espite what the uninitiated might assume, there is much more to YoungAdultliterature than supernatural love triangles; writing quality YA is a difficult and time-consuming task. Although no one can deny the popularity of titles like Stephenie Meyer’s best-selling Twilight, for example, many a critic has lampooned her flimsy characters and flat writing, and the borderline-abusive relationship between the novel’s main character and her love interest has been thoroughly decried. Meyer’s novel, written in three months, took off in the YoungAdult market, but the message she sends to teens about gender roles and relationships is considered by many to be a troubling one. YA authors must consider their impressionable adolescent audience while crafting their story, and take into account young adults’ many and varied needs during a time of intense life changes. As a relatively new genre, YoungAdultliterature is still coming into its own; therefore, it has great potential to address the needs of all its readers, including members of minority groups traditionally ignored by the publishing industry. As an aspiring YA author, you must educate yourself on the concerns and needs of your audience, the current state of the YoungAdult writing and publishing industry, and the potential for that industry to change over time. Is YA truly the genre for you?
What is perhaps most interesting and note-worthy about these works of youngadultliterature is that they have gained an astounding degree of popularity among adult readers. While there is no hard data to tell us how many adults may have read these books, or what percentage of the total copies sold are being purchased by adults interested in reading the books, the literature abounds with references to the fact that adults are reading these books. Additionally, there is considerable anecdotal evidence to suggest that their popularity among adults is even more pronounced than one would suspect based solely on the academic literature, and it seems impossible that any book could sell so many millions of copies without acquiring fans among the adults who would have had to be involved in purchasing these books on behalf of young readers.
connections to their lives and experiences. While this is helpful for all students, using texts that reflect the lived experiences of students from disadvantaged backgrounds will show them that their experiences are valid and important, raising their confidence in their knowledge and boosting their motivation to read the material, even if it is difficult. The best way for ELA teachers to increase interest and motivation is to incorporate YoungAdultLiterature (YAL) into the curriculum. YAL is crucial to reaching struggling and reluctant readers from low-income families because these diverse texts often contain themes and experiences related to structural barriers and social inequity that these students can relate to and actually enjoy reading about. Using strategies with YAL that address structural barriers and other social justice issues, ELA teachers can bolster confidence and motivation in students who have struggled their entire academic career, and keep students from dropping out by opening their eyes to the power of literacy and encouraging them to finish strong and apply what they learn in the real world.
Books competition (Appendix A). During this competition, selected student teams from private and public middle schools across the state take part in a series of contests at the county, regional, and state level. The students are tested on the content of a select list of juvenile and youngadultliterature. Schools choose the members of their teams in a variety of ways, but usually the Battle of the Books list for the next year is recommended summer reading for all students interested in competing. When school resumes in the fall, students are tested on their knowledge and chosen for the team. While all students are not required to read the books on the list, the books are often found in the classroom and library. Thus, a large number of North Carolina middle schoolers are exposed to the titles.
In answering sub-question (a), three aspects were looked at; namely the relevance of the themes, the believability of the story and the presence of a positive resolution, all of which are criteria in the determination of the YAL category. Youngadultliterature reflects themes commonly experienced by adolescents and although YAL has been known to encompass a diversity of themes, they share some common traits including ‘friendship, getting into trouble, interest in the opposite sex, money, divorce, single parents, remarriage, problems with parents, grandparents, younger siblings, concern over grades or school, popularity, puberty, race, death, and neighbourhood’ (Wells, 2010). A content analysis of the winners of the Michael L. Printz Award revealed six common content trends: journeys, teenage angst leading to self- actualization, family relationships, romantic relationships, controversial issues within the content, and diversity of story characters. These thematic elements have found to be historically present in the majority of literature for young adults. (Cart, 2008) YoungAdultLiterature also explores themes that are important and crucial to adolescence such as relationships to authority figures, peer pressure and issues of diversity as it relates to gender, sociocultural, and/or socioeconomic status.
This departmental honors project outlined research that has been completed on the benefits of incorporating youngadultliterature in the secondary English Language Arts classroom and discussed the benefits of using youngadultliterature as a means of introducing students to various aspects of diversity. While youngadultliterature continues to grow in popularity among teen readers, there are many negative connotations associated with texts falling under this label and their merit within the classroom. Similarly, classroom dynamics are becoming more diverse each year through the number of students representing different races, ethnicities, ability levels, interests, socioeconomic backgrounds, genders, and more. However, there is very little
achieves its singularity status only by “exceeding genre conventions”. They are also compelling when both of them, though in different ways, speak about the death of the author, the omniscient divine figure behind the text. Barthes proposes the name of the “scriptor” to replace the authoritarian authority of the “author”; whereas Blanchot goes deeper and implies that the moment of death of the author is the very moment of his immortality. Any hint of labeling or categorization limits the text and leaves the door open to the Gramscian notion of hegemony or the Foucauldian concept of power. The endeavor in this small paper, the Influence of the Arabian Nights on YoungAdultLiterature, is based on Kristeva’s/Barthes’ notion of intertextuality 2 and Foucault’s discourse analysis. Intertextuality in the Barthian sense is
My colleague and I have found the Canadian author assignments to be beneficial in enhancing our students’ knowledge of Canadian youngadultliterature. By the end of the course, each pre-service student is in possession of 30 novel overviews linking the works to appropriate curriculum expectations, teaching strategies, and cross-curricular links. They have modeled creative ways of presenting authors, and can offer these alternatives to their future classes in place of the traditional book report format.
knowledge and innocent security—has been the major function of children’s literature” (8). Few issues have been more intimately associated with preserving childhood innocence than restricting access to sexual knowledge. Yet over the past twenty-five years, the boundary between adult and youngadultliterature has become increasingly blurred, not only because of cross-over children’s texts that adults enjoy reading, but also because of the kinds of issues now addressed in fiction aimed at youth. To provide a focal point for my discussion, I compare Shyam Selvadurai’s Swimming in the Monsoon Sea (2005) with Nancy Garden’s Good Moon Rising (1996). Selvadurai is best known for his first novel, Funny Boy
The next themes are either related to the development of the adolescent’s mind and body or are societal factors affecting their development. Concern over grades and school are related to the adolescent gaining more advanced reasoning capabilities and the fact that they spend a majority of their time in school at this age. Popularity is important to young adults because of their deep sense of loneliness, psychological vulnerability, and interest in peer relations. Puberty comes up because they are experiencing this stage in biological development and girls are reaching puberty at a younger age today (Garland 15). Race can be a factor in books written when the issue is prominent in American society, such as, the appearance of books about minorities in the 1960’s (Mertz 122). The fact that today’s schools are a mixture of many different races also influences this theme (Garland 15). Death is not a theme that is unique to youngadultliterature, but it is something with which they deal. Novels dealing with problems such as death were especially popular in the 1970’s (Cart 96). The neighborhood in which young adults live can have an impact on their lives especially those that present young adults with negative influences since they are vulnerable at this age to peer influence. Books about young adults working are appropriate since more adolescents are working today than at anytime in the past forty years (Steinberg 11), they are permitted to start working during this time, and it is part of their social training for adulthood.
Although the description of her wedding indicates that her experiencing self follows the discourses of Iranian culture, she admits that she “tempered” her Western vision and “conformed to society” and the fundamentalist regime, as she got married simply because “it was difficult to be together outside of marriage” with her boyfriend (Satrapi 312-317). These scenes explicitly show her contradictory formation of subjectivity, when she attempts to construct her identity based on Iranian discourses and Western discourses simultaneously. The last mirror-image depicts Marjane hugging her mother. She has just received her mother’s reluctant blessing of her marriage. She eventually divorces, thereby indicating that she cannot define herself as an Iranian married woman and enter into an adult community. On the other hand, she is represented as Elahi argues “by an image that underscores subjective inter-dependence. It is as if the mother’s and the daughter’s faces complete each other” (323). Her mother says, “I have always wanted for you to become independent, educated, cultured…and here you are getting married at twenty-one. I want you to leave Iran, for you to be free and emancipated…” and Marjane replies, “My sweet little mom! Trust me, I know what I’m doing” (317). Marjane’s formation of identity is in the way her mother wants her to be; she is fragmented between her own desires and her mother’s desires. Thus, the lingering question pervading the story is: Who and where is the real Marjane?
There are only two novels whose daughters are individuated at the beginning of the novel: Katherine (Forever . . .) and Simone (A Brief Chapter in My Impossible Life). They are also the only characters whose mothers are at peace with the people they are. In the other six novels, the struggle for the daughter’s individuation causes turmoil, but their mothers must also face their own demons and insecurities. Katherine and Simone, who live their lives as individuated young women, are already self-aware individuals at the beginning of their stories. They share interdependent relationships with their mothers, and are both comfortable discussing personal problems, though each daughter realizes she does not depend entirely on anyone else for her personal happiness.
I analyzed fourteen youngadult novels using latent content analysis to locate trends in friendship behaviors on the part of male and female characters. Babbie defines latent content analysis as the study of “the underlying meaning of communication”, which contrasts with manifest content analysis, or the searching of a document for “concrete terms” (2007, p. 325). Although the research conducted for my literature review gave me an idea of what trends I was likely to observe over the course of my reading, I did not determine a specific list of trends to search for ahead of time. Since I was interested in comparing the trends observed in the scholarly literature to the trends observed in the youngadult novels, I felt that it was appropriate to use a similar method of trend identification within the novels as I used when doing my literature review. As I read the selected novels, I took note of the trends I observed within each book, and then at the conclusion of my reading, I compiled lists of the trends that appeared in three or more of the books for boys and for girls. I then compared the two lists, and was able to then make a final list of similarities and differences between the male and female friendships depicted in these novels.
In supporting readers and enabling a greater level of engagement and comprehension, teachers should enable students to use decoding skills, build fluency, build and activate previous knowledge, motivate students, teach vocabulary, and give opportunities for personal responses (Pardo, 2004, p. 273-5). Pardo (2004) suggests that teachers, “create visual or graphic organizers that help students to see not only new concepts but also how previously known concepts are related and connected to the new ones” (p. 274). Vocabulary words, especially with a translated text or one of a different time period where English had different standards in writing, should be defined before the reading of a complex literary work. Knowing the diction used within the text will help more fluent reading and comprehension of the text. Students using these vocabulary words regularly in written and spoken language will be more inept to remember the words which were defined by the teacher as they read. Motivating students can seem like a daunting task to some teachers. Pardo (2004) suggests giving students texts they will enjoy. Book clubs, or literature circles, are also great ways to engage students. Students can write personal and critical responses to show creativity and engagement with the text over a selection of time.
I didn't know our parents long enough to miss them in the same way that Metias does. Whenever I cry over losing them, I cry because I don't have any memories of them. Just hazy recollection of long, adult shuffling around our apartment and hands lifting me from my high chair. That's it. Every memory from my childhood-looking out into the auditorium as I receive an award, or having soup made for me when I'm sick or being scolded or tucked into bed- those are with Metias. (Legend pp.19-20) Many of her actions are motivated by her brother as she mourns and endeavors to bring his killer to justice. When she realizes that Day is merely the government’s scape goat and she finally believes the truth from the computer files that her brother left behind, her motivation changes and she saves Day from execution. After they have escaped from the army and have found temporary safety, she is able to find closure and say goodbye to her brother.
Most of the patients developed cerebral embolism, and in one of them, this caused hemorrhage  and death. An- other patient developed multiple mycotic aneurysms , and there is also a case of young child presenting with pulmonary embolization . Another reported complica- tion was cardiac arrhythmia due to excessive inﬂammation of the conduction system of the heart in an infant who did not survive the infection .Our patient recovered and was free of complications in 3 months of follow-up.
The purpose of this short section has been to alert practitioners to the issue of bereavement support for parents whose youngadult son or daughter has died. We have described the evidence suggesting parental bereavement is a unique phenomenon with long-term consequences. Evidence from the research sites taking place in the STEPP project suggests that staff in clinics may well feel they have a limited role, constrained by issues of time, lack of expertise and concerns about professional boundaries. Parents of young adults who died without the involvement of palliative care services may be particularly at risk of their needs not being recognised.
Much research has focused on exploring the predictors of adolescent pregnancy and evaluating prevention approaches, with comparatively little work directed at understanding the needs of pregnant and postpartum adolescents or explor- ing the continuum of risk among ado- lescent, youngadult, and adult women. This study used a nationally repre- sentative sample to address this gap by comparing a wide array of maternity experiences between adolescents and nonadolescents in Canada. As such, it extends previous work that has described the demographics and characteristics of Canadian adolescent mothers. 41 Despite