hexane rings adopt chair conformations and the hydroxy substituent of one of these occupies an axial position. The fused cyclopentane ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the flap atom being the C atom bearing the methyl group) and the 3-methylbut-2-enyl portion of its substituent is disordered over three sets of sites in a 0.413 (7):0.250 (7):0.337 (7) ratio. The O atoms of both water molecules occupy special positions of 2 site symmetry. In the crystal, O s —H O w and O w —H O s (s = steroid and w =
The samples so obtained were ground to powder form for carrying out DSC measurements. Five heating rates 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 K/min. were selected for these meas- urements. About 10 - 15 mg powder was heated at con- stant heating rate and the changes in heat flow with ref- erence to empty reference were measured. The presence of well defined endothermic peak at the glass transition temperature and an exothermic peak at the crystallization temperature is observed in each DSC scan. The studies were made under almost identical conditions so that the activation energy of crystallization (E c ) could be com-
The H atoms of the water molecule were located in a difference Fourier map and were re®ned, subject to bond length restraints of 0.82 (2) AÊ and 1.0 (2) AÊ. Due to the absence of any signi®cant anomalous scatterers in (I), attempts to con®rm the absolute con®guration by re®nement of the Flack (1983) parameter in the presence of 924 Friedel pairs led to an inconclusive value (Flack & Bernardinelli, 2000) of 0.1 (4). Therefore, the Friedel pairs were merged before the ®nal re®nement and the absolute con®guration of the title compound was assigned to correspond to that of the known chiral centres in a precursor molecule, namely 17a-allyl-17a-aza-d- homoandrost-4-ene-3-one (Vasuki et al., 2002), which remained unchanged during the synthesis of (I).
10. Pietrovsky EF, Rosa KA, Facundo VA, Rios K, Marques MCA, Santos ARS. Antinociceptive properties of the ethanolic extract and of the triterpene 3 β , 6 β , 16 β -trihidroxilup-20(29)-ene obtained from the flowers of Combretum leprosum in mice. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 2006;83:90 – 9. 11. Fernandes FF, Tomaz MA, El-Kik CZ, Monteiro-Machado M, Strauch MA, Cons BL, et al. Counteraction of Bothrops snake venoms by Combretum leprosum root extract and arjunolic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155:552 – 62. 12. Evaristo FF, Albuquerque MR, Dos Santos HS, Bandeira PN, Avila Fdo N, Da
Data collection: APEX2 (Bruker, 2005); cell refinement: SAINT (Bruker, 1999); data reduction: SAINT; program(s) used to solve structure: SHELXS97 (Sheldrick, 2008b); program(s) used to refine structure: SHELXL97 (Sheldrick, 2008b); molecular graphics: SHELXTL (Sheldrick, 2008b); software used to prepare material for publication: SHELXTL.
steroid nucleus (C1±C17). A similar observation has been reported recently for an isomorphous compound (Vasuki, Parthasarathi, Ramamurthi, Dubey & Jindal, 2002a). The dihedral angle between the pyridine ring and the average molecular plane comprising rings A, B, C and D is 25.4 (2) . A
Refinement . The data integration and reduction were undertaken with SAINT and XPREP (Bruker, 1995) and subsequent computations were carried out with the WinGX (Farrugia, 1999) and Xtal (Hall,du Boulay, & Olthof-Hazekamp, 1999) graphical user interface. The data reduction included the application of Lorentz and polarization corrections, The structure was solved in the space group P21/n(#14) by direct methods with SIR97 (Altomare et al. 1998), and extended and refined with SHELXL97 (Sheldrick, 1997). In general anisotropic displacement parameters were refined for the non- hydrogen atoms, and a riding atom model was used for the hydrogen atoms included in the model. The partially occupied non-hydrogen sites were modelled with an isotropic displacement parameter. The absolute structure was not determined. Refinement of F 2 against ALL reflections. The weighted R-factor wR and goodness of fit S are based on F 2 , conventional
Geometry . All e.s.d.'s (except the e.s.d. in the dihedral angle between two l.s. planes) are estimated using the full covariance matrix. The cell e.s.d.'s are taken into account individually in the estimation of e.s.d.'s in distances, angles and torsion angles; correlations between e.s.d.'s in cell parameters are only used when they are defined by crystal symmetry. An approximate (isotropic) treatment of cell e.s.d.'s is used for estimating e.s.d.'s involving l.s. planes.
1.209 (15) AÊ. It is worth mentioning a small but signi®cant asymmetry between the two C O acetoxy bond lengths [1.232 (6) and 1.191 (6) AÊ] and the two CÐO epoxy bond lengths [1.424 (5) and 1.461 (4) AÊ]. Similar asymmetries were also found in the 3-yl acetate of this compound (Andrade et al., 2001). Rings A and C are slightly ¯attened, the mean values of their torsion angles being 51.8 (2) and 55.9 (1) ,
At the same time, the lengthening of the transition to adulthood has provoked debate regarding the presence of a ‘new’ developmental phase of the life course between adolescence and adulthood. This ‘emerging adulthood’ tends to be presented as a largely positive development, described as a ‘volitional’ period from roughly ages 18- 25 years when individuals “examine the life possibilities open to them and gradually arrive at more enduring choices in love, work and world views” (Arnett 2000). The extent to which emergent adulthood is a legitimate concept across all sections of society has been rigorously debated (Arnett 2007; Bynner 2005; Hendry and Kloep 2007). Some contend that young adults are more accurately experiencing “structured individualization” (Côté and Bynner 2008; Furlong and Cartmel 2007) with opportunities and pathways to adulthood still strongly influenced by young people’s original location in the social structure, despite a greater sense of individual autonomy (MacDonald et al. 2005; Roberts 2009; Schoon 2007; Yates et al. 2010).
KISS Keep it short and simple Revise the sentence(s) by getting rid of every word that is unnecessary to making the sentence clear and complete. Perhaps you should omit it completely. Imagine being awarded $100 for every word you can cut from the sentence.
Prior to 2007, there were no reported cases of EI in Australia and vaccination against the disease was not prac- tised other than to meet export requirements. Following reports of suspected infection at the Eastern Creek Quarantine Station in New South Wales (NSW), the first reports of EI disease in Australia were made to the NSW Department of Primary Industries by a veterinarian who observed sick horses in Sydney on 24 August 2007. Laboratory testing confirmed that these horses were infected with EI. A statewide lockdown of the movement of horses was declared on 25 August by the NSW Chief Veterinary Officer and the Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN) equine influenza strategy for disease control was activated. 5 At the peak of this outbreak, 47 000
16,17-Epoxy-20-oxopregn-5-en-3-yl acetate, required for intro- duction of the 16-hydroxy group, was easily prepared from commercially available 20-oxopregna-5,16-dien-3-yl acetate through a two-step reaction (Kirk & SaÂ e Melo, 1979; Andrade et al., 2001). Synthesis of 16-hydroxy-20-oxopregn-5-en-3-yl acetate, (I), was ef®ciently accomplished by sonochemical reductive opening of the 16,17-epoxy ketone with aluminium amalgam (Moreno et al., 1993; Moreno, SaÂ e Melo & Campos Neves, 1998). The product of this reaction was isolated and identi®ed as the title compound (I) from IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy (Moreno et al., 1993). Crystals
M PBS as above. Immunoreactivity for CRMP2 and NeuN was detected using an Alexa 488-labeled goat anti- mouse IgG and an Alexa 546-labeled goat anti-rabbit fol- lowing 90-minute incubation at RT. After washing with 0.1 M PBS as above, the sections were incubated for 5 minutes with 40, 6-diamidine-2-phenylindole dihy- drochloride (DAPI), 1:10,000 (in 200 mL 0.01 M PBS, add 20 μL DAPI) (Roche Diagnostics, IN, USA) as a nuclear stain. Labeling was imaged with a fluorescence microscope (Axio Imager Z1 with Apotome, Zeiss, Germany). The CRMP2-positive cells were examined in three different regions: healthy, penumbra, and ischemic core in a coronal section of the ipsilateral hemisphere (see Additional file 8: Figure S6). To note, edema (swelling caused by a collec- tion of fluid in the third space surrounding the tissue or organ) was discernible, mostly at the 24 h time period, and is therefore marked in the figure. To assess the spe- cificity of the antibodies, negative control sections in which the primary antibody is absent were prepared to check for background staining levels. Immunostaining were performed on sections obtained from the brains of three mice in each group.
On the other hand, the voltammetric response between -1.000 and 1.000 V of the modified electrodes according to S-3 and S-4 conditions (Table 1) in the respective solution containing no monomer (Fig. 2A), show that the films obtained between -1.000 V and 1.500 V promote the appearance of a new peak at a more negative potential, 0.028 V, that overlaps film doping occurring at 0.150 V [39, 40]. Although no mention of this peak was found in the literature, it might be related to the same doping process, but corresponding to deposition of longer chains that would be generated by applying a more positive potential during the electropolymerization. These chains, in turn, being longer, would cause a twisting or winding as wool ball, behavior that is corroborated through the voltammograms corresponding to the p-doping/undoping process (Figs. 2B-C), since S-3 shows a not very stable response and its p-doping potential tends to shift to more positive values, in contrast, the films obtained at shorter potential intervals exhibit rapid stabilization and a defined p-doping potential.
The erythropoietic effect of 5b-pregnane-3b-hydroxy-20-one, a naturally occurring steroid metabolite of progesterone, was evaluated in the squirrel monkey by ferrokinetic studies. red cell survival, and blood volume measurements. The intramuscular administration of this steroid in pharmacologic doses shortened the 59 Fe plasma clearance and increased the plasma iron turnover, thereby indicating an increase in erythropoiesis. A normal 59 Fe red cell uptake was observed, and the bone marrow maturation time was not altered. Red cell survival was the same in the treated and control groups. After five weekly injections of the steroid, the monkeys increased their red cell mass by 57%. A significant increase in white blood cells and a slight elevation of platelet counts in the treated monkeys also suggest a possible direct stimulation of hemopoietic stem cells by the steroid metabolite.