Besides, the aerial parts of the plant contain sesquiterpene lactones [xanthinin (1e), xanthumin (1f), xanthatin (1g)], sulphated glycoside (xanthostrumarin, atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside), phytosterols [37, 38] and γ-tocopherols (1b) . The active principles of the seeds are hydroquinone, choline and iodine . The stem and leaf oil contain large amounts of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (d-limonene, d-carveol (đ-ionone, terpinolene, β-caryophyllene and p-cidymene) [41, 42].
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical including isolation of phenolic rich fraction, HPTLC analysis and Pharmacological studies on the leaves of Xanthium strumarium (linn)” was done by Miss. S. PADMA THANGA PARAMESWARI, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Master of Pharmacy in Pharmacognosy at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-20, affiliated to The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai is a bonafide work carried out by him, under my guidance and supervision during the academic year 2010-2011.
133 Read more
Leaf leachates of Cosmos and Xanthium inhibited the seed germination with increased concentrations in all selected crops with varying degree of response. For Xanthium5% and 6% concentrations showed significant changes in seed germination for all 3 crops, Wheat, Mungbean and Fenugreek whereas at lower concentrations (1%) seed germination was at par with control forXanthium. Cosmos in comparison with Xanthium showed inhibition at 5% to Wheat whereas for Mungbean and Fenugreek LC 50 was observed at 6% concentration. The graphs (Figures 1 and 2) showed a gradual decrease in germination for Cosmos as compared to Xanthium. Changing response of different plants may be due to concentration of inhibitory chemicals and mechanisms of inhibitory effects. The wheat seeds were found to be more receptive with respect to inhibition of germination than mungbean and Fenugreek cropseeds.
12 Read more
Xanthium indicum (Composite) (Xi) locally known as Ghagra, Banokra, Chota-Gokhru or Bichphal, is a coarse unarmed annual herb which grows as a gregarious weed in paddy field and by the canal or ditch bank of all the areas of Bangladesh. It is also found in India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The roots, leaves and fruits of the plant are used in Ayurvedic preparations. The leaves have diaphoretic, sedative and sudorific activity and useful in long standing causes of malaria. Root is bitter, tonic and useful in strumous diseases and different cancers like urinary cancer. Fruits are rich in vitamin C and have cooling and demulcent properties. It is given in smallpox and for eye aliments as ointment. Leaf, boiled in water is given in dysentery. Tender stems and petioles of the plant are used as vegetables. 2-4 The plant is
Xanthium strumarium is a cocklebur or burweed belonging to family Asteraceae and commonly found as a weed in roadsides, rice fields, hedges throughout the tropical parts of India. It is commonly called chotagokhru due to the shape of its fruit which look likes the cow’s toe. The whole plant is used as medicine. According to Ayurveda, the plant has cooling, laxative, fattening, anthelmintic, tonic, digestive, antipyretic activities and improves appetite, voice, complexion, and memory. It cures leukoderma, biliousness, and poisonous bites of insects, epilepsy, salivation, and fever. It is used by various Native American tribes to relieve constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting. Indigenous Chinese applications are as a headache remedy and to assist with cramping and numbness of the limbs, ulcers, and sinus problems. The plant is considered to be useful in treating long-standing cases of malaria and is used as an adulterant for Datura stramonium [1-5].
Initial examination of the isolate from case 1 revealed many crystals in association with the hyphae and ascocarps, leading us to a preliminary identification of the organism as A. cristal- liferum, originally described as having ‘‘crystalliferous setae’’ (18). However, Cannon (6) found crystal production to be variable in the ex-type culture of A. cristalliferum and con- cluded that no other features warranted specific distinction from C. strumarium. Although production of crystals was not reported for C. strumarium (6, 7, 24), our studies have shown that all isolates produce them. Their presence varies with age of cultures, temperature of incubation, and type of medium used. Other unifying features include thermotolerance, pro- duction of a pinkish exudate, presence of conidia, and a single apical germ pore on ascospores. Pigment production varied at different temperatures on different media but was most com- mon on CMA at 25 or 37 8 C. Often the pigmentation was visible only as pinkish exudate droplets on the yellowish ascomatal setae. Production of the pigment was apparent also at autopsy in case 1, in which the abscesses were described as yellow- orange and the liquefied material was described as tomato soup colored. Ascospore size varied over a considerable range, even within a single strain. In the isolate from case 1, occa- sional macrospores, which were irregular in shape and dis- tinctly larger than typical spores in the same mount, were observed. Such variation has been observed previously (6). Although we found variation among strains, we concluded that the brain isolates could not be distinguished from the ex-type cultures of A. cristalliferum and A. strumarium. Thus, we concur with Cannon’s (6) treatment of A. cristalliferum as a synonym of C. strumarium.
The results recorded in Table 1 on seed germination in sensitive test crop like mung bean indicated that Alternanthera and Xanthium leaf extract treatments (10%) were stimulatory for mung bean seed germination. However, the higher concentration treatments of extracts (15 and 20%) caused significant reduction in seed germination percentage. Similar was the trend obtained for root extracts. The effects of leaf extracts were more inhibitory than root extracts, indicating their higher allelopathic potential. The Croton leaf extracts had caused higher reduction in seed germination percentage of mung bean, the seed germination was reduced to 50% due to lower concentration (10%) treatment. Further higher concentration treatments (15 to 20 %) did not allow the seed germination at all (Table 1). The root extracts at very low concentration (5%) showed slight increase in seed germination (86.66%) over control (85.50%). But at 15% concentration and above, there was 50% reduction in seed germination. The influence of leaf extracts was more negative for the seed germination of mung bean than the root extracts.
resistance protein 1; it showed binding interaction of α- tocopherol with target protein Tyr 769, Leu 930, Pro 932, Ile 820, Thr 821, Phe 819, Asp 853, Ser 854, His 544, Thr 521, Asn 859, Pro 865 and Thr 857 amino acid residues. These interactions may inhibit the expression of MRP-1 and reduce the diabetic induced vascular dysfunction. Table 1: Binding energies of Xanthium indicum bioactive compounds towards the diabetic molecular targets in Kcal/mol. Binding affinities of plant compounds were analyzed and ranking has given according to lower energies.
There are several reports of disease organisms and/or microbial biocontrol agents of Xanthium spp. Over a dozen fungal species infect Xanthium spp. in the U.S. and Canada (Weaver & Lechowicz, 1982). The obligate parasitic rust Puccinia xanthii Schw., that occurs throughout the U.S., southern Canada, parts of Europe, and India infects several species of Xanthium and Ambrosia (Conners, 1967; Hasan, 1974; Alcorn, 1975; Jadhav & Somani, 1978). The fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare causes anthracnose on stems and leaves of X. spinosum and under optimal conditions kills plants in 14 days (Auld et al., 1990). Alternaria helianthi (Hansf.) Tubaki and
Samples were collected from plants included fruit of Datura stramonium L. and Quercus infectoria DL. As well as leaves of Solanum nigrum L. and Xanthium strumarium L. from different places Sulaimanya, Arbile and Basrah in 2008-2009 (Table 1). All the identified plant materials were dried by using air for 6-7 days, while others were dried by using the oven at a temperature of 30°C for a period of 24 hours. The dried materials were macerated and powdered in blender machine type (Moulinex, 241, France).
Commonly Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Compositae), it is a Indian system of Medicine, the various plants parts like leaves, roots, bark, roots, fruits etc are used for the treatment of diabetic, mouth ulcers, Malaria, cancer, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation etc. Hence the present investigation was under take to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extracts of Xanthium strumarium L. leaf and fruit in alloxan induced diabetic Mice to confirm the Pharmacological evidence in support of folklore claim.