Extended-range electric vehicles (EREV) or range-extended electric vehicles (REEV) were designed to be run mostly by the battery, but have a petrol or diesel generator to recharge the battery when charge becomes low. However, range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts. In a series-hybrid system, the combustion engine drives an electric generator instead of directly driving the wheels. The generator provides power for the driving electric motors by charging batteries. In short, a series-hybrid is a simple vehicle, which is driven only by electric motor traction with a generator set providing the electric power. The EREV is unique vehicle, where battery and propulsion system are sized such that the engine is never required for operation of the vehicle when energy is available from the battery. As a full-performance electric vehicle, battery, motor and power electronics must be sized for the full capability of the vehicle. An E-REV does not need to start the engine for speed or power demands and therefore does not need to be on when battery energy is available. The engine is used only when the battery charge is low and to charge the battery in such cases. Unlike an internal combustion engine, electric motors are highly efficient with exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios providing adequate torque when running over a wide speed range. Internal combustion engines run most efficiently when turning at a constant speed. An engine turning a generator can be designed to run at maximum efficiency at constant speed. Conventional mechanical transmissions add weight, bulk and sap power from the engine with automatic shifting being complex. Unlike conventional transmission mechanism, electric motors are matched to the vehicle with a simple constant-ratio gearbox hence multiple-speed transmission can be eliminated.
Most of the automobile manufacturers around the world have paid a large amount of financial resource to the research of charging piles, since the charging technique is, to some extent, key to the success of the electric vehicle. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the technical fundamentals, including the technical background, theoretical principles, and mathematical models of zebra battery are given. It then reviews about the super capacitors and their pros and cons in Section III. Most importantly, the potential research directions for electric vehicle technology, especially analyzing and modeling of the hybrid EMS, are pointed out in Section IV. Finally, this paper is concluded in Section V.
Mucus: The epithelial cells of buccal mucosa are surrounded by the intercellular ground substance called mucus with the thickness varies from 40 μm to 300 μm. Though the sublingual glands and minor salivary glands contribute only about 10% of all saliva, together they produce the majority of mucus and are critical in maintaining the mucin layer over the oral mucosa. It serves as an effective delivery vehicle by acting as a lubricant allowing cells to move relative to one another and is believed to play a major role in adhesion of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. At buccal pH, mucus can form a strongly cohesive gel structure that binds to the epithelial cell surface as a gelatinous layer. Mucus molecules are able to join together to make polymers or an extended three-dimensional network. Different types of mucus are produced, for example G, L, S, P and F mucus, which form different network of gels. Other substances such as ions, protein chains, and enzymes are also able to modify the interaction of the mucus molecules and, as a consequence, their biophysical properties. The oral cavity 17-20 is lined with mucous membranes with a total surface area of 100 cm 2 .
This chapter will discuss about the literature review and methodology used in this project. The field of this study is about tracking location. Generally, tracking covers a wide range of areas. However, this project will only focus on tracking vehicles. There are total five research project and existing systems were chosen for the literature review. Comparisons are made to determine the strength and weakness of each system.
ABSTRACT: With the increasing popularity of automobiles,the number of road accidents are also increased rapidly.fatigue driving is an important cause of traffic accidents. In this paper,we propose a drowsy driving detection and avoidance system. We utilized an image processing technique to detect the eye blink of the driver. If the driver’s eyes remainclosed for a certain period, the driver is said to be drowsy. As a result, we get immediate information related to the driver’s condition and speed of the vehicle is reducedwhich reduces the chances of road accidents. Additional features like detection humanpresence in the footsteps is included. If detected, the vehicle can’t be started. Finally it is also designed to detect the obstacles logically and thus avoid the accidents.
Developed of an automated vehicle parking system will provide solution to the problems of inadequate parking facilities, traffic congestion and insecurity of drivers and vehicles. The parking systems are less expensive per parking slots as they require less ground area and less building volume than a conventional car park of the same capacity. Thus they make efficient use of space, reduce traffic congestion, ensure vehicle security and ease of parking, eliminate air and noise pollution than a conventional park.
A PN sequence is a reference signal simulating the random samples of discrete digital information and generates the samples in a specific manner so that it follows the correlation property. A correlation and maximal length sequence of pseudo-random signals is the basis of spread spectrum communication systems intern CDMA. There are many sequences which can generate good quality output but still we have some scope to move toward other sequence which have good orthogonality then GOLD and kasami sequence and can provide reliable service. In this paper the author has studied the comparative review of PN sequence with theoretically measured correlation function at different value of total sequence.
Lewis 10 reviewed critical choices in the design of Xen Gel Stent. Lumen size, length, ﬂ exibility, stability and biocom- patibility of the device were discussed as crucial charac- teristics in order to optimize subconjunctival drainage. The material also plays a key role in the biocompatibility of the device. The Xen is formed of porcine gelatin cross-linked with glutaraldehyde exhibiting excellent hydrolytic stabi- lity and biocompatibility without any foreign-body reac- tions in dogs at 12 months and in nonhuman primates at 6 years. 13, A, B Histology studies showed that reduced drai- nage occurred due to ﬁ brosis surrounding the device rather than lumen obstruction. As for ﬂ exibility, it was measured assuming the natural bend of 10 and 35 degrees that the device takes while passing through the sclera. Measurements were performed using a microforce gauge with sensitivity in the micrometer range. At the bending angle of 10 degrees, the ﬂ exibility was 50 – 60 μ N for Xen 140, 25 μ N for Xen 63 and 15 μ N for Xen 45, comparing to the 2000 μ N of silicone tube shunts. At the bending angle of 35 degrees, it was 280 μ N for Xen 140, 100 μ N for Xen 63, 70 μ N for Xen 45. This was unmeasurable in tube shunts as it was too high. Compared to Xen 140, Xen 45 was 4 times more ﬂ exible and Xen 63 was 2 to 3 times more ﬂ exible with minimal force to the overlying con- junctiva (2.2 N at a 3.0 mm exit point). This property should theoretically minimize conjunctival erosion. Another feature is the out ﬂ ow resistance of the stent. According to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, its inner dia- meter and length create a passive resistance to ﬂ uid. Considering a maximum ﬂ ow rate with normal aqueous production (approximately 2 μ L/min or 3 mL/day), an inner diameter of 45 μ m and a length of 6 mm, the Xen 45 gives a ﬂ ow of 0.02 μ L/sec or 1.2 μ L/min with a resultant IOP of 6 – 8 mmHg.
systematic review suggests that patients with COPD and moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction treated with indacaterol had better clinical outcomes with regard to dyspnea and health status than those treated with tiotro- pium or twice-daily LABA. Cope et al investigated the efficacy of indacaterol relative to alternative bronchodilators by means of a patient-level mixed-treatment comparison, involving a combination of four randomized controlled tri- als. 84 They found that indacaterol 150 µ g provided better FEV
separation, (b) rim base wear and fatigue crack, and (c) a cracked outer flange . The blowout of multi-piece wheels in OTR applications can be particularly hazardous due to the higher tire pressures used and very large size of wheel assemblies. End results may be similar in a tire blowout as they would be in a zipper rupture or a tire explosion, but the propelling of failed rim components with great force and distance is more common. Incidents often occur during vehicle or wheel maintenance when the wheel/tire equilibrium is disturbed. Specific types of injuries and fatalities vary, but several details are provided in the incident reports section, Section 2.2.2, and tire blowout failure is a main focus of research efforts in an attempt to mitigate risk and enhance the safety of wheels.
A toaster is great example of a single-phase load that might appear in a residence. Toasters typically draw 2 to 10 amps at 110 to 260 volts consuming around 600 to 1200 watts of power. Power systems deliver energy to loads that perform a function. These loads range from household appliances to industrial machinery. Most loads expect a certain voltage and, for alternating current devices, a certain frequency and number of phases. The appliances found in your home, for example, will typically be single-phase operating at 50 or 60 Hz with a voltage between 110 and 260 volts (depending on national standards). An exception exists for centralized air conditioning systems as these are now typically three-phase because this allows them to operate more efficiently. All devices in your house will also have wattage; this specifies the amount of power the device consumes. At any one time, the net amount of power consumed by the loads on a power system must equal the net amount of power produced by the supplies less the power lost in transmission
Other limitations must be considered when evaluating the literature described in this review. One limitation of some of the literature included in this review is study design. Most of the evidence was derived from retrospective analyses of observational, uncontrolled studies. These study designs cannot lead to conclusions regarding causality, but rather provide correlative evidence. Sample sizes were generally large, however, the lack of statistical differences in certain factors found in some studies may have been due to an insufficient number of subjects in treatment groups. Additionally, selection and treatment bias towards individuals residing in a particular geographical region was inherent to some studies. Another limitation of this literature review was that results were limited to English. Some of the objectives (eg, treatment patterns, epidemiology) might have been explored in more detail in older literature and therefore would not have been captured in our search. Our search strategy also focused on peer-reviewed publications and did not capture information from abstracts, posters, or dissertations, which may have limited the amount of information assessed for this review. Lastly, all literature reviews are limited by publication bias with regard to the articles that are available.
Now a day the battery vehicles are used for transportation, so main problem of this vehicle is of battery charging and speed of charging. Normally the charging time is 6 to 7 hour. So the owner keeps the vehicle for charging during night time, if due to lose of socket the vehicle is not able to charge and owner has to suffer from this problem. So we are mainly focus on the charging of battery without any interruption and charging of battery fast as much as possible. So we develop the project which solve the above problem easily and economically. Our Project is to develop a wireless vehicle charging system using hybrid technology. The battery of the vehicle is charge by hybrid system in which battery is supported solar charging and electrical charging. In our project, an electrical charging system consists of primary & secondary winding of transformer, IR sensor and Rectifier (AC-DC converter). Primary winding of transformer is kept under the floor and secondary winding is connected under the vehicle chassis. So the problem of lose contacts and socket is no more.
Anchorage has been a crucial topic since the origin of orthodontics. In the orthodontic process, gentle, constant pressure is applied to the teeth that need to be moved against the other teeth which serve as the anchoring unit. The anchoring teeth must be completely stable. Introduction of implants to orthodontic field have made this a possibility. Orthodontic implants also known as mini-implants have widened the horizon of orthodontic field. The mode of anchorage facilitated by these implant systems has a unique characteristic owing to their temporary use, which results in a transient, albeit absolute anchorage. The foregoing properties together with the recently achieved simple application of these screws have increased their popularity, establishing them as a necessary treatment option in complex cases that would have otherwise been impossible to treat. The aim of this comprehensivereview is to present and discuss the development, clinical use, benefits, and drawbacks of the miniscrew implants used to obtain a temporary but absolute/skeletal anchorage for orthodontic applications. Topics to be discussed include classification, types and properties, types of, screw head, and thread, clinical applications, site and placement method selection, clinical procedures for implant insertion is presented.
50 | P a g e high speed in less time. Also in all types of hybrid vehicle as battery is going to use to store energy which is used to drive the car it is also necessary that it should get charged to use again and again. For that special type of alternators are provide at each wheel which generates the electricity from rotating wheel and stores it in battery so that it can be used further whenever it is necessary.
The design and improvement of displays has always been a core topic for the human factors and engineering approach so that general display design guidelines are available. In the Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Bennett, Nagy and Flach (2012) introduce a problem-driven approach with the main goal to provide the user with a supportive tool for a specific problem-solving task, in this case the management of range resources. According to Bennett, Nagy and Flach (2012), for the display to be an efficient and supportive tool two main two problems must be addressed. The first one is the correspondence problem, it refers to the question: which information should be displayed to meet the tasks and domains demands? In the case of an EV user this would mean: Which information is necessary for the user to effectively manage his range resources? The second one is the coherence problem which is mainly
 Dabbaghjamanesh, M., A. Moeini, M. Ashkaboosi, P. Khazaei, and K. Mirzapalangi. "High Performance Control of Grid Connected Cascaded H-Bridge Active Rectifier Based on Type II-Fuzzy Logic Controller with Low Frequency Modulation Technique." International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering (2088- 8708) 6, no. 2 (2016).
 Pourbehzadi, Motahareh, Taher Niknam, Jamshid Aghaei, Geev Mokryani, Miadreza Shafie-khah, and João PS Catalão. "Optimal operation of hybrid AC/DC microgrids under uncertainty of renewable energy resources: A comprehensivereview." International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 109 (2019): 139- 159.
ABSTRACT: Automobile industry is a developing sector. Many advanced technologies are implementing in this field. In current situation for pollution control, conventional diesel vehicles are replacing with new echo friendly Green vehicles. Thus electric vehicles have their on importance in current situation. Thus new and enhanced technologies are needed for improving the performance of conventional electric vehicles. This paper is trying to analyse a new model of SRM Hub motor for electricalvehicle. For vehicle modeling Passive loading scheme is used.