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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN.

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN.

Zone of Inhibition in Bacteria (mm): The average inhibition zone for methanol extract (25.31mm) was established to be extra valuable than the average inhibition zone of ethanol extract (19.72 mm). The mean aqueous extract showed low antibacterial activity with inhibition zone 7.77 mm ranging between 1-11 mm. It is oblivious from the findings that the methanolic extract was more potent than the rest of the extracts. It may be due to the occurrence of different phenolic and polyphenolic compounds 23 . The low antibacterial activity of aqueous extract is concurrence with the earlier study which mentioned that the aqueous extract of Jatropha has little activity against the test bacteria. It may be due to the insolubility of the various organic compounds in water which were responsible for antimicrobial activities 24-28 reported that the methanolic root extract of Jatropha curcas showed antimicrobial potential against those bacteria causing urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases.
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BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLE FROM VITEX TRIFOLIA MEDICINAL PLANT AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES

BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLE FROM VITEX TRIFOLIA MEDICINAL PLANT AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES

The antibacterial activity of Vitex Trifolia plant extract with gold nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Nutrient agar media was prepared and poured into the petri plates and allowed to solidify. Then it was inoculated with a swab of culture and spread through out the medium uniformly with a sterile cotton sweb.A sterile filter paper disc was prepared and dipped with plant leaf extract (Acetone, Petoleum ether, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Distilled water). and then placed on the surface of agar plates. All the plates were incubated at 37oc for 24h. After incubation measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition around the well.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT EXTRACT - AMLA [Phyllanthus emblica L.] TULSI [Ocimum tenuiflorum L.] NEEM [Azadirachta indica A.JUSS]

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT EXTRACT - AMLA [Phyllanthus emblica L.] TULSI [Ocimum tenuiflorum L.] NEEM [Azadirachta indica A.JUSS]

Methanolic extracts of dried leaves of Ocimum tenuiflora, Azadirachta indica, Phyllanthus emblica were used for the comparative study of antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were determined by DPPH [1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl] assay. It was found that fraction IV of Tulsi shows more antioxidant activity when compared to Neem and Amla [T>N>A]. These extracts were further tested for antibacterial activity by spread plate method against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus aureus. It was found that Gram negative bacteria were largely inhibited by the fraction III of Tulsi than that of Neem and Amla against reference antibacterial drug like Tetracyclin. The zone of inhibition was measured which shows that fraction III of Tulsi is having high antibacterial activity when compared to Neem and Amla.
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Extracellular Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Sources and its Pathogenecity Inhibition Assay

Extracellular Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Sources and its Pathogenecity Inhibition Assay

antibacterial activity of concentrated nano compounds were assessed using battery of bacterial pathogens including Acinetobacter baumanii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae by well cutting method. After incubation at 37 o C for 24 hours, the plates were observed for formation of zone of inhibition around the wells. A solution based methodology for determining the antimicrobial activity was also standardized. 15

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Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Extract of Mirabilis jalapa Against Pathogenic Microorganisms

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Extract of Mirabilis jalapa Against Pathogenic Microorganisms

Antibacterial activity was determined against four pathogens by disc diffusion method [9]. The isolated compound was dissolved in appropriate solvent. Different concentration of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mirabilis jalapa were tested against pathogenic bacteria. The test micro organisms were seeded into respective medium by spread plate method 100µl (10 6 cells/ml suspension) with the 24 hours cultures of bacteria grown in nutrient agar medium. Petridishes (measuring 90mm diameter) containing 15-20 ml of nutrient agar medium. After solidification Whatman No: 1 paper discs (5mm in diameter) impregnated with the extracts was placed on test organism-seeded plates. Streptomycin sulphate (10µg/ml) used as the reference antibacterial agent. The antibacterial assay plates were incubated at 37 0 C for 24 hours. After incubation period, the diameter of inhibition zone was measured in mm. All the experiments were performed in triplicates and average diameter zone of inhibition was recorded. An inhibition zone of 10mm or greater (including diameter of the disc) was considered antibacterial activity. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for the most active component were recorded after 24 hours.
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AN INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC, THERMODYNAMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF A DRUG IN A PEPTIDE

AN INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC, THERMODYNAMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF A DRUG IN A PEPTIDE

Screening of antibacterial activity: The antibacterial activities of the (GG+ SDZ) were tested against the selected bacterial strains. The petriplates were washed and placed in an autoclave for sterilization. After sterilization, nutrient agar medium was poured into each sterile petriplate and allowed to solidify in a laminar air flow chamber. After solidification, using a sterile cotton swab, fresh bacterial culture with known population count was spread over the plate by spread plate technique. One well of 5 mm size made into the agar plates with the help of sterile corkborer, the wells were loaded with 200 μl of extracts (GG+SDZ). All the plates were incubated at 37 o C for 24 hours. After incubation, the plates were observed for formation of clear inhibition zone around the well indicated the presence of antibacterial activity. The zone of inhibition was calculated by measuring the diameters of the inhibition zone around the well.
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Antibacterial properties of nonwoven wound dressings coated with Manuka honey or methylglyoxal

Antibacterial properties of nonwoven wound dressings coated with Manuka honey or methylglyoxal

As shown in Figure 1A,C, no zone of inhibition was apparent with the control samples when tested against both gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus. Upon the removal of the control samples from the surface of the agar, the contact zone between the sample and the agar presented heavy bacterial growth (Figure 1B,D). This confirms that the control samples did not exhibit any antibacterial activity. Whilst these observations appear to be in contrast with the results provided in Table 2, it is important to note that in this case, the samples were directly tested in contact with inoculated agar gels in the absence of simulated wound exudate solution (in contrast to the case of the assay results provided in Table 2). Here, the bacteria-detrimental fibre-induced water uptake effect was largely marginal, so that high growth of S. aureus was consequently still observed following application of the nonwoven control sample. The antibacterial effect of the MH and MGO coatings having equivalent MGO concentrations between 0.0054 mg cm −2 and 0.0170 mg cm −2 showed no zone
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Antimicrobial activity of eichhornia crassipes against mdr  clinical pathogens

Antimicrobial activity of eichhornia crassipes against mdr clinical pathogens

The Escherichia coli showed highest zone of inhibition for acetone leaves extract at 100g/ml concentration (25mm) while Klebsiella pneumoniae 22mm zone of inhibition followed by Staphylococcus aureus for which 21 mm zone of inhibition and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 15mm zone of inhibition at 100µg/ml another one Bacillus subtilis showed 15mm zone of inhibition at 100µg/ml. While stem extract showed same activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumioniae i.e. 20mm highest inhibition zone at 100g/ml. Escherichia coli found less sensitive to exact i.e. 19mm zone was observed at 100µg/ml similarly least activity recorded by Bacillus subtilis which showed 16mm zone found at 100µ/ml(Fig. 1&2).
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Improving the Optical Properties of ZnO Nanopowders Synthesized using Combustion Method through
Ag + Co Doping

Improving the Optical Properties of ZnO Nanopowders Synthesized using Combustion Method through Ag + Co Doping

The antibacterial activity of the synthesized ZnO nanopowders was tested against Bacillus cereus (Gram positive) bacteria using well diffusion method. Mueller Hinton Broth is used as nutrient agar medium for bacterial growth. This medium was sterilized in an autoclave at 121 °C for 15 min and then poured into sterile Petri plate and allowed to solidify in a laminar air flow chamber. After solidification, using a sterile cotton swab, fresh bacterial culture was spread over the plate using spread plate technique. Three wells each of 5 mm in diameter were made in the agar plates with the help of sterile cork borer. The wells were inoculated with 10, 15 and 20 μg/mL of stock solution of the product. All the plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. After incubation, the plates were observed for the formation of clear inhibition zone around the well. The zone of inhibition was noted by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone around the well.
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EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AND GOMUTRA

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AND GOMUTRA

This study was designed to test the antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of A. sativum and gomutra. The antimicrobial activity for the extracts was observed against the common wound infection causing bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp and fungal strains Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. The antimicrobial activity was tested by agar well diffusion method. The A. sativum extract was prepared with and without skin using various solvents like ethanol, methanol and distilled water. Based on the different solvents used for extraction the extracts were labeled as GJA, GJM, GJE, GJWSA, GJWSM and GJWSE. Almost all the solvent extracts exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity against the tested organism, when compared to other solvents aqueous extract is more effective. Also those extracts with skin showed increased zone of inhibition. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plants constituents were assessed by using qualitative methods. Test was conducted for the following active components: alkaloids, flavanoids, steroids, phlobatannin, cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins, volatile oil and glycosides. FTIR analysis was done to find out different functional groups present in the extracts. HPLC and GCMS were also done. Also MIC value of the various solvent extracts of A. sativum was determined. The MIC value for GJA, GJWSA, GJE and GJWSE against Pseudomonas sp is 1, 10, 10 and 1 mg/ml respectively. The MIC for GJA, GJWSA, GJE and GJWSE against S. aureus is 100, 100, 100 and 1 mg/ml respectively.
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Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Lawsonia inermis (Henna) Against Some Selected Bacteria

Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Lawsonia inermis (Henna) Against Some Selected Bacteria

The extract showed the highest activity with Bacillus subtitlis with a zone of inhibition of 17mm, this is followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with azone of inhibition of 14 mm, lowest activities was observed in Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of inhibition of 9mm at the same concentrations respectively. The plant extract revealed the maximum effect on Bacillus subtilis with the activity of 150mg/ml and minimum effect in Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium species with a concentration of 300mg/ml and zone of inhibition of 7mm respectively.
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SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW CHALCONES

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW CHALCONES

Antifungal Activity: All the synthesized compounds were also screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Mucor, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium strains. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters. Antifungal activities of all compounds were screened by the turbidometry method 8, 9 . Activity of extract was compared with standard antibiotics fluconazole fungi. DMSO was used as solvent. All compounds are active against Mucor, A. niger and Penicillium.

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Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulphide Nanoparticles using Leaf Extracts of Tridaxprocumbens

Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulphide Nanoparticles using Leaf Extracts of Tridaxprocumbens

,tannins oil and resins. In this different functional which was helpful to react with zinc sulphide and increase a zone of inhibitions, FTIR analysis shows different function group bonding to enter the cell membrane of inoculums. The quantitative analysis by presence and absence of inhibition zone, methanol leaf extract of zinc sulphide using tridaxprocumbns has excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms its clearly shown in figure 5. It was tested both gram positive, gram negative bacteria’s and fungal culture by disc diffusion method the zone of inhibition is formed antibiotic action of zinc sulphide nanoparticles. Table 2 clearly indicate antimicrobial activity of all tested microorganism with different concentration at 30 µl, 40 µl, 50 µl and 60 µl, in this six microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis are gram positive and Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa are gram negative and Candida albicans, Aspergillusniger is fungus culture, at a concentration 30 µl P.aeruginosa start a high zone of inhibition (15 mm) followed by S.aureus and E.coli(14 mm), minimum zone of inhibition was found in B.subtilis (8 mm) from bacterial culture but in a fungus culture C.albicans (11 mm) and A.niger (10 mm) here C.albicans lead high zone of inhibition to compare A.niger.
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ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTS

ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE ALGAE KAPPAPHYCUS ALVAREZII USING THREE SOLVENT EXTRACTS

Well Diffusion Method: Antimicrobial assay was done using Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Sterilized medium was poured into a petridish and was inoculated by streaking the swabs of the test organisms. After allowing the inoculums to dry at room temperature, methanol extract of K appaphycu s alvarezii was then loaded in the well bored in solidified agar. The plates were allowed to stand at room temperature for 1 hour for extract to diffuse into the agar and then they were incubated at 37 0 for 24 hours. After incubation, the zone of inhibition exhibited by the extract was measured.
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A STUDY ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS (L ) AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES

A STUDY ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS (L ) AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES

In the present study, stem of Tridax procumbens showed largest zone of inhibition in bacterial cultures of E.coli (12mm) in petroleum ether extract, while no significant zone was observed in aqueous extracts of any plant part and also no zone was found in pet. ether extract of leaf. However, Monika et al., 2013 found (agar well diffusion method) maximum zone of inhibition in methanolic extract against Klebsiella pneumonia (1.9±0.7 cm), while minimum in same extract but against S.aureus 30 . During the study, it was found that, pet. ether extract showed activity against E.coli, while Christudas et al., 2012, studies showed pet ether and ethanolic extract activity against B.faecalis which may be due to the presence of
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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BARK OIL AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON SOME LOCALLY ISOLATED PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BARK OIL AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON SOME LOCALLY ISOLATED PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

Cinnamaldehyde partially purified from cinnamon bark oil is found naturally in the bark and leaves of cinnamon tree of the genus cinnamomum. In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of cinnamaldehyde. Results in table (5) revealed that MIC value ranged from 35 for S. aureus to 110 µg/ml for K. pneumonia while MBC value ranged from 50 to 150 µg/ml for the same isolates respectively. Zone of inhibition for cinnamaldehyde recorded significant results for all isolates except E. coli and K. pneumoniae which gave 0.00 diameter for 50 µg/ml, whilst diameter of inhibition zone increased gradually with increasing of concentrations which reached at 250 µg/ml to (10.7, 15.5, 19.3, 23.5 and 26.4) mm for K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. pneumonia, E. faecalis and S. aureus respectively (table 6). Our results were close to results achieved by Al-Bayati and Mohammed (2009) but disagreed with those who mentioned that cinnamaldehyde need high concentration to inhibit most pathogenic bacteria (Muthana et al., 2005), several studies have revealed that cinnamaldehyde detected by GC-MS was the major constituent and predominant active compound found in cinnamon (Baratta et al., (1998), Simic et al., (2004).
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EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TECOMA STANS CRUDE EXTRACTS

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TECOMA STANS CRUDE EXTRACTS

Two different leaf and flower extracts of Tecoma stans were tested for anti-microbial activity using AGAR PLATE METHOD. Nutrient agar medium was prepared, sterilized and used as growth medium for bacterial culture. 15ml of sterilized medium was poured into each petri plate, covered semi half and allowed to solidify. Then the test micro organisms like Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Entero bacter were spreaded with the spreader into the petri plates and do wells with borear. Then the different solvent extracts like ETHANOLIC LEAF, AQUEOUS SEEDS and AQUEOUS FLOWER. (All are done in laminar air flow chamber). Then the dried plates were placed in incubator at room temperature & also prepared control and standard (chloramphenicol). Then the zone of inhibition was measured after 48hrs. [9,10]
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Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Studies Of Fe(Ii) And Mn(Ii) Complexes Of  2-[({4-[(1,3-Thiazol-2-Ylamino)Sulfonyl]Phenyl}Amino)Carbonyl]Benzoicacid

Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Studies Of Fe(Ii) And Mn(Ii) Complexes Of 2-[({4-[(1,3-Thiazol-2-Ylamino)Sulfonyl]Phenyl}Amino)Carbonyl]Benzoicacid

2.6 Determination of antimicrobial activity.The organisms used are Escherichia coli ((2 strains) from the family of Enterobactriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains ) from the family of bacillales gotten from stock culture in microbiology lab was inoculated into the already prepared Muller Hinton agar. Using a cork borer, well (7mm in diameter and 2.5mm deep) was bored into the inoculated agar and 50µl of each of the complex at a concentration of 1g/ml was delivered into the wells. The plates were incubated and read after 18 -24 hours. The diameter zone of inhibition produced by the complexes were measured with a transparent meter rule in mm
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Antimicrobial evaluation of methanolic extract from flower of Securinega leucopyrus (AEFSL): A medicinal approach

Antimicrobial evaluation of methanolic extract from flower of Securinega leucopyrus (AEFSL): A medicinal approach

Methanolic extract of Securinega leucopyrus flowers was evaluated for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity. The plant was collected from moist region of Wainganga River, Bhandara (Maharashtra), India. Securinega leucopyrus is extensively used as medicine in Indian folklore for treatment of various infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts against various strains of bacterial species was tested for the zone of inhibition using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. This extract showed profound inhibitory action on the growth of bacterial strains of some species of genera belonging to Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Brucella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Xanthomonas.
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THE EFFECT OF ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION ON BACTERIA (STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE)

THE EFFECT OF ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION ON BACTERIA (STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE)

Table 2. shows the result of UV exposed bacteria have an effect on its efficacy against different antibiotics. Recombinant bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae show increase in zone of inhibition against diffferent antibiotics used but Ciprofloxacin (200mg) appear to showed decrease zone of inhibition against recombinant Staphylococcus aureus.

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