By highlighting youth voice, this study has captured the experience of a small group of young people engaged in a youth organizing context and has helped challenge the notion that youth— especially those who are marginalized due to their ethnic background— are disengaged. What is more, the ideas embedded within the new framework have the potential to move us “beyond the conventional boundaries of civicengagement” (Haste, 2007, p. 21) and therefore present some exciting possibilities regarding the direction of youthengagement research. Not only could the framework be examined in different youth organizing settings, it could also be used by youth workers and civic educators as a way to think about new engagement strategies. The study also raises questions about the relationship between gender, socioeconomic status, school environment, and youthdevelopment in a youth organizing setting. In addition, findings seem to suggest that the YCOs’ development is related to the adult organizers’ ability to help them grow in their underdeveloped areas along with their peer- to- peer interactions with their fellow organizers and community members. All of these questions were outside the scope of this study and would provide fruitful areas for further investigation here.
A part from general development the social ecological theory has also been used to explore specific behavior among youth. For example, Famer (2006) also supported the idea of a multi-level analysis of pro-social behaviors in regards to civicengagement among Black youth. Farmer (2006) identified this framework as the ecology of civicengagement for African Americans. Similar to the original theory this perspective supports the idea that behavior is greatly impacted on multiple levels. Farmer (2006) emphasizes the impact of personal characteristics related to social capital and stake in the community micro level). Second, collective cooperation and social networks (mezzo level) as they relate to micro level factors. Finally, organizational institutions and social organizational involvement (macro level) were also highlighted as key influencers on civicengagement among black youth (Farmer, 2006). In conclusion, the social ecological theory implies that a multitude of factors contribute to the shaping young people’s individual and collective worldview Getting youth involved in community building, service, and political activities are the best ways that they can be taught to properly understand how to navigate their social networks.
inclusive civicengagement in action can be found in Kirwan’s work in its home community of Columbus, Ohio. “More Than My Brother’s Keeper” (MTMBK) is a program run in partner- ship with key community anchor institutions, including the local children’s hospital and a neighborhood community-development collabora- tive. The program supports at-risk African Ameri- can male youth (ages 10 to 14) and their families residing on the south side of the city. MTMBK incorporates both experiential learning and inten- sive mentoring to help kids discover their own assets and build relationships of mutual trust with each other and with the Kirwan (and other partner) staff and community members. While Kirwan leads conversations among community stakeholders to address issues of affordable and safe housing, food access, and healthy and diverse “third places,” 4 the
common practices such as didactic teaching and rote memorization as well as disconnection from students’ daily lives. This is especially the case for Palestinian and other refugee students who are invisible in the curriculum. While pedagogical practices are dominated by didactic forms of pedagogy – with a focus on knowledge of political institutions and the inculcation of patriotism – there is a growing awareness and interest in learner-centered approaches. However, the subject sufers from relatively low status in the curriculum, with little resource dedicated to teacher-training or curriculum development. With regards to informal civic learning, Lebanon has a history dating back to the early 20th century of youth political mobilization. When national movements were mobilizing for independence in the 1920s, youth organizations were set up in Lebanon. In the 1950s and 1960s, governments promoted youth organizations with the policy aims of promoting economic development. There is an active civil society in Lebanon, where civil society organizations, on the one hand, protest against government, but also often take over the role of the state’s welfare provision. Youth organizations can be broadly categorized into ‘conformist’ – supporting the main political sectarian groups, ‘alternative NGOs’ focusing on youth-relevant issues, and ‘activist’ – emerging and dynamic coalitions (Harb, 2018). Non-formal civic learning and participation are often funded through international and Western initiatives framed in terms of democracy promotion, with funding for youthengagement prioritized to local NGOs. However,
Overall, the project provided participating teachers with the strategies and tools necessary to teach civics in the classroom, infused cultural competence to address the needs of minority students, and assessed teacher and student knowledge of civics. Specifically, among the resources provided by this civic education project was a summer institute for teachers and school administrators, including 5 days of training in the areas of civic education, U.S. politics, culturally relevant instructional practices, and leadership. This summer institute was offered before the 2008 presidential election. Also, the teachers received an interactive CD-ROM about civic education, a DVD series on democracy, model lessons plans, books, and other materials to integrate into instruction and enhance the learning experience in their classrooms. Throughout the school year, ongoing professional development occurred via face-to-face and virtual seminars and school-based professional learning communities.
A search in Google Scholar using keywords 'civicengagement' (and its variant civic participation, duties, involvement) and India yielded 709 articles in the field of social sciences and sixty-seven articles in humanities published since 1991. Out of thisonly twelve articles and books dealt directly with civicengagement. A significant number of these publications have focused on communal-religions conflict and cooperation and the roles of social capital, especially associational linkages between citizens and communities. Youthengagement has also received considerable attention in the literature in line with international studies on the topic. Most of these articles and books covered multiple themes. The first section of the narrative review provides the historical trajectory of civicengagement. The next section presents the main findings organized around seven major themes: 1) Social Capital 2) Communal Question 3) Voluntary Associational Membership 4) Caste and Social Capital 5) Youth and Civic Skill Development 6) Health and, 7) CivicEngagement in Immigrant Communities.
The study also showed that in general, the respondents were not frequently engaged in both political and civic activities. In light of this finding, low citizen participation needs to be addressed to ensure a functioning and healthy democracy. To achieve a developed nation status, Malaysia not only requires economic prosperity but also political stability, especially considering the status quo. Lastly, the study found that youth‟s digital engagement has a moderately positive and significant relationship with their political and civic participation. The findings of this study have shown the power of Internet in mobilizing young people to become more involved in political and civic activities, even if they are just basic users. This is in line with past studies that established a positive relationship between Internet uses and participation. The challenge, therefore, is to turn basic users to advanced users so that the nation not only benefits from but also contributes to both sociopolitical and economic development.
Regardless of position in society, teenagers are developmen- tally inclined to raise questions about why certain rules are in place and whether they must be there (Turiel, 2002). As discussed earlier, anger at perceived injustices in the system is one of many natural responses, and many argue for the importance of acknowledging and engaging adolescents’ critiques of society in civic education. Part of channeling anger into action involves some sense of hope that something can be different. It is interesting to see how the angry language in immigration nation, (“Get rid of this jerk!”) is targeted toward an individual. Opportunities to channel words— “That’s not fair!” or “People are getting hurt!”— into actions to change policy provide an option to play with the system, not just within the system.
The earliest American universities, founded around the time of the American Revolution, were the colonial colleges, modelled on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge -- institutions such as Harvard, Princeton and Yale. Their earliest students were destined for religious ministry and the leading professions. Their curricula, because of this, focused on the moral and intellectual development of their students. When virgin lands were first farmed in the mid-west, the land-grant universities were founded, facilitated by the Morrill Act of 1863 in the Lincoln Presidency. They contributed to public higher education within the colleges and through their outreach and extension services they educated potentially all citizens of each individual state. The concepts of ‘outreach and ‘service’ were added to universities’ role. Land-grant universities initially specialised in agriculture. Faculties of engineering, medicine and law, congruent disciplines, were added to their service / outreach mission. The land-grant university worked to develop all aspects of rural and urban life through a combination of applied research and learning. Essentially the universities’ agents were disseminating expertise; universities at the time were seen as sole repositories of knowledge and the extension or outreach process brought that knowledge to the States’ citizenry. Community development featured strongly in their programmes. Land grant universities’ contribution as a response to the needs of the times is impressive. For much of the last century, research came to dominate the mission of virtually all American universities; teaching and outreach were secondary. World War II brought significant contributions from university scientists and engineers to the war effort and initiated the primacy of research. Research predominated – as it currently does in Irish third level institutions – and proved to be the determinant of promotion within academia. Research in the positivist tradition was lodged in the domain of the academic and the pressing prospect for communities to enquire into matters of concern to their members - in contrast to matters of concern to researchers - remained difficult to realise until the last twenty years. Consciousness of context therefore appears to be the key.
Contemporary formulations of science are increasingly moving towards more pluralistic approaches that encour- age public participation in science. These include research methods that celebrate porous and reciprocal engagement between scientists and the public such as deliberative democracies and participatory action research, as well as government funding priorities that include knowledge translation, mobilization, and exchange initiatives that en- courage engagement between scientists and lay citizens . The imperative of democratizing science is not only logical, but also socially conscientious, as the citizens who bear the costs and burdens of scientific advance should be informed and involved in its development and application . Moreover, public engagement in science and science policy aligns with the values of accountability and trans- parency, and is thought to be a tool for promoting public trust in technology development [32, 33].
Mulenga (2001) proposes the use of case studies in research having become more popular because it provides the opportunity to examine a complex phenomena, “through a detailed analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships” (p. 130). Creswell (2003) describes the researchers’ role within a case study to “explore in depth a program, an event, an activity, a process, or one or more individuals. The case(s) are bounded by time and activity” (p. 15). Stake (2000) advocates that a case study focus on one specific context that may be simple or complex. The specific context has an overall purpose with integrating parts within it. And finally, the context has a defined structure or order to it. The importance of a case study is to understand how and why occurrences happen within the construct. To understand the construct, it requires in-depth exploration of the interdependencies of all the parts and to identify emerging themes within the construct of the study (Mulenga, 2001). The context of this study took place within an extended period of time. It was a complex process of events that had a defined order for how the process was carried out within the context. Therefore, the blended phenomenological case study research design assisted me through the exploration process of this study. The blended approach allowed me the opportunity to explore the holistic process of the Youth Partnership component within the Sustainable Community Partnership Project, as well as identify emerging themes throughout the phenomena.
that considerable progress has been made in Ireland to develop civicengagement, albeit with few resources and uneven manifestations of strategic vision. In general, growth and developments appear to be ascribable to individuals within the different institutions, who are personally motivated regarding civicengagement so that growth has occurred ‘organically’ through the endeavours of these individuals rather than being driven by institutional leadership. However, it is a concern within Campus Engage that the ‘labour of love’ underpinning this organic growth will soon reach its limits. In addition, because of the way that practice has evolved, there is currently uneven development across the HE sector. A minority of HEIs have strategically embraced civicengagement and have made it a distinctive component of their core business. But the majority of HEIs report that activities occur on an informal and/or ad hoc basis and sometimes covertly or ‘under the radar’. While in some instances civicengagement underpins the ethos of the HEI, it is not always documented or formally referenced within the HEI strategic framework. It is entirely possible that without proper resource allocation this unevenness will not be eradicated, but will over time, become exacerbated. The institutions that currently demonstrate strength may continue to flourish and grow, and be well-placed to enhance their own national and international reputation. We feel that this could be a missed opportunity for the
Everyone has a story to tell. Thirty years ago, there was a group of creative writers who wanted to share the joy of stories with children. They grabbed their pencils and paired up with public school teachers to form Writers in the Schools (WITS). WITS poets and authors make learning an exciting adventure, while improving the academic, social, and creative abilities of 23,500 children and teachers each year. WITS is the top-rated arts education organization in Texas and the leader of an international movement for creative learning, expanding from schools into libraries, museums, parks, hospitals, community centers, and summer camps. Recently, WITS has expanded from "page to stage,” helping youth explore their truths through performance poetry and the acclaimed program, Meta- Four Houston.
The team behind UWE Green Space aim to protect, maintain and improve valuable areas of woodland in the local area. Students volunteer on a fortnightly basis to tackle a particular area of woodland with the aim of restoring respectability and beauty. Splatts Abbey Wood and Sims Hill are in close proximity to Frenchay campus and those behind its preservation are always grateful for the support and efforts of students from UWE Bristol. The volunteers set about tidying, reshaping and organizing a pond area at Sims Hill. They transformed the area into a more socially viable and friendly destination. Many other gatherings have resulted with a similar success – making the woodland areas a safer, more attractive area for people to enjoy. The projects started last year and David Bell from Splatts Abbey Wood claimed he ‘can’t believe how successful it was’ and that UWE volunteers have been ‘amazing’ in their efforts to preserve and improve local woodland areas. They offer students the opportunity to lead a project for the day to enhance their management skills for future employability, but also to encourage direct influence in helping their environment. The work is critical considering the development pressures that threaten the woodland areas. David
The ten articles of this special issue particularly pick up the theme of participation and online civicengagement from a number of perspectives: deploy the concept of civic practices and identities in regard to media and citizenship and link them with the notion of power; situate civic tendencies and tensions in socio-cultural context by considering technology as architecture; comparisons of the credibility of Public Service Media with that of Online Social Networks and assessments of the necessity of Public Service Broadcasters’ online activities; the shaping of political election campaigns; political attention and climate change activism; the issue of social networks and privacy; government initiatives in the online world; quality of mobilization in e-Participation; the articulation of participation-based local politics and the development of a common space within the European Union. These themes highlight some key concerns relating to the new online media, information inequalities, democracy and citizenship. The range of topics covered in this issue demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of the project.
The new online technologies can certainly contribute to civicengagement by providing access to discussion forums, enhancing deliberation and empowering individuals. The unprecedented expansion of Online Social Networks such as Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn and Twitter offers vast opportunities for communication, entertainment, deliberation and discussion. These online forums differ from traditional media, such as Public Service Media, in that they allow more interactivity and many-to-many communication. But they have some similarities to Habermas’ traditional concept of the public sphere: net spheres are public places that are outside of control by the state; they allow individuals to exchange views and knowledge as well as critical points of view; they are spaces where public-minded rational consensus can be developed. At the same time, cyber-media are not confined to frequency bandwidth; any one can be a ‘publisher’ (ability to voice one’s opinion; collective action); they provide access (to all with internet account); they are self-generating social networks, allowing networks to form from participation, rather than structuring relationships from the top.
with the advisory board of Engagement Global. The only targets of the six targets for the years 2015 to 2016 that are solely regarding substantial work on civicengagement and development issues are Target 1: support of development political core objectives and Target 6: sustainability. All other targets are mainly or at least partly concerned with administrative issues. Target 2: corporate development only includes administrative indicators that have to be fulfilled. These indicators concern the PAM, evaluations of services, demand another management for contact and requests similar to PAM and an inquiry of staff requirements as well as a survey about the satisfaction of the partners. Further the indicators of target 2 call for a concept for better counselling and Engagement Global has to develop more approaches to simplify processes. Also target 3: quality assurance, control of success and efficacy have administrative indicators; the efficacy of the Engagement Global’s work shall be improved. The same hold for target 5: revision and report on expenditure of funds. There are no indicators for this target but the target itself demands continuous editing of reports on expenditure of funds. It shows off, that after four operative years, there are still many targets concerned with administration of the agency and construction of internal administrative processes. And these target are to be fulfilled until the end of 2016, which means that Engagement Global has completed its fifth operative year. Some employees who are mainly concerned with the administrative parts of the corporate objectives would rather like to return to the work they did before the reform (A. Krug, personal communication, 16 July 2015).
they’re not distracted by being hungry. Similarly, stating permission to take water breaks gives the youth autonomy to elect that option when they need it. TSCs attend to physical safety by helping students with long hair to tie it back when using tools that spin (fieldnote, 10/16/18) and reminding them to wear eye and hearing protection when using tools (all sessions). TSCs also model attention to physical safety when testing youth-built projects by being the first ones to ride in or on them to ensure that they’re structurally sound (fieldnotes 11/13/18 & 11/15/18). The pedagogical concern for physical safety and comfort has positive impacts students’ engagement hooks, 1999). For example, when using power tools, the attention to physical safety helps to overcome initial nervousness about tool use and allows students to express excitement and encourage others. When using the chop saw, students were highly engaged and reminded their friends of safety procedures, such as the “ready call” before initiating tool use (fieldnote, 9/24/18). Furthermore, they expressed their confidence in what they had just learned by mirroring the role of the facilitator for their peers. The learning taking place is embodied and self-actualizing in the ways the students are fully present and actively excited about their personal growth as individuals and as a collective.
voting and protest activities between the group of unemployed young people and those in education and in work ( , ). Gender differences in political involvement have been much debated as well as examined empirically although results have often been mixed and inconsistent . One factor with growing significance for social inequalities among youth is family background. The lack of access to jobs and the prolongation of studies, the housing market crisis and rising student taxes make young people more dependent on their parents. The intergenerational transfer of wealth, emotional and practical support help to alleviate the high costs of youth unemployment, but it also acts as a mechanism for rising social inequality because there is an intergenerational transmission of poverty and insecurity. Social research has encountered a correlation between social disadvantage and higher acceptance of violence in demonstrations as the only way to influence decision-makers (: 79). Another explanatory factor has been sought in the influence of religion on the forms and contents of young people’s non-institutional political participation. There is evidence that religion is seen as offering solutions to social problems in the Middle East and North Africa and is high on the agenda of youth protests there. Within religious communities there is significant differentiation in the tolerance towards violence . What is more, we can expect that similar trends might have a diverse impact on youthengagement in different national contexts.
Thus, interventions that group antisocial youth must be deliberate in their design to engender positive effects. For example, interventions for antisocial youth that incorporate group formats, community-like (as opposed to institutional) settings, and family-style treatment have evidenced increases in youth’s academic performance, improved youth’s attitudes about themselves and their futures, as well as enriched youth’s relationships with the adults involved in their treatment program (Gwynn et al., 1988; Handwerk et al., 2000). Additionally, interventions for antisocial youth in residential settings that group together peers with similar attributes and skills (thus, providing all group members the opportunity to function as leaders and equals instead of inferior, problem makers) enable youth to develop and exhibit prosocial skills (Farmer, Stuart, Lorch, & Fields, 1993). Further suggestions for interventions targeting groups of antisocial youth include integrating aggressive youth into programs that contain high numbers of prosocial youth (Dishion et al., 1999; Dodge et al., 2006). Also, it is important to remain mindful of antisocial youths’ developmental age as well as to their susceptibility to peer pressure. Additionally, negative peer cultures exert less influence when treatment is structured and includes close, adult supervision to prevent