Yabancı Dil olarak Türkçe / Turc comme langue étrangère / Turkish as a foreign language

Top PDF Yabancı Dil olarak Türkçe / Turc comme langue étrangère / Turkish as a foreign language:

An Assessment of the Perceived Professional Development Needs of Turkish as a Foreign Language Teachers

An Assessment of the Perceived Professional Development Needs of Turkish as a Foreign Language Teachers

Bu araştırmanın amacı, Türkiye’de yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretmenlerinin mesleki gelişim ihtiyaçlarını açıklamak ve bu alanda farklı eğitim alarak çalışmaya başlamış öğretmenlerin mesleki gelişim ihtiyaçları arasında farklılık olup olmadığını araştırmaktır. Bu amaçla ilk olarak bu alanda çalışan 160 öğretmenin mesleki gelişim ihtiyaçları anket aracılığıyla belirlenmiştir. Sonra Ankara’daki Türkçe öğretim merkezlerinden rastgele seçilen 15 öğretmenle odak grup görüşmeleri yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın evrenini Türkiye’de farklı üniversitelerdeki TÖMER’lerde ve enstitülerde görev yapan öğretmenler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma yöntemi olarak sıralı açıklayıcı karma desen kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde betimsel ve sayısal istatistik analizlerinden ve görüşmelerde ise içerik analizinden faydalanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre katılımcı öğretmenlerin, hem ölçme- değerlendirme hem de öğretim alanında mesleki gelişim ihtiyacı hissettikleri beceriler konuşma ve yazma becerileri olmuştur. Katılımcı öğretmenlerin mesleki gelişim ihtiyaçları yaş ve mesleki tecrübe, mezun olunan bölüm ve en son alınan dereceye göre farklılık gösterdiği görülmüştür. Öğretmenlerin ihtiyaçlarının mezun oldukları bölümlere göre farklılık gösterdiği gözlemlenmiştir.
Show more

15 Read more

Errors in written expressions of learners of Turkish as a foreign language: A systematic review

Errors in written expressions of learners of Turkish as a foreign language: A systematic review

Bu çalışmada, yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerin yazılı anlatımlarında yaptıkları yanlışların çözümlenmesine yönelik araştırmalar sistematik derleme yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi alanyazın taraması sonucu ulaşılan 16 makaleyi kapsamaktadır. Makalelerin bulguları içerik analizi ile değerlendirilerek sistematik derleme oluşturulmuştur. Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerin yazılı anlatımlarında yaptıkları yanlışları içeren 2010-2019 yılları arasında yayınlanmış, yayın dili Türkçe olan, örneklem grubu yetişkin ve yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenicisi olan makaleler çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Derleme sonuçlarına göre yazılı dilde yabancı öğrencilerin en sık yaptıkları yanlışın %40 oranı ile yazım ve noktalama başlıklarında toplandığı görülmektedir. Dilbilgisi yanlışları ise %34 oranda yer almaktadır. %14 oranıyla sözcük seçimi yanlışları görülürken sözdizim alanında yapılan yanlışlar ise %12 oranındadır. Tüm düzeylerde sözcük seçimi ve sözdizim yanlışları diğer alanlara oranla daha az yer almaktadır.
Show more

14 Read more

The views of teachers and students on slang in teaching Turkish as a foreign language

The views of teachers and students on slang in teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Çalışmanın amacı, yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde argonun öğrenimi ve öğretimine yönelik öğretmen ve öğrenci görüşlerini tespit etmektir. Nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden tarama modeli kullanılan araştırmanın öğrenci temelli çalışma grubunu, amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolay ulaşılabilir durum örneklemesi yöntemi ile ulaşılan yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen B1, B2 ve C1 düzeyindeki öğrenciler, öğretmen temelli çalışma grubunu ise aynı yöntem ile ulaşılan öğretmenler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın verileri, araştırmacılar tarafından öğretmen ve öğrencilerin görüşlerinin tespitine yönelik hazırlanan 2 ayrı anket ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulardan hareketle öğretmen ve öğrencilerin büyük bir çoğunluğunun Türkçe argo kelimelerin öğrenimi ve öğretimine yönelik genel olarak olumlu görüşe sahip oldukları, öğrencilerin argo kelimeleri “Türklerle daha iyi iletişim kurabilmek”, “Sokakta çok fazla argo kelime duyulması”, “Türkiye’de yaşanması”, “Merak etme” ve “Sadece daha fazla kelime öğrenme” gerekçesi ile öğrenmek istedikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu sonuca ek olarak öğretmenler, öğrencilerin bazı kelimelerin anlamlarını bilmeden kullandıkları bu durumun da onların yaşadıkları sosyal çevrede sıkıntıya sokabileceği belirtmişlerdir. Bu nedenle öğretmenlerin görüşlerinden de hareketle argonun kullanımına yönelik ya ayrı bir kitap çıkarılması ya da küfür hariç diğer argo kelimelerin derslerde öğretilmesi gerekliliği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Show more

16 Read more

Proficiency exams in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in TÖMER (Turkish and foreign languages research and application centers)

Proficiency exams in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in TÖMER (Turkish and foreign languages research and application centers)

çalışması olarak desenlenmiştir. Bu araştırmanın veri kaynağını TÖMER’lerdeki sınavlara yönelik dokümanlar teşkil ettiği için doküman analizine başvurulmuştur. Araştırma için örnek sınav vermeyi kabul eden 13 farklı TÖMER’in kur bitirme sınavları araştırmanın inceleme nesnesini oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin analizinde tümdengelimsel içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak temadan kodlara gidilmiştir. Kur bitirme sınavlarının birbiriyle uyumlu olmadığı araştırmanın genel sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu uyumsuzluk; becerilerdeki soru türleri, okuma metinlerinin sayısı ve metinlerdeki kelime sayısı, yazma becerisinde metin uzunluğu sınırı ve soru çeşitliliği, dil bilgisi sorularının olup olmaması ve sınav içindeki yeri, CEFR’e göre beceri gelişim evrelerinin sınavlarda karşılanmaması gibi hususlardan kaynaklanmaktadır. Söz konusu eksikliklerin en aza indirilmesi için bütün TÖMER’lerin uyması gereken yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretimi programına ihtiyaç vardır.
Show more

18 Read more

Accord sujet verbe et marqueurs du travail de formulation en français langue étrangère

Accord sujet verbe et marqueurs du travail de formulation en français langue étrangère

Abstract. Subject-verb agreement and fluency markers in French as a second language. Thanks to the increasing accessibility of large oral corpora, the analysis of hesitation phenomena, which we will refer to as “marqueurs du travail de formulation” (markers of formulation work), has caught the attention of many researchers and has been apprehended from various angles, often of cognitive inspiration. As far as French is concerned, there is an important literature devoted to (dis)fluency of native speakers (see among others Candea 2000), but for French L2 learners there are less studies, often characterized by a broad aim, for example regarding discourse organization and the ability to create a more or less fluent discourse (see among others studies conducted by Hilton and by Towell). The aim of our study will be more precise: we will examine the presence of hesitation phenomena in the oral productions of Dutch-speaking learners of French as a second language (FL2) in order to identify the appropriation processes of verbal morphology, specifically the conjugation and subject-verb agreement in the 3 rd person of the present indicative and
Show more

20 Read more

Teaching Turkish as a foreign language: extrapolating from experimental psychology

Teaching Turkish as a foreign language: extrapolating from experimental psychology

So far, a snapshot of the auditory-visual speech perception in the context of cross-language investigations has been presented. The main aim of this paper is to link this predominantly experimental psychological enterprise to an applied setting: L2 instruction. Recently, Erdener (2016) has outlined the main avenues through which research in auditory-visual speech perception can be utilised in the context of L2 instruction. Broadly speaking, this paper aims the same issue; however, specifically speaking, the focus of interest here is the rather neglected area of Turkish as an L2. Even more specifically, the rest of the paper will deal with Turkish instruction as an L2 in relation to auditory-visual speech perception research. The amount of auditory-visual speech perception research is extremely limited to less than a handful of studies. Therefore the paper will first present these small number of studies, then present the current methods of Turkish instruction as an L2 and propose two lines of research and hypotheses: (a) more auditory-visual speech perception research focusing on language-specific features of Turkish such as its relatively complex morphology; (b) methods of instruction beyond auditory-only channels – namely how auditory-visual speech perception research can and should be exploited to teach Turkish whose non-native learners will surely increase as part of the global and economic migratory movements and the high number of refugees expressed in millions from the Middle East who took shelter permanently or long-term in both Turkey and Cyprus. Next, attention will be paid to the language-specific features of Turkish whose instruction may be enhanced by means of auditory-visual methods rather than auditory-only methods.
Show more

10 Read more

Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

Another result of the study is that the students’ levels of foreign language anxiety, anxiety of speaking in language class, interest towards language class and academic achievement did not show any statistically meaningful difference in terms of any third language they knew other than Turkish and English. However, the students’ level of anxiety of talking with native speakers showed significant difference in terms of third language variable. Accordingly, the anxiety of talking with native speakers levels of those knowing a third language turned out to be higher than those who did not know any third language. As to multilingualism, Baker (2000) states that those who know three and four languages generally experience less anxiety in speaking in the second language, which is probably because their communicative skills must have improved as a result of exposure to other languages. Dewaele (2007) and Dewaele, Petrides and Furnham (2008) share similar results, and suggest that while foreign language anxiety and class anxiety related to second language learning are relatively high, the anxiety levels decrease with communication with more languages (as cited in Thompson & Kkawaja, 2015). In the present study, the students were asked whether they knew any other language other than Turkish and English, however there were not any questions about the number of languages the students knew, or about whether these languages were their mother languages or not. It is probable that those who reported they knew a third language other than Turkish and English thought about one of the local languages (Kurdish, Zazaki, Arabic… etc.) which are not officially taught in Turkey. It is further possible that these students in question reported they knew such Western languages as German and French which are taught at some schools generally at elementary level in Turkey. In both cases
Show more

12 Read more

The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Success in Foreign Language Learning: Case study of Albanian Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language

The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Success in Foreign Language Learning: Case study of Albanian Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language

This study focused on investigating possible relationships between multiple intelligences of Albanian female TFL (Turkish as a foreign language) learners and their success in grammar, vocabulary and writing through correlation analysis. The results revealed that the participant learners’ leading intelligence types were the logical-mathematical and the interpersonal intelligence, and the least common types were the linguistic and naturalistic intelligences. The findings also indicated that overall MI does not correlate with students’ performance in grammar, vocabulary or writing. Whereas negative correlation was found between learners’ bodily- kinaesthetic intelligence and interpersonal intelligence and their success in grammar, no relationship was detected between the other MI components and learners’ success in vocabulary and writing. Therefore, it can be inferred that factors like the nature of the participants’ mother tongue, their language learning background, and particularly the implemented instruments, may have affected the results, and should consequently be further researched.
Show more

18 Read more

Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

Bir yabancı dili öğrenmek dil kuralları ile sözcükleri öğrenmeyi ve bunlar aracılığıyla dil becerilerini kullanmayı kapsamaktadır. Kelimeler, eğitim-öğretim sürecinde, öğretmenler ve ders kitapları aracılığıyla öğrenenlere aktarılmaktadır. Ancak bu süreçte, bütün kelimelerin dersler aracılığıyla öğretilmesi mümkün olmadığından, öğrenenlerin kendilerinin de bağımsız birer sözcük öğrenen durumuna gelmesi beklenmektedir. Bu ise öğrenenlerin sözcük öğrenme stratejilerini bilmeleri ve kullanmaları yoluyla mümkün olabilmektedir. Bağımsız birer sözcük öğrenen olmaları konusunda öğrenenlere destek olmak için öncelikle onların strateji kullanım düzeylerini, hangi stratejileri kullandıklarını belirlemek ve bunların çeşitli değişkenlere göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını incelemek gerekmektedir. Bu gerek ile çalışmada, Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin sözcük öğrenme stratejilerini kullanma düzeylerini belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, tarama modelinde tasarlanan bu araştırmada veriler, Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak A1, A2, B1, B2 ve C1 seviyesinde öğrenen 169 öğrenciden toplanmıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında Kocaman ve Kızılkaya Cumaoğlu (2014) tarafından geliştirilen “Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning Strategies Scale” kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde frekans, aritmetik ortalama, standart sapma, T Testi, ANOVA ve LSD testlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenenlerin kullandıkları sözcük öğrenme stratejileri ve strateji kullanım düzeyi belirlenmiş; kullanılan stratejilerde cinsiyet, dil düzeyi, öğrencilerin geldikleri bölge, öğrencilerin uyruğu ve ana dili gibi değişkenlere göre bir farklılık olup olmadığı incelenmiştir.
Show more

26 Read more

SOURCES OF TURKISH EFL LEARNERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING ANXIETY

SOURCES OF TURKISH EFL LEARNERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING ANXIETY

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of reading anxiety experienced by Turkish EFL learners. The participants of the study were 50 first year university students studying at the English Language Teaching program of a public university in Turkey. The study employed the explanatory sequential mixed methods design. First, the quantitative data were collected through Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS), and then the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews for the purpose of better understanding quantitative data findings. For analyzing the quantitative data, each participant‟s mean score from FLRAS was computed. As for the qualitative data, the transcribed interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, for which the researcher identified the recurring themes through coding, prioritizing and connecting the pieces of data. Results indicated that the participants of the study, in general, experience a moderate level of FL reading anxiety. The following three main categories of FL reading anxiety sources were identified with their ten sub-categories: (1) personal factors (inappropriate reading strategy use, lack of self-confidence, high expectations), (2) features of the reading text (topic familiarity, unknown vocabulary, complex reading structure, text length, figurative language), and (3) reading course (compulsory reading, exam).
Show more

18 Read more

An analysis of native and foreign language competence of Turkish young learners

An analysis of native and foreign language competence of Turkish young learners

Nalan KIZILTAN graduated from Ondokuz Mayıs University in Samsun. She received her M.A and Ph.D. in the Department of Engish Linguistics from Hacettepe University in Ankara. Her doctoral dissertation is on 'Turkish Children's Literature from the linguistic perspective.Then she conducted her postdoctoral studies on Foreign Language Teacher Education at the Ohio State University in the United States of America between 1996-1997. She was awarded as a Professional Woman in America by 'Who is Who' in 2003. She was chosen for the International Board of Advisors in 2005. She has been working as an Assoc. Prof. Dr. for the Department of pre- service English Language Teacher Education at the Faculty of Education and she is the director of the School of Foreign Languages at Ondokuz Mayıs University. She was a visiting scholar to teach Turkish as a foreign language at the University of Salento, Lecce in Italy between 2008-1013. During the Academic years of 2009, 2010 and 2011, she also gave some CUM-EMUNI-CIRCEOS Master degree‟s courses on Tourism and Cultures at University Of Bari. Her articles are about children‟s literature,first and second language acquisition, language development of children, applied linguistics, teacher education and foreign language teaching. She speaks English, French and Italian.
Show more

13 Read more

View of La notion de transfert appliquée au français comme langue étrangère
							| Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

View of La notion de transfert appliquée au français comme langue étrangère | Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

La relation de transfert de loin la plus importante est celle qui relie la langue maternelle à la nouvelle langue qui s’apprend. Pour des raisons de simplicité – et conformément à la tradition linguistique – nous parlerons, sauf indication contraire, de la L2 tout court. D’un point de vue historique, on a affirmé que le transfert relève essentiellement du domaine phonétique/phonologique et lexical (Odlin, 2003, 439-441 ; Jarvis & Pavlenko 2008). Pour la relation entre le norvégien comme L1 et le français comme L2, on trouvera facilement des exemples de ce type. En norvégien, la consonne fricative s à la graphie se prononce [s], sans voisement, entre deux voyelles graphiques (et prononcées), comme dans les noms, rose, Lise, etc. Et ce contrairement à la fricative sonore du français [z] dans les mêmes contextes (suivie d'un e muet). On s’attendra alors à ce que les apprenants norvégiens du français comme langue étrangère fassent des erreurs dans leur interlangue du français comme L2 optant pour la consonne non sonore là où le français exige la consonne sonore. De tels effets sont largement attestés dans les cours du français comme langue étrangère dans les établissements scolaires en Norvège. Dans le domaine lexical, les faux amis sont également bien connus. Le mot farin en norvégien signifie sucre alors que le correspondant lexical du français farine a une signification très distincte (= grains de blé, voir Lorentzen 2010). Il en va de même pour un grand nombre de paires de mots, telles que professor (N) – professeur (F) ; konduktør (N) – conducteur (F), qui n’ont pas la même signification dans les deux langues. Des erreurs dans l’interlangue des apprenants sont dès lors prévisibles. Or, le transfert ne se limite pas à des effets de prononciation ou de signification lexicale. En effet, comme nous le verrons par la suite, le transfert peut toucher à tous les domaines des connaissances linguistiques, y compris la morphologie et la syntaxe (Jarvis 2017, Odlin & Yu 2016). Si le transfert induit à des erreurs dans la production linguistique L2 de l’apprenant, on parlera de transfert négatif (Odlin & Yu 2016). Si par contre les similarités entre la L1 et L2 facilitent l’apprentissage, on parlera de transfert positif.
Show more

12 Read more

Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

The ‘good language learner’ has been a concept approached from multifarious SLA perspectives; in addition, the way those learners handle strategies has also been observed since Rubin’s (1975) pioneering article titled “What the good language learner can teach us”. She revealed the fact that good language learners use strategies, though not in current names, and identified what strategies learners use to learn better. Recent notes from the same perspective come from a number of studies. For instance, Griffiths (2003) investigated 348 language learners and found a positive correlation between proficiency and frequency of strategy use, notwithstanding other variables. Griffiths (2010), also studied the strategy use of two successful language learners by means of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and interviews. She found that despite individual dissimilarities, both learners were found to employ strategies frequently.
Show more

12 Read more

Transfert rythmique du chinois mandarin au français dans l’apprentissage du Français Langue Étrangère : acoustique et perception

Transfert rythmique du chinois mandarin au français dans l’apprentissage du Français Langue Étrangère : acoustique et perception

Cependant, la dualité rythmique n’existe pas uniquement entre les réalités acoustique et perceptive, mais également entre une structure temporelle et une structure intensive et/ou harmonique (Astésano, 2001). Selon Fraisse (1956) et Allen (1972, dans Mairano, 2010), le rythme aurait à la base une structure temporelle sur laquelle se développeraient les variations intensives et tonales. Bien que Dell (1984, dans Astésano, 2001) mette en avant les schèmes accentuels qui, selon lui, constituent seuls la structure rythmique, la structuration de durée sert également à le définir. La hiérarchisation de deux structures du rythme va donc à l’encontre de sa conception unificatrice. Astésano (2001) propose donc de considérer le rythme comme « l’organisation temporelle des proéminences » comme dans Di Cristo & Hirst (1997). Di Cristo (2013, 2016) trouve que « le rythme linguistique se construit sur une alternance plus ou moins régulière de temps forts et de temps faibles, les temps forts étant assimilables, dans la parole, à des syllabes accentuées, et les temps faibles, à des syllabes inaccentuées », ce qui permet de « dépasser la dichotomie entre « ordre temporel » et « ordre accentuel » (Astésano, 2001). Dans le cadre de notre étude, nous définissons le rythme de la parole comme l’impression subjective créée par la récurrence des unités acoustiques similaires qui se distribuent au cours du temps de manière relativement isochronique (Grabe & Low, 2002).
Show more

15 Read more

An Analysis of Grammatical Errors in Writing Made by Turkish Learners of English as a Foreign Language

An Analysis of Grammatical Errors in Writing Made by Turkish Learners of English as a Foreign Language

Twenty students who learn English as a foreign language (L2) at Gazi university of Turkey were chosen as the subjects for this study. They were all enrolled in a writing course designed for second-year students in the academic year 2011- 2012. The students were asked to write an essay of 200 -250 words about the difficulties they face in learning English. The researcher and two other raters analyzed the written data, and then classified and identified the grammatical errors into errors in the use of tenses, in the use of prepositions, in the use of articles, in the use of active and passive voice and errors in morphology. A total of 179 grammatical errors were found. The results presented in table 1 show that the most common grammatical errors were as follows: Tenses (15%), Prepositions (28%), Articles (29%), Active and passive voice (9.5%) and Morphology (18.4%).
Show more

11 Read more

A case study on the effects of glocal second language setting on the language learning motivation of foreign learners of Turkish

A case study on the effects of glocal second language setting on the language learning motivation of foreign learners of Turkish

A perusal of relevant literature reveals that studies conducted by Turkish researchers on language learning motivation can be grouped under two categories. The first one includes studies on motivation in foreign language learning. These studies have mainly focused on the concept of motivation in the process of learning English as a foreign language in Turkish context (Göktepe, 2014; Kızıltepe, 2000; Şentürk, 2015). The second category, examples of which follow, focuses on the concept of motivation in learning Turkish as a second language. Arslan and Gürsoy (2008) examined the effects of drama activities on the motivational levels of learners of Turkish as a second language. They analyzed the language materials and proposed different techniques to increase learner motivation like the integration of role plays, puppets, and pantomime. Karababa and Karagül (2013) aimed to identify the learning styles, language skills, topics, materials, and learning contexts that learners of Turkish need in the language learning process. Conducting a needs-analysis survey with 305 foreign learners, the researchers noted that the foreign learners of Turkish expected to cover topics related to Turkish culture presented through audio-visual materials. Pointing at the importance of the same aspect, Koçer (2013) underlined the fact that developing an effective curriculum to increase learner motivation in language learning is based on a comprehensive needs analysis. Stressing the need to understand the experiences and identify the problems in the process in order to increase learner motivation, Melanlıoğlu (2014) collected data through document analysis and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that listening was the most problematic, among basic language skills, decreasing learners’ motivation. Kalfa (2015) focused on the qualifications that teachers of Turkish should have. The results of the survey completed by teachers of Turkish revealed that teachers are expected to hold a motivating attitude while teaching and maintaining a motivating learning environment. Highlighting the significance of students’ perceptions of the learning context, Çetin, Bahar and Griffiths (2017) developed a questionnaire and gathered the opinions of 319 foreign learners of Turkish regarding local culture. Though not exposing major conclusions about language learning motivation, the results revealed that the participants had overall positive experiences and perceptions.
Show more

22 Read more

A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Gender-Bound Language Use in Turkish and English Plays: Implications for Foreign Language Education

A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Gender-Bound Language Use in Turkish and English Plays: Implications for Foreign Language Education

The aim of the study is to investigate gender-bound language use in Turkish and English languages and to identify the differences and similarities across cultures and genders in the plays with family and social themes. Four English and five Turkish plays were chosen randomly for comparison. The number of words in the plays were taken into consideration for an accurate and balanced analysis. For this reason, the closeness of the number of words used by male and female characters in the plays were more important than the number of plays in total. The Turkish plays consisted of 6781 words and the English plays comprised 7091 words. Thus, in the plays considered as samples of language, a total of 13.872 words were studied with respect to the use of intensifiers, hedges and tag questions in two major groups: (1) cross gender & same culture, (2) same gender & cross culture, within the framework of Lakoff‟s (1975) proposal concerning linguistic differences between males and females. A Pearson chi-square test was conducted on the quantitative data for all the analyses. The findings of the study showed that there were significant differences only in the use of hedges. No significant differences in the use of intensifiers and tag questions within the corpus under investigation were observed between the groups. This cross-cultural comparison on English and Turkish implies that Lakoff‟s proposition regarding gender-bound language use needs further exploration. The study sheds light upon intercultural communication, and raises awareness and understanding of whether and how language use differs between different genders and cultures, which might be helpful for teachers and learners during the processes of teaching and learning English or Turkish as a foreign language. Furthermore, when the results of the study are considered from the point of intercultural communication, this investigation unveils the similarities and differences between English and Turkish languages in terms of the use of intensifiers, hedges, and tag questions.
Show more

11 Read more

Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

As it is seen in Table 7, most of the lecturers expressed that they used the communicative method in grammar teaching. This is followed by the eclectic, audio-lingual, cognitive, grammar-translation and natural methods. When these results were compared with the methods used by lecturers in language teaching, they showed that the lecturers used the methods based on teaching rules such as grammar-translation, audio-lingual and cognitive methods more in grammar teaching. It was also determined that there were lecturers who agreed with the item “Grammar rules should be taught directly…”, the item “In grammar teaching, a newly-taught rule should be associated with previously-learned rules…” and the item “To make use of various structures through memorization of dialogues in grammar teaching…” in Table 6, supporting this result. In other words, some lecturers oppose the perspective of the communicative method in grammar teaching and think that grammar rules should be taught directly. It has been determined that this result is compatible with the results of some studies carried out abroad. For example, the results of the case study carried out by Yoon, Hoshi and Zhao suggest that students consider grammar teaching necessary for academic purposes. Colombian students learning the English language as a foreign language, it was determined those students had a positive attitude to learning grammar and preferred explicit grammar teaching. In addition to this, in various studies on the opinions of teachers and students about grammar teaching [2], in the relevant literature, imitation, memorization and pattern practices are stated to be useful for a person who has just started to learn a language, supporting these results. A person who has just started to learn a language cannot suddenly comprehend all the rules of the language he has learned in a meaningful way. These rules and some sentence patterns can be memorized at first, and then made meaningful [36].
Show more

11 Read more

Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

In the present study, which aims to determine the use of metacognitive strategies for improving listening skill in teaching Turkish to Syrian children, the metacognitive strategies that Turkish educators use pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening were determined. Upon examining the metacognitive strategies that can be used pre-listening, it was found out that most of them are rarely used, and their “always” and “frequently” usage rates are quite low whereas activities pre-listening form a basis for better understanding what one listens to while preparing students for the listening text mentally and psychologically. According to Underwood (1989), the activities before listening are used to activate the preliminary information and help students prepare themselves for the listening process. Therefore, when listening lessons are planned, it is necessary to allocate time for activities pre-listening. In the process of teaching Turkish as a foreign language, language teachers may get the opportunity to get information about the preliminary knowledge, experiences and the level of using the target language of students regarding the text they will listen to with the help of these activities. According to Buck (1995), teachers should be encouraged to use pre-listening activities in order to increase students' awareness of the listening process (Quoted by Goh, 2008: 191). In this context, it is necessary to include the use of strategies pre-listening in teaching Turkish as a foreign language.
Show more

7 Read more

An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

The third important element in language teaching and learning is of course teaching materials, mostly textbooks, used in classrooms such as video, tape recorder, visual aids, charts, flashcards, overhead projector and the like. It is widely accepted that a textbook is the crucial one that should be present in language teaching as it provides, psychologically speaking, and the learner with something concrete that gives a measure of progress and achievement as lessons are completed. Furthermore, textbook in a sense is useful for teachers as they help them bring the real world into the essentially artificial classroom situation so that they can relate the language items they are teaching to actual usage and teachers need a textbook to make the best use of the time in the classroom and to avoid unintended repetition or neglect of essential language patterns. What is more, students are also used to following textbooks in their own languages for other subjects. For this reason, they have the desire to have one for the language learning, thus they can measure the rate of the progress. Taking this issue into consideration it can be stated that both teachers and students would like to have a textbook as the main teaching and learning aid.
Show more

16 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...