Sometimes when trying to discover Zigbee, there may occur an error like - 'Could not find any device in port COM6 >For input string: "ERROR" or error initializing device parameter = connection timeout or could not find device parameter' then the error may be because of the incorrect baud rate. For this, connect the modem using FTDI cable to the PC, open XCTU, select the COM port and multiple baud rates like 9600, 115200, 57600 then search for the radio module and possibly there the radio module can be found. But if not found, then open XCTU legacy (old version), select the possible baud rate and in the modem configuration window select the correct modem firmware/ function set, then enable „always update firmware‟ and select write. After that, when the info box (action required) appears, then reset the Zigbee by connecting RST to GND or simply unseat the Zigbee and again place on seat. Now info box will disappear. It will then re-flash the radio modules automatically.
This project is about SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system based on wireless sensor network. This project focuses on monitoring at supervisory level. This SCADA system will operate using the IEEE 802.15.4 which is the new wireless standard, low cost wirelesscommunication with moderate data rates. It is intended to be used in embedded applications for home/office automation, industrial control and sensor networks. Mostly these days the focus in the wireless area is on very high speed and long range applications. This project describes how Zigbee is suitable for wireless sensor networks in logistic telemetry applications. This system will be using the wireless sensors system to send and receive the data from work plant. The ZigBee system use a battery as its power supply and it saved our money.
ZigBee е нова безжична технологија која ги комбинира тековните технички достигнувања на останатите безжични сензорски мрежи. Оваа технологија има поголеми комуникациски растојанија помеѓу јазлите, различни видови на вмрежување, ниска потрошувачка на енергија и ниска сложеност, како што е прикажано во Табела 1. Исто така, ZigBee технологијата е доста ефтина за инсталација и одржување во споредба со другите безжични сензорски мрежи и не бара централен јазол за пренос на податоци помеѓу кластери. Иако ZigBee безжичната мрежна технологија има многу ниска брзина за пренос на податоци (250 kbps) за слика, глас и видео комуникација, таа е способна да обезбеди мрежни апликации за пренос на податоци помеѓу јазли кои можат да бидат од големо значење за зголемување на безбедноста и ефикасноста при работа во рудниците за подземна експлоатација.
Recent developments of electronic devices domain of personal gadgets, sensing and wirelesscommunication technologies bring together development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) (Crosby, Ghosh, Murimi, & Chin, 2012). As WBAN is technology closer to human body which gather and send vital signal of users, it is important to keep the privacy and originality of the data collected by these network.
2.Department of Communication Engineering , Iraq University College, Basra, Iraq Abstract
Sensor networks have been a wide research area, during the last years. Wireless sensor networks are distributed network structures in which many sensors connect wirelessly to communicate with one another. In this paper the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee is used due to its low-power, rate and cost which allows the communication of two way wireless sensor network. In this paper IEEE 802.15.4 performance is analyzed based on OPNET simulator which allows the abilities of generating correct results and analysis to identify the actual behaviour of the real system. With this simulator program, the effect of performance parameters like throughput, data traffic received and data traffic sent for three system topology scenarios are presented.
API Mode. However, this mode consumes energy when people change configuration on the destination address every time.
2.4 Mesh Networking
A mesh network is a local area network, it consist of at least three nodes. In these nodes, there is at least one coordinator and several routers. Figure 3 gives an example of a simple mesh network. For a mesh network, it is more flexible and reliable than a peer-to-peer network that is because if one node in this network is failed, the data can also send out with other nodes. The failed node will not cause a big problem in the process of communication in the wirelessnetwork /10/.
MSc Research Student, Department of Computer Engineering, Alnahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
The proposed system in this paper describes the design and implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based on ZigBee technology to monitor the history and current temperature information of remote locations. The system is an electronic embedded system that contains: Base Station with coordinator ZigBee, End nodes with router ZigBee, and host computer as a data base (DB) server. The base station is responsible for data collecting, a display for end node sensor readings, and TCP/IP communication with the host computer. End nodes are directly connected with sensors and transmitting the readings of these sensors to the base station. The host computer is responsible for building a data base from end nodes sensor readings. The Microcontroller Units (MCUs) from Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) family have been used and the firmware has been developed using C language with MikroC Pro which is a full-featured ANSI C Compiler for Microchip PIC MCU as a development environment.
OPNET has been used to design tree self-organizing multi-hop network model based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and the network formation time, data frame transmission performance, throughput, failure and recovery of equipment are simulated . The medium access control (MAC) layer was optimized and designed, and the performance of a sensor network was analyzed for the MAC layer of different competition mechanisms [2,3]. The ZigBeenetwork simulation system based on OPNET adopted ZigBee models of OPNET [4,5], which had disadvantages of difficulty in modeling, overhead, network delay, poor scalability, unguaranteed network access to all nodes, authenticity of communication radius, and other issues . It is difficult to be applied in practical application areas which have high performance requirements, such as high reliability and less network delay. In addition, failures and recoveries of nodes cannot be simulated according to needs of tests, when performing a large-scale sensor network test by using ZigBee models of OPNET. When interval of frame-generating is small, and length of information has large increase, some nodes will appear continuous automatic failures or abnormal simulation.
KEYWORDS:ARM 7, Temperature, Zigbee, WSN etc…
I. I NTRODUCTION
Mobile technology and recent research on embedded technology leads to develop intelligent device, all pervasive and effectively invisible to the user. As the field of communication networks continuous to evolve a very interesting and challenging area of wireless sensor networks is rapidly coming of age,.A wireless sensor network (WSN) senses the environmental parameters such as humidity, temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to pass their data through the network to a remote location. This data is monitored and controlled from this remote location. The military application motivated the wireless sensor development such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring .
Circuit is powered by a battery of 12v=1Amp, as project we require +5V regulated power supply with maximum cur-rent rating 500mA. To step down the mains 230V A.C. step down transformer is required. Step down transformer gives out well regulated +5V output, output current capability of 100mA. Microcontroller PIC18f8520 is the heart of the circuitry. It is the main block which takes the inputs and processes it and gives the output. All the other blocks work in accordance with the microcontroller. MAX RS232: The Serial communication is used to transfer data between the zigbee device and the microcontroller. MAX RS232 is used for this purpose. ZIGBEE TRANSNMITTER: It transmits the signal which is connected to RS 232 interface. It works on 2.4 GHz frequency with the serial interface. ZIGBEE RECEIVER: It receives the signal which is connected to RS 232 interface. It works on 2.4 GHz frequency with the serial interface. MAX RS232: The Serial communication is used to transfer data between the mobile device and the microcontroller. MAX RS232 is used for this purpose. Microcontroller PIC18F4520 is the heart of the circuitry. It is the main block which takes the inputs and processes it and gives the output. All the other blocks work in accordance with the microcontroller. LCD display can be interfaced with microcontroller to read the output directly. In our project we use a two line LCD display with 16 characters each. VOICE PROCESSOR (AP333A3) device offers true single-chip voice recording, non-volatile storage, and playback capability for 11minutes.
1.1 Evolution of Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN) Standardization
The cellular network was a natural extension of the wired telephony network that became persistent during the mid-20th century. As the need for mobility and the cost of laying new wires increased, the motivation for a personal connection independent of location to that network also increased. Coverage of large area is provided through (1-2km) cells that co-operate with their neighbors to create a seamless network. Cellular standards basically aimed at facilitating voice communications throughout a metropolitan area. During the mid-1980s, it turned out that an even smaller coverage area is needed for higher user densities and the emergent data traffic.
Keywords—ZigBeewirelessnetwork, ARM and PCB board
The wireless sensor network has been developing rapidly with the development of computer technology, sensor technology and modern communication technology. In terms of development, Internet technology provides a unified communication basis, and greatly improves the efficiency of communication among people. However, with the development of Internet of Things technology, the traditional Internet technology can no longer meet the people’s need to access information. While, the development of wireless sensor network has greatly promoted the people’s ability of information acquirement and perception, which can effectively acquire various information in the physical world, and make such information be widely used in national defense, indus- trial control, intelligent medical treatment, modern agriculture, etc. The ZigBee tech- nology is a communication protocol standard that is developed based on small wire- less networks , and has great application prospect in smart home and commercial building automation, as the ZigBee protocol matures gradually, especially in recent years .
large number of sensors and wires. The system uses long wires it becomes complex and the installation cost also will go high. The best solution to reduce the complexity and the cost is to use wireless sensor netwoks. WSN has its own advantages like less cost, size, low power consumption and above all flexibility. Zigbee has carved a niche for itself among the galaxy of wireless technologies. As Zigbee protocol is available with its unique features like low cost and other advantages, it is used widely for agricultural applications. This Zigbee protocol allows the communication between the control unit and the actuator unit in order to monitor and control the environment inside the polyhouse. Zigbee has many advantages over other wireless networking protocols, but it has got its own disadvantages such as batteries need to be replaced on periodic basis  and one cannot completely rely on Zigbee for long distance communication. The battery problem can be reduced to some extent by using alkaline batteries.
To overcome this problem we make system like whenever lights gets cut off suddenly and it is interrupted for some time then small loads are automatically in on state condition but big loads may off for time when lights recovers itself .Using some wireless sensor x-bee protocol we make that methodology. It is very easy to understand and for economically it may also moderate. We create a wireless sensor network having number of nodes which communicate with each other in full duplex mode. Here we using the x-bee wirelesscommunication so its main point is that x-bee is require very less power, we can operate that sensor using battery too. There are one controlling and one end devices for managing the power. The loads are controlled by end devices and this project will differentiate and to control the devices on the basis of power consume by the loads and their demand for efficient use of electrical power.
A variety of systems for monitoring and functional assessment for elderly care have been proposed and developed in recent times. Other than camera, infrared based Small Motion Detectors(SMDs), passing sensors, operation detectors and MEMS based motion sensors have been incorporated in the house for monitoring the human activity behavior  and the interpretation of human activity is limited to only to a few human activities. There are a number of projects available on wearable health Devices . Systems using RFID communication technology in eldely center were introduced [5, 6]. Though these devices are for specific purposes, they have severe concerns related to security, privacy and legal aspects . Systems like remote human monitoring using wireless sensor networks [8, 9]. Technology could assist with transitions from one level of care to the next and help prevent premature placement in expensive assistance domains .To deal with issues such as monitoring the daily activities, performance tracking of normal behavior and well-being of the elderly living alone a system which is noninvasive, flexible, low-cost and safe to use is designed and developed. An initial decline or change in regular daily activities can be identified by the home monitoring system and trigger messages to the appropriate care provider about the changes in the functional abilities of the elderly person.
KEYWORDS: LPC2148 ARM7 Development Board, zigbee module, GSM SIM 800 modem, wireless sensor network I.INTRODUCTION
Day by bay sensing technologies has expanded and widely used in different applications, sensor devices have become cheaper. It has led to a fast elaboration in structural condition monitoring of systems using various sensor devices. Main factors are the recent innovation in networking technology such as zigbee based wirelesscommunication and cell phone ad-hoc networking coupled with technology to integrate devices. WSN (i.e. wireless sensor network) used for monitoring structural health of the railway structure such as railway tracks, rail bridges, track beds, rail boogies, and track equipment along with railway health monitoring such as chassis, wagons, boogies and wheels. The rail accidents are occurring due to misalignment of rail tracks, wheel irregularities. The train wheels wear over time and also suffer flat wheels and out-of-round wheels. WSN condition monitoring minimizes human presence in the actual rail field area and also reduces maintenance through detecting faults before they become more critical and hence it improves safety and also reliability. This is very essential for the expansion, upgrading, and development of railway networks.
ZigBeewirelesscommunication is transparent to the user, which is not convenient for the user to know the consecutive data information in a real-time system. We need a friendly interface to observe the information in the wirelessnetwork. ModBus protocol is widely used in industrial monitoring and test, which is an applica- tion layer messaging protocol, positioned at level 7 of the OSI model, that provides client/server communica- tion between devices connected on different types of buses or networks . In the plant physiological eco- logical monitoring system, the information transmis- sion between the coordinator and PC by ModBus pro- tocol, we can easily observe the real-time data from the remote field-device. This paper presents the method to implement ModBus protocol based the TI ZigBee stack, and the plant physiological ecological system hardware platform and test results are proposed.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) can form a useful part of the automation system architecture in modern greenhouses.
Wirelesscommunication can be used to collect the measurements and to communicate between the centralized control unit and the actuators located at the different parts of the greenhouse. Compared to the cabled systems, the installation of WSN is fast, cheap and easy. Moreover, it is easy to relocate the measurement points when needed by just moving sensor nodes from one location to another within a communication range of the coordinator device. Furthermore, if the greenhouse flora is high and dense the small and light weight nodes can even be hanged up to the plants’ branches.
Therefore, a ZigBee WSN simulation model based on OPNET is proposed to support mobile nodes, which optimizes the network function of nodes and keeps the network open when nodes move.
ZIGBEE SIMULATION MODELFOR SIPPORTING MOBILE NODES ZigBee technology divides network nodes into three classes, coordinator, router and end device. Coordinator and router use the AODV routing algorithm to forward the data, which can support the mobile network, and do not need to change the network address dynamically. End device is a kind of streamlined function device that does not participate in the process of selecting a routing path. When an end device moves out of the communication range of a parent node, it cannot communicate with other nodes. Therefore, a network layer protocol model and a neighbor table maintenance mechanism based on improved AODV routing algorithm are proposed by the use of maintaining a neighbor table for ZigBee nodes and broadcasting the HELLO information periodically by the router that use the AODV algorithm. So that, ZigBee end device could select routing paths by itself, and do not need to refactor the network to access network again, when it lost the connection with parent node. Algorithm steps of the model are shown as follow steps.
biotelemetry. Biotelemetry is based on the principle of the use of electronic information and communication technologies for health care provision in the cases when the patient and the doctor are away from each other. Biotelemetry refers to the utilization of telecommunication technology for medical diagnosis, treatment, and patient care . Recent technological advances have enabled the introduction of a broad range of telemedicine applications, such as tele- radiology [2, 3], tele-consultation , tele-surgery , remote patient-monitoring [6, 7], and health-care records management  that are supported by computer networks and wirelesscommunication. In parallel with the rapid developments in the wirelesscommunication and networks, biotelemetric systems making use of these also improve. Biotelemetric systems of the healthcare field aim at enabling doctors to be more effective in the treatment processes. In the biotelemetry applications, wireless biotelemetry systems are preferred more than the others as they allow monitoring the living organisms in their natural habitats by not restricting their movements.