Top PDF A Community of Practice Approach to Teacher Learning

A Community of Practice Approach to Teacher Learning

A Community of Practice Approach to Teacher Learning

provoking way, and they simply do not use the ‘old’ ways that we learned, so it is no wonder that they looked at you as if you had 5 heads. (Barbara; Blog post, November 8, 2016) Participants generally embraced their online conversations within the Google Classroom blog possibly because the platform provided them with a convenient, collaborative space to examine the Eureka Math program in real time and make necessary adaptations. It is noteworthy to mention that not all participants engaged in social practice with each other on a consistent basis. Nor was time a mitigating factor for all collaboration. In some cases, a few participants sought the expertise of outside sources, and later, returned to the community blog or subsequent meetings with new resources and information to share with the community. This finding revealed that some members of the community required more information. Compelled to find answers to problems of practice, these participants relied on outside assistance to fill their own gaps of knowledge in understanding the Eureka Math program. As a result, they can be viewed as brokers, or members of the community of practice who can be perceived as being members of multiple communities (Wenger, 1998). This theme will be discussed next.
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Primary maths teacher learning and identity within a numeracy in-service community of practice

Primary maths teacher learning and identity within a numeracy in-service community of practice

3.2.4 Limitations of the application of Wenger’s Communities of Practice theory in education The use of Communities of Practice theories for explaining teacher learning and illuminating teacher professional development has challenges. One disadvantage emanates from the informing theory of Communities of Practice, which regards teaching as not necessary to produce learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Lave, 1996; Wenger, 1998). From an apprenticeship perspective Lave and Wenger have “argued against the assumption that teaching or ‘intentional instruction’ is necessarily prior to, or a precondition for, learning” (Lave, 1996, p. 151; Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 41) with Wenger (1998, p. 266-267) stating that “much learning takes place without teaching...teaching does not cause learning”. Such a position undermines the role of explicit teaching in communities of practice. Graven and Lerman (2003) indeed take issue with the undermining of the role of teaching, even while arguing its potential for analysing teacher learning arguing that teaching needs to be reconceptualised rather than negated within the sphere of the work of the teachers. Another weakness raised at the theoretical level is the fact that the situated learning approach does not offer a learning mechanism or an explanation of how knowledge transfers within communities (Lerman, 2000; Adler, 2000) and attempts to do so have not been convincing (see for example Rogoff, 1995). Adler (2000) also explains that the CoP concept is too bounded a notion, insufficient to explain power relations and the macro context. Another challenge that has also been noted locally is on how maths teacher professional development communities of practice can be scaled up or reformulated to cater for larger teacher audiences while at the same time not compromising the benefits of smaller and more intimate maths teacher learning communities (Pausigere & Graven, 2013b; Brodie, 2013). The study will therefore try to address such theoretical challenges and also attempt to offer a possible illumination as to the learning mechanisms for teacher knowledge growth within the primary maths community of practice, NICLE.
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Teacher development for religious and cultural diversity in citizenship education : a community of practice approach

Teacher development for religious and cultural diversity in citizenship education : a community of practice approach

In constructing the theoretical frame for this study, I envisaged mutual engagement as a dimension of practice, by extension, incorporating principles of communicative learning (3.2.3.3) (Mezirow 2009: 20). Hence, teacher-learning for Citizenship education/Religion education includes acquiring the skills associated with Deep Dialogue and critical reflection as these were discussed in relation to fostering transformative learning (3.2.3.4). Although a democratic process is implicit in communities of practice as noted in 3.4.4.3, the meaning of mutual engagement ought to be explicitly defined in relation to teacher development for Citizenship education/Religion education. The principles of inclusion, equality, reasonableness and publicity are identified by Young (2000) and Gould (1988), for example, as being imperative to the democratic project. Hence tension, disagreement and conflict should not be viewed in deficit terms as being potentially threatening to the existence of the community of practice and thus avoided. Instead, disagreement ought to be a source for negotiating meaning across differences, as a means to acknowledging, not explaining away differences (cf. Barnes 2009: 43). Barnes (2009) and Gearon (2004), for example, argue that in order to teach tolerance and conflict resolution, teachers of “citizenship and religious education” need to include issues of religious and cultural conflict in their classes (cf. Avery 2002). It follows therefore that as teachers learn in communities of practice, religious, cultural and ideological differences ought not to be glossed over or avoided for the purpose of maintaining harmony in the community of practice. Ideological differences ought to be foregrounded and engaged with dialogically to develop skills to deal with tolerance and intolerance, conflict and conflict resolution, to prepare future citizens, as Gutmann (1993: 3) puts it, “for participating intelligently in the political processes that shape society” (cf. Nieto 2000: 307; Baumfield 2003).
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Pedagogical habitus engagement : teacher learning and adaptation in a professional learning community

Pedagogical habitus engagement : teacher learning and adaptation in a professional learning community

Key to the focus of this article is that the CAPS as a policy orientation, and with its narrow focus on teaching and learning, leaves little pedagogical space for an enriched and critical perspective in education—or opportunity for socially engaging pedagogy to be established (Fataar, 2012). The focus in the establishment of a PLC within the current South African schooling context was, therefore, on creating a platform for teachers from different school contexts to consider an approach to teaching and learning that enables teachers to work across different knowledge forms to provide all students access to the school knowledge code. This rests on the concern that more than 20 years into South Africa’s democracy, despite significant educational policy changes, there still exists a deep divide between the functioning of low-income schools and those that operate in the wealthier, leafy green suburbs. Schooling for the diverse student population remains a vastly uneven experience and poverty, race, gender, and religion in many instances continue to delimit the different educational experiences of most South African children (Christie, 2008, p. 4). For many young people, democracy has not brought about better prospects in education. Eradicating or reducing the inequalities of the past within the South African context remains an elusive and ongoing challenge for all involved in education. Structural changes that have high symbolic value are easy to make, however, actually changing the core of teaching and learning practices relies on teachers (Elmore, 1996). Christie noted:
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A Communities of Practice Approach to Field Experiences in Teacher Education

A Communities of Practice Approach to Field Experiences in Teacher Education

Wenger (1998) argued that members of the community of practice must be constantly involved in understanding and tuning their enterprise. This means that members must be willing to learn and hold each other accountable to their enterprise as well as reconcile conflicting interpretations of what the enterprise is about. For this to happen, teacher education programs might emphasize with prospective teachers the importance of learning to teach in new ways. In contrast to how field experiences have been conceptualized—as spaces for teacher candidates to observe master teachers and attempt to replicate their behaviors in a process that Hollins (2015) referred to as “representation and approximation” (p. 18)—a reconceptualization would stress field experiences as sites for examining the benefits and drawbacks of particular classroom practices. In such a framework, teaching is viewed not as a set of competencies or an act driven by a singular theory (Smith & Lev-Ari, 2005); as a result, each teaching context requires different theories in practice. In this way, learning to teach becomes an interpretive process (Hollins, 2015) dependent upon analysis of learners and contexts.
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Conceptualizing and investigating mathematics teacher learning of practice

Conceptualizing and investigating mathematics teacher learning of practice

Our third design principle was based on results from our pilot implementation and professional literature highlighting the complexity of a core practice approach and the challenge of attending to differing grain sizes of practices when designing for teacher learning (c.f., Jacobs & Spangler, 2017). In the first implementation, we designed a rehearsal in which teachers engaged with one “student” to simulate the smaller grain-size core practice of attending and responding to one students’ mathematical thinking. While teachers found this to be productive, they felt that this rehearsal was too fine-grained given the overarching goal of supporting teachers in learning to teach whole lessons that were more ambitious. However, teachers agreed that rehearsals grounded in small or whole group interactions with multiple students would best meet the goals of the PD, allowing them to rehearse meeting the purpose of the practices using moves that were responsive to more than one student (e.g., orienting moves).
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Exploring the impact of a professional learning community on teacher professional learning for inclusive practice

Exploring the impact of a professional learning community on teacher professional learning for inclusive practice

Framework (SEF) introduced by the Welsh government included the employment of PLCs within, between, and across schools in order to develop school improvement. A central component of this reform process is the understanding that collaborative partnership between professionals is essential to successfully implementing change. It is worth noting that PLCs were mandatory in this study, although the teachers had control of the learning focus. Harris and Jones (2010) outline the key principles relating to the current work around PLCs which relate back to characteristics identified by Stoll et al. (2006). First, system collaboration and networking is essential for system-wide change. Second, the focal objective of PLCs is to improve student learning outcomes, and third, enquiry approaches characterise the PLC model in an effort to change practice, aligning with the emphasis on critical dialogue as key to teacher learning (Parker et al., 2016). Similar to the findings of Kennedy (2014), teacher autonomy and agency were key in the model of PLCs developed in Wales. Teachers have shared responsibility for decision-making and for the outcomes of their work and according to Harris and Jones (2010) this empowers teachers to “innovate, develop and learn together” (p. 175). Improving student outcomes needs to be the core focus of a PLC and if it is not coherently structured, the potential impact will most likely be lost (Harris & Jones, 2010).
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Professional development and its impact on teacher and pupil learning: a community of practice case study in South Korea

Professional development and its impact on teacher and pupil learning: a community of practice case study in South Korea

After I married in December 2010, however, my passion for teaching was totally different. In my defense, as I was teaching the same (or very similar) subjects year after year there seemed to be few new stimuli. Moreover, my new life with my wife was much more enjoyable than my former life as a single person. In these circumstances, the introduction of a new national PE curriculum by the government – named ‘creativity and character curriculum’ – acted as just another headache. Sometime I reflected critically that unlike me, there were still a lot of (even) experienced PE teachers around me who had maintained their enthusiasm for developing teaching, but these reflections didn’t last long. As a result, contrary to the enjoyable nature of family life, my career was stagnant. Something new was needed. I decided to enter a PhD course and to study PE teachers’ professional development. So, this project started with my curiosity. Fortunately, I knew a lot of exemplary PE teachers whom I had met in PE-CPD programmes and several PE teacher learning communities. Finally, I selected the CoP as the case because of: i) unique features (the X teaching model, over 10 years, existence of the professor) and ii) access issues (personal relationships with some participants already built).
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Teacher and School Administrator Perceptions of their Learning Community

Teacher and School Administrator Perceptions of their Learning Community

Over the past 20 years, two surveys have been used to explore the level of PLC implementation: SPSaLC questionnaire (Hord, 1996) and Revised Professional Learning Community Assessment (Olivier & Hipp, 2010). I chose to use the SPSaLC because it has been used to study PLCs and the connection to the major dimensions of effective PLCs as explored in the research of Hord (1996, 2004), DuFour (2004), and others whose work is referenced within the literature. As I also touch on the areas of education reform, teacher development, changes in schools, organizational change, leadership and communities of practice, the literature review also includes the works of Astuto, Clark, Read, McGree, and Fernandez (1993); Collins (2001); Darling-Hammond (1996); Hall and Hord (1987); Kouzes and Posner (2002); Senge (1990); Senge et al. (2004); Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010); and Wenger et al. (2002).
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Service-Learning Pedagogy:  Benefits Of A Learning Community Approach

Service-Learning Pedagogy: Benefits Of A Learning Community Approach

Preparedness for practice, professional development, and personal satisfaction were the areas that student identified the most impact. One surprising theme noted in this study, was “improved flexibility”. Students discussed difficulty with being “allowed” to work autonomously, and with having less guidance and direction in making decisions. These feelings of increased flexibility are likely tied to success and validation that they truly are capable, and from movement from the diverging and assimilating learning approaches to converging and accommodating learning approaches, described by Kolb in his “Experiential Learning Cycle” (1984). Because students were expected to think and do, rather than feel or watch, they were successful.
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Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

In teacher development, the knowledge and skills considered necessary to become a teacher have attracted many researchers’ attention. However, teachers are required to master not only a set of teaching skills but also strategies for problem solving and for reacting to unexpected situations. It is deemed important to have methodology courses link with actual classroom practice (Al Jardani, 2012). Yaman and Özdemir (2012) pointed out the many dimensions of real life that teachers may expect to encounter the real classroom environment. Only the involvement of student teachers in the real classroom setting can increase their awareness of dynamic teaching circumstances. Williams (2009) agrees with the importance of a practicum provided that its authentic educational environment allows the application of knowledge and skills previously gained in course training. Most teacher education programs offer a balance of theory and pedagogical practices. In the United Kingdom, of around 700 intensive training programs, most incorporate teaching practice (Brandt, 2006). Directory of Professional Preparation Programs in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) in the United States and Canada reported by Christopher in 2005 reveals that more than 80 percent of TESOL MA programs offer or require some kind of practicum (cited by Williams, 2009). The most useful practicum will be creative and will include observation, tutoring, and service learning.
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Collaborative learning: a connected community approach

Collaborative learning: a connected community approach

Every day the University has a wealth of knowledge pass through it that becomes lost to the ether. For example, imagine a room of managers from a variety of industries sharing their work-based knowledge and applying and evaluating concepts to their practice. This is an everyday occur- rence, in another setting the consultancy bill for getting that shared knowledge and experience would be very large. But do we always systematically manage that knowledge and could we? The management of the learning process and the resulting knowledge has led to the development of particular functionality in the SPDE. The SPDE enables an identified group of learners (a learning community) to be arranged around structured knowledge bases to enable quick access to and the sharing of experience and learning – both formal and informal. The community can also utilise a tutor or coach to help support community interactions; guiding members and moderating contributions. It brings informal and formal learning together, combining knowledge management and information sharing whilst building up learning through learning communities.
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Frank McCourt’s Teacher Man: A Novel Approach to Teacher Learning and Professional Development

Frank McCourt’s Teacher Man: A Novel Approach to Teacher Learning and Professional Development

Brock Education, 19, No. 1, 94-107 98 At first, the teachers‟ short responses to writing prompts consisted primarily of detailed literal descriptions of actual events from daily practice. Teachers used to telling casual lunch-hour stories about their practice were not used to looking carefully at their own work using a narrative mode of analysis, i.e. examining metaphors, recognizing themes, considering alternative interpretations, giving a title to their story and then sharing the different titles (and the different implied interpretations) with colleagues. As they continued to share and think more deeply about their own written vignettes of teaching and learning, one teacher who had initially been hesitant to participate commented: “This process gave me the courage to articulate my story.” Another teacher validated the activities in this way: “The process encouraged me to do what I was already inclined to do, and the openness of the group helped me to feel comfortable.”
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Technology Integration: A Community of Practice to Support Learning

Technology Integration: A Community of Practice to Support Learning

Working Relationship I volunteered as a retired educator at School XYZ and School GWJ for the past 3 years and a working relationship was established with the teacher participants. I maintained ethical standards as described by the National Institution of Health (NIH) relative to the research of human participants. To minimize issues or risks associated with the research procedures, I reiterated the right to confidentiality clause identified in the invitation to participate in the research letter as part of the informed consent process. Additionally, I observed and followed routines of each study site, exuding respect for the diverse and culturally sensitive needs of both school communities. Further, I was unbiased and refrained from the controversial matters pertaining to practices of both study sites. I disclosed that my assumptions about technology integration were related to prior experience; however, personal biases were alleviated through validation of the study findings and participant approval and
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Teacher Perceptions of Instruction as an Expeditionary Learning Core Practice

Teacher Perceptions of Instruction as an Expeditionary Learning Core Practice

after following the EL model, as prescribed by the EL core practices, meeting students at their academic and social needs through implementing reading and literacy programs. EL instruction is designed to be a means for some underachieving students to access the content. Through the expeditions, traditionally unengaged students are motivated to participate and contribute to their own learning (Bell, Daniels, & Lawless, 2011). Although EL instruction offers a means for students to engage in inquiry based learning and authentic, real life experiences, some EL educators have struggled with adapting the content and curriculum to simultaneously fit the EL model of instruction while achieving rigorous benchmarks set by state standards (DiCamillo, 2015). Peck (2010) determined that in some EL schools, educators have relied heavily on the EL community for support in building, developing, and sustaining the EL culture and instructional practices, adapting content and curriculum to align with EL standard practices. For some EL educators, implementation of full EL curriculum has been challenging, as it has been time consuming, and often has been used to supplement instruction, rather than a pedagogical approach (Ellison, 2013).
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Community of Practice for Social Science and Kannada Teacher Educators

Community of Practice for Social Science and Kannada Teacher Educators

Participants   fill   up   the   participant   information   form. Objectives/   Outcomes/   approach   discussion   and   common understanding. Since this is a MRP workshop, participants will   need   to   fully   understand   the   course   contents,   course methodologies and how these can be shared with teacher educators in the cascade workshops. MRPs will be expected to go through the course contents and make presentations in teams, which will be created on day1. Allocate sections from source   book   to   teams   of   faculty   to   read   and   present subsequently.
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Impact of Professional Learning Community Design on Teacher Instruction

Impact of Professional Learning Community Design on Teacher Instruction

But, ( ) and I, who teaches across the hall, we might as well say we're co-teachers because we meet every single day and talk about, "What points are you going to make today? Well, I'm going to do this. Well, how are you going to do that"? And it makes it so much better. I think we feed off each other which makes us stronger…. It's a hard thing to do if you don't get along with somebody, if your personalities...we do get along, and it just makes life so much easier. Some days I can't think of anything new, a new way to approach it, and she does. Or she'll come to me. "I don't know what to do today." I'll go, "I've got today.” You know, so I think we work really well together, same thing with math. Oh, my gosh, ( ), last year we had...how could we tie science into this? She came up with this project and we tied it in. We did the research paper on it, and she had the project. I mean, we work really well together. Um, ( ) last year, a social studies teacher, she would do the Civil War then we would read The Red Badge of Courage. I think we work really well together. (TB/2)
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Capturing community of practice knowledge for student learning

Capturing community of practice knowledge for student learning

The interview process uncovered a broad knowledge base, but little ‘inside knowledge’, intu- ition or tacit knowledge related to this case was elicited in this process. To some extent this might have been mitigated by the semi-structured approach to gathering information. Alternatively, there may not have been enough time or triggers for the practitioner to reflect on experience and bring tacit knowledge into consciousness. It may be that greater ambiguity is needed in the case to bring heuristics and intuition to the fore (Hall, 2002). Thus, case studies for WebCaseStudy may need to be crafted from more complex cases in which we are able to capture such tacit knowledge through interview. In future, it would be useful to use a group discussion/focus-group approach to see if this encourages interaction amongst expert practitioners. Indeed, it may also be a useful professional development exercise because an expert’s heuristics and intuition are personal, but also subject to biases that can affect decision making. One further source of case development material may be the use of student-generated cases that can be built upon and incorporated in curriculum renewal.
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Storytelling for learning in a diagnostic radiography community of practice

Storytelling for learning in a diagnostic radiography community of practice

The first stage of the AI qualitative analysis involved organisation and coding of the sessions. Each code was effectively a ‘bin’ into which a piece of transcribed data was placed. Codes were initially created following the meta-ethnography, a type of deduced coding. However, after several initial coding sessions it became apparent that much data did not fit with the pre-determined codes from the themes of the meta-ethnography. This was discussed with the supervisor (see also figure 23). A modified, more inductive approach, was used to improve the coding validity (that the codes accurately reflected what was being researched) – open coding. The verbatim data was analysed exhaustively – all relevant data discussed concerning learning, story or practices fit into a second order codes. There were twenty-two second order codes identified (Table 9). Clustering of second order themes (Biddle et al. 2001) meant that further grouping could take place. Second order codes were grouped together into six first order themes. Clustering also was undertaken of latent level themes were considered from stage 1 of the methodology (the meta-ethnography) and the previously discussed literature conceptualising story. It is important to also note that the six first order themes corroborated with the flipchart drawing from all stages and all working groups (Appendix 2). All of the first order and second order themes were common to each separate working group (Table 9). The latent themes were not common to each group and each will be discussed in turn.
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Mobilising teacher education: a study of a professional learning community

Mobilising teacher education: a study of a professional learning community

these tools. Teacher educators have the responsibility to model good practice using ICTs, and to discuss appropriate use of new and emerging technologies with their students. As with other recent technological developments, there is considerable interest in exploiting the huge appeal and availability of mobile devices for their pedagogical use. However, adoption and implementation of emerging educational technologies by education faculty is not unproblematic. There is some literature on teacher educators learning about and with technology within a community of practice (for example, Dourneen and Matthewman 2009). However, while mobile devices appear to have been used in a variety of ways in higher education as indicated earlier in the paper, there are few discussions about how teacher educators can develop their own understanding of mobile learning as they strive to evaluate and incorporate these devices into their teaching. Even fewer studies discuss the development of understanding about mobile learning through a community of practice or a professional learning community. This article reports on an initial study of a professional learning community of educators who are investigating mobile devices in their teaching. The main research question was: how does a PLC support its members’ learning about pedagogy that employs mobile technologies?
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