Abstract— Companies are facing manifold challenges while trying to implement Industrie 4.0, which are in great parts rooted in the complexity of Industrie 4.0 and its associated fields of research. To mitigate these challenges and structure Industrie 4.0, initiatives have developed abstract reference architectural models. The research on hand uses the reference architectural model developed by the German Platform Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0). This work aims to create a concrete, yet universal, application-oriented model that fosters the widespread of RAMI 4.0 in practice, supports further research and amendments, and hence, facilitates the implementation of Industrie 4.0 in small and medium-sized enterprises by means of an information tool. Finally, the foundation for a subsequent inclusion of IT security in RAMI 4.0 is laid.
narrative to the extent it identifies the risk but the larger implications for the Global Fund as it matures organisationally are perhaps more speculative than is acceptable for evaluative work. Study Area 3 is a health impact study on the national disease control programs for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in 18 countries. It sought to assess overall progress toward the MDGs by all partners, international and national, not just the Global Fund. “The Health Impact Evaluation is not an evaluation specifically of Global Fund grants, but is instead an effort to assess the overall impact of all partners in scaling up the fight against AIDS, TB and malaria (The Technical Evaluation Reference Group 2009a, p. 16).” The study points to the need for partners including the Global Fund to coordinate support and monitor health system strengthening activities (MACRO International 2009, p. ES-51) and notes that “Currently, aspects of HIV, TB, and malaria grants are considered to contribute to HSS [health system strengthening], but the evaluation study provides sufficient evidence that this is leading to imbalances in efforts to effectively deliver interventions… (MACRO International 2009, p. ES-51).” Despite the significant complexity and scope of Study Area 3, the evaluation suggests that the ability to assess system impact remains nascent, confirming the observation by Biesma et al.( 2009, p. 248) that little empirical evidence exists about deductive assertions that vertical interventions may affect the performance of weak health systems and how this may occur. A WHO collaboration group’s assessment (World Health Organization Maximizing Positive Synergies Collaborative Group 2009, p. 261) of GHIs and country health systems observed “…GHIs and country health systems are not independent but are inextricably linked…[and] the two are dynamic, complex entities such that examination of their interaction cannot be a simplistic, single variable, linear analysis.” While there is much agreement that assessing vertical interventions and the relationship to health systems and health systems strengthening is a challenge, there has yet to be a breakthrough evaluation that shows the way to how this might be done.
Consider the case of Yum! Brands. It derived about half of its revenues from China and faced a sharp decline in 2013 in the Chinese market because of an antibiotics scare in the local poultry supply chain. The company’s ability to grow in additional markets also ran into barriers: for example, the growth of its KFC franchise in sub-Saharan Africa was capped by the lack of local modernized poultry farming practices. Supply chain deficiencies are one facet of the contextual gaps we alluded to earlier. Alternatively, natural and environmental challenges and inadequate institutions to protect against them can represent a different form of a gap. Consider the cases of Coca Cola and Nike. Both companies found that their global growth opportunities were at risk of being severely affected by environmental and climatic changes. Droughts, more unpredictable weather patterns, and more frequent major floods are threats to Coca Cola’s supply of key ingredients – such as sugar cane, sugar beets and citrus for its fruit juices – sourced from agricultural sectors highly dependent on natural water supplies. Similarly, Nike has had to contend with factory shutdowns due to floods in Asia. In the face of these challenges, leading businesses are investing in initiatives to close the gaps through a variety of sustainable and inclusive business activities – we shall refer to them as SIBA – that address the contextual gaps and create social, environmental and economic value. Of late, numerous case studies and illustrations have appeared in the media, in corporate publications and in the academic literature that describe such activities. The present study was motivated by the need to understand the incentives behind SIBA: the drivers and inhibitors within business organizations that help explain why managers undertake SIBA and why they may not. SIBA is, after all, a relatively new phenomenon, is not uniformly conducted at scale, and is not necessarily tied to a company’s strategy focused on its core markets. It is important to understand the reasons behind why businesses invest in them to understand the degree of commitment to SIBA and its effectiveness in addressing the contextual gaps, creating social impact and supporting the core business objectives over the longer-term.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. In the same year, the UN General Assembly endorsed the action by WMO and UNEP in jointly establishing the IPCC. The IPCC is a scientific body under the auspices of the United Nations (UN). It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. Review is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective and complete assessment of current information. IPCC aims to reflect a range of views and expertise. The Secretariat coordinates all the IPCC work and liaises with Governments. It is established by WMO and UNEP and located at WMO headquarters in Geneva. Because of its scientific and intergovernmental nature, the IPCC embodies a unique opportunity to provide rigorous and balanced scientific information to decision makers. By endorsing the IPCC reports, governments acknowledge.
Baltimore UniCERT is the most critical element at the hear t of a PKI. Leveraging digital cer tificate technology, UniCERT uniquely identifies individuals operating in an electronic environment and enables users to digitally sign any electronic transaction. The ability to digitally sign transactions uniquely binds users to specific messages or instructions, and offers strong non-repudiation controls for organizations deploying new web-based initiatives.
During interviews some respondents explained that the rationale that drove GHIs like PEPFAR and the Glo- bal Fund to set up these parallel mechanisms were related to the weak capacity of government-particularly in relation to timely disbursement of funds, procure- ment and monitoring and evaluation. If they had decided to work through the existing government struc- tures, this would have delayed the implementation sche- dule of their activities. Interviewees also said that separate management structures were used as a mechanism to reduce fiduciary risks. The latter was sub- stantiated to some extent when in 2005, the Global Fund identified serious mismanagement problems in five of its grants to Uganda leading to their suspension . However the suspension was lifted later in the year highlighting some of the complexities related to this issue-further explored elsewhere .
142 to force all OTC derivatives onto exchanges (in order to boost standardization and transparency) and to empower regulators to ban the use of unattached derivatives. Bush administration officials were supportive of some of the initiatives being promoted in Congress not just because of their tactical recognition of the degree of Congressional and public concern. A genuine ideational shift took place among key US officials in the context of the crisis. Already, in the immediate wake of the March 2008 Bear Stearns crisis, they had begun to push industry very hard to create CCPs, particularly for the OTC CDS market. US officials also urged more use of automation and electronic trading, greater standardization of contracts, the cancellation (or “compression”) of outstanding CDS contracts that offset each other, and the hard wiring of the ISDA cash settlement protocol into documentation. Then, on the day before the November G20 summit, they announced detailed regulatory objectives for the OTC derivatives markets, some of which went beyond the subsequent G20 statement in their specificity and/or goals such as: 1) required public reporting of prices, trading volumes and aggregate open interest for CDS, 2) access for regulators to trade and position information regarding CDS at CCPs and central trade repositories (with one objective being that of “preventing market manipulation”), 3) standards (particularly regarding risk management) for regulated entities that transact in OTC derivatives, and 4) review by regulatory agencies to determine if they have adequate enforcement authority to police against “fraud and market manipulation” (PWG 2008).
Deficiencies in the quality of health care are major limiting factors to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health. Quality of patient care in hospitals is firmly on the agendas of Western countries but has been slower to gain traction in developing countries, despite evidence that there is substantial scope for improvement, that hospitals have a major role in child survival, and that inequities in quality may be as important as inequities in access. There is now substantial global experience of strategies and interventions that improve the quality of care for children in hospitals with limited resources. The World Health Organization has developed a toolkit that contains adaptable instruments, including a framework for quality improvement, evidence-based clinical guidelines in the form of the Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children, teaching material, assessment, and mortality audit tools. These tools have been field-tested by doctors, nurses, and other child health workers in many developing countries. This collective experience was brought together in a global World Health Organization meeting in Bali in 2007. This article describes how many countries are achieving improvements in quality of pediatric care, despite limited resources and other major obstacles, and how the evidence has progressed in recent years from documenting the nature and scope of the problems to describing the effectiveness of innovative interventions. The challenges remain to bring these and other strategies to scale and to support research into their use, impact, and sustainability in different environments.
Findings: During Rounds 3 – 10 of the Global Fund, only 5.8% of grants submitted were for multi-country initiatives. Out of 83 multi-country proposals submitted, 25.3% were approved by the Technical Review Panel (TRP) for funding, compared to 44.9% of single-country applications. The majority of approved multi-country applications were for HIV (76.2%), followed by malaria (19.0%), then tuberculosis (4.8%). TRP recommendations resulted in improvements to application forms, although guidance was generally vague. The in-depth review of Round 10 multi-country proposals showed that applicants described their projects in one of two ways: a regional ‘ network approach ’ by which benefits are derived from economies of scale or from enhanced opportunities for mutual support and learning or the development of common policies and approaches; or a ‘ cross-border ’ approach for enabling activities to be more effectively delivered towards border-crossing populations or vectors. In Round 10, only those with a ‘ network approach ’ were recommended for funding. The Global Fund has only ever approved six malaria multi-country applications. Four approved applications stated strong arguments for a multi-country initiative, combining both ‘ cross-border ’ and ‘ network ’ approaches.
Malawi’s health workforce response suggests differ- ences to Zambia in GHI health systems’ effects. Support from donors in April 2005 , including the Global Fund which agreed to the re-allocation of Malawi’s Round 1 grant, enabled Malawi to start to implement its Emergency Human Resource Programme . Demand- side differences, whereby Malawi exerted pressure on the Fund, or supply-side differences, whereby Global Fund portfolio managers interpreted the Fund ’ s guide- lines differently in Malawi, could have accounted for this decision to re-allocate the Round 1 grant. As a result, Malawi ’ s Programme has focused on funding basic training (doubling the number of nurses and tri- pling the number of doctors in training), staff recruit- ment, deployment (including to rural areas), retention (partly through salary top-ups), basic training and retraining of HSAs to deliver HIV services, and incen- tives for training tutors [11-13]. Malawi, with the sup- port of the Global Fund through a central pooled mechanism, has been able to invest a greater proportion of its resources on basic training: “... a 165% increase in pre-service training and 79% increase in post-basic training ” , compared to Zambia.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 9 Data in table 1c shows that the total number and volume of significant spills; the weight of transported, imported, exported or treated waste deemed hazardous; identity, size, protected status and biodiversity value of water bodies; and percentage of products sold and their packaging materials that are reclaimed by category had mean score of 1.0000 each. While initiatives to mitigate environmental impacts of products and services; and impacts of transporting products and other goods and materials used for the organization‟s operations had means of 1.3750 each, compliance with monetary value of significant fines and non – compliance with environmental laws had a mean of 2.300. On the other hand, while extent of reporting on flooding had a mean of 1.6250, extent of reporting on erosion and desert encroachment had mean scores of 2.6250 and 2.7500 respectively i.e. above 2.50, it means that Nigerian banks report on them to a great extent in contrast to other items. These results are in line with the observations of Udeh and Nwadialor (2014) that the contents of CSR reports are reasonably environment – directed. Due to the peculiar devastating consequences of erosion and desert encroachment in Nigeria, banks invested and reported on these locally threatening environmental issues.
Hebert and co-authors 23 suggested a 650 base pair (bp) sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as the reference DNA barcode for all animal life. This gene occurs in the mitochondria of all eukaryotic organisms, and the initial appraisal revealed consistent resolving capability at the species level for many animals. There are a few recognised limitations of this barcoding region, namely the possible lack of resolution for recently diverged species or for particular animal taxa (eg, cnidarians), or the inability to detect cases of introgressive hybridisation. These exceptions are thought to represent only a minor percentage of the target species on a global scale. Moreover, it is expected that these limitations can be tackled using additional or alternative barcoding regions in a comparatively small number of exceptional cases. Thus, while COI has been elected as the prime DNA barcode for identification of animals (and probably for macroalgae, too 24 ) the pursuit of regions of
The second is by integrating nutrition — in other words, by including specific pro-nutrition actions — in programs in other sectors. For example, school curric- ula should include basic knowledge of good nutrition, including family nutrition practices. The closest links, though, are to food security and agriculture, health and social protection, which are three sectors in which the international development community recently launched high priority initiatives and in which there are opportunities to contribute directly to better nutri- tion outcomes. To take the case of agriculture, there is a need to incorporate nutrition interventions into smallholder agriculture and rural livelihoods programs, for example through encouraging home production of foods like fruits and vegetables and animal products that are rich in nutrients. Similarly, research should be intensified on biofortification as well as on increas- ing yields of nutrient-rich foods and of staple foods of the poor. ***** One powerful way to encourage more
The progressive transformation of the global system has gone hand in hand with a stronger affirmation of developing countries in the WTO decision-making process. While "developing countries" – a 'status' based on self-designation – do not constitute a group per se, they form the wider part of the WTO constituency and have increasingly participated in the work of WTO committees, be it in formal sessions or in more informal settings such as small-format consultations. LDCs have organised themselves as a distinct group with contributions of its own. This transformation has also been tangible in the litigation pillar of the WTO. For instance, from a mostly defensive position upon its accession in 2001, China has now become a litigator equivalent to the EU or the US. The WTO is one amongst many international organisations where the shift in economic power at the global scale has resulted in developing countries gaining a major say. That changing picture therefore raises the issue of whether and how to adapt institutions like the WTO to new realities in order to maintain the smooth functioning of these entities while ensuring that due consideration is given to countries most in need.
affecting the poorest and vulnerable people the most (IFAD, 2009). The IPCC predicts that by 2100 the increase in global average surface temperature may be between 1.8 and 4.0 °C. With global average temperature increase of only 1.5 – 2.5°C degrees, approximately 20-30 percent of plant and animal species are expected to be at the risk of extinction (Fischlin et al, 2007). While some species will be able to migrate or change their behavior to accommodate climate change, other species may go extinct (EPA). Of the planet’s 1.3 billion poor people, at least 90% are located in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (Thornton et al., 2002). The livestock sector in these economies will be specifically affected by climate changes through: changes in the pattern and quantity of rainfall, an increase in temperature, changes in winds, changes in seasonality, more frequent catastrophic events, a decrease in feed and fodder production, reduced water availability, changing patterns and distribution of disease, changes in the marketing and prices of commodities.
Description: This Frost & Sullivan research service titled Green Data Centers--Emerging Trends and Developments provides the key technologies and industry trends that are shaping the move toward green and energy- efficient data centers. This research service provides an analysis on the impact of the economic downturn on data center energy initiatives, an overview of global data center energy consumption trends, and an analysis of metrics and standards utilized to measure data center energy efficiency.
“Global Refugee Sponsorship Initiative Promotes Canada’s Private Refugee Sponsorship Model,” 16 December 2016, http://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2016/12/58539e524/ global-refugee-sponsorship-initiative-promotes-canadas- private-refugee.html. The launch event brought together over ninety civil society and government official partici- pants from nine countries. The GRSI works toward these goals by providing tailored, direct assistance to govern- ment officials and community leaders in countries around the world interested in learning about, designing, and implementing community sponsorship programs. Support activities, inter alia, technical support in policy develop- ment, infrastructure planning, development of materials such as forms and guides, evaluation design, facilitating peer-to-peer learning, and providing training to sponsors. 14 Frank Giustra, “It Will Take More Than Governments to Solve