for estimating labile P even after decades of related research, 20 and many other extracts have been proposed as P bioavailability indicators in soils such as, Mehlich 1, Bray 1, Mehlich 3, water, ammonium acetate, and DTPA. 21 Moreover, many P indices that employ a strong chemical extractant, were not introduced as a quantitative measure of P availability, but as availability indexes. For lack of better methods, these are often used as a quantitative measure of plant available P. In some cases the di ﬀ erent extrac- tants have been theoretically designed to work with the dominant soil matrix and pH of speci ﬁ c geographical regions (e.g., alkaline calcareous soils), others are unspeci ﬁ c respect to type of soil matrix. Some of these P bioavailability methods are currently being used and recommended to soils with conditions funda- mentally di ﬀ erent than the ones these methods were designed for. Ultimately, the greatest challenge for predicting the availability of soil P to plants will be the design of an easily implemented analytical tool, which best represents the P bio- availability regarding both the residual soil P and plant response to fertilization. In a critical P experiment (crop response to increasing P fertilizer doses) P DGT was shown to be the best
A classic example of knowledge loss risk is the NASA story (DeLong, 2004; Mahler & Casamayou, 2009). More than $24 billion was invested in NASA over the 10 years to research and produce the spacecraft and the whole system for launching it, aiming at landing the first astronaut on the moon. At its pick, 400,000 were working on the Apollo project. By 1972 five more Apollo missions proved that NASA could safely explore the moon. As Mahler and Casamayou (2009) remark, after about 30 years of working to these unique projects, due to many structuring and re-structuring with downsizing, events which made many scientists and engineers to accept early retirement programs, or leave for other jobs, NASA lost a significant critical knowledge in designing and building spatial vehicles. The same conclusion is formulated by DeLong (2004, p.11): “In an era of cost-cutting and downsizing, the engineers who designed the huge Saturn 5 rocket used to launch the lunar landing craft were encouraged to take early retirement from the space program. With them went years of experience and expertise about the design trade-offs that had been made in building the Saturn rockets”.
The students are perceived as individuals who have certain psychological needs to be fulfilled, particularly the need to be accepted and appreciated. In relation to this, it is important to promote a cooperative and supportive learning atmosphere,which will enhance their self-esteem, specifically their “task self-esteem” (Brown, 2000, p. 146) to facilitate the learning process This is supported by William and Burden that “teachers can affect learning in a range of ways that go far beyond the transmission of knowledge” (1997, p. 65). In addition, following Rogers’ humanistic approach to education” (1969, quoted by William and Burden), that “actual learning will only take place when the students are involved in active participation” (1997, p. 35), the students are actively engaged in various kinds of activities. The students are not just to listen to lectures, but to be actively engaged in various kinds of activities: brief reading, brain storming, group discussion, presentation, class discussion, individual work and group projects. Besides, new concepts are introduced on the foundation of known basis, what the students have known or experienced. The students are elicited to collect words and meaningful combinations as syntactic units to arrive at certain syntactic types. The whole learning process is parallel to the type of learning called “experiential learning”, which employs the learners’ “immediate personal experience” as the basis to approach and “organize the learning process” (Nunan, 1999, p. 5)
Interoperability is among the most critical challenges to be addressed when designing and developing systems as independent “collections” that could or should co-operate and rely on each other to accomplish larger tasks. There is not yet a full interoperability solution or approach that is sufficient to serve the overall needs of digital library organisations and digital library systems. In fact, there does not seem to be yet a single definition of interoperability that is unanimously accepted either by the research or professional communities, although the IEEE (1991) and ISO/IEC 2382- 2001 (2001) definitions can be considered as a guiding reference.
Corporate citizenship and sustainability require business decision makers to adopt a holisticapproach to economic, social, and environmental issues in their core business strategy, and according to Porter and Kramer (2006), only a holisticapproach will allow for the effective management of business opportunities and risks. The implementation of sustainable development implies also a governance system that ensures the participation of all in the decision making process (Bisaillon et al., 2005; See Section 7, this article). According to Robinson (2010), there could be no single complete answer, but rather an elaboration of the complexity of the topic. On the issue of mine closure alone, for instance, sustainability has many profound ramifications, including environmental acceptability, safety, long-term stability, and hydrological considerations (See Sangonet, 2013; Irina and Stückelberger, 2014). Above all, the future of the workers and the community is paramount since they are threatened with no livelihood after cessation of the mining activity.
facade used to transform an unappealing 15-year-old single house into a bright and airy home. The walls were knocked down to open the house back up to daylight and ventilation, and to create an airy, open-plan layout. The steel trellis which serving as a security precaution, was covered with green climbing plants to add fresh air, provide a privacy screen, and create an attractive green waterfall-like façade. An air ventilation layer was inserted beneath the raised ground floor to prevent the common Hanoi problem of rising condensation in humid environs. The addition of a roof garden protects the building from the harsh West sunlight and provides an area to grow vegetables and flowers. Vo Trong Nghia Architects hope that the Green Renovation’s will inspire even greater green development in Vietnam and serve as a model for greening tropical cities.
licence requirements, different control systems, cou- pled with the diversity of the extractive industries (including multi-national companies and SMEs), result in a challenging situation at the EU level. There have been considerable changes in the mining sector throughout Europe over several decades. These changes were caused by economic and political factors, and resulted in the cessation of traditional mining activ- ities in several regions, the introduction of new mining activities in areas with weak mining traditions, as well as in the increased importance of the large international mining corporations. In some cases, there have been opportunities to improve mining waste management systems by applying international experience and high safety standards, but the history of recent major mining accidents in Europe has shown that strong national leg- islation and efficient control systems are indispensable to avoid or reduce the risk of accidents. The new EU Mining Waste Directive has been drafted in order to set minimum requirements in relation to the management of waste produced by the extractive industries. By spec-
The biochemical processes that control metal mobility and bioavailability include sorption on mineral and organic surfaces, dissolution, (bio-) mineralization, redox processes, complexation by biogenic or non biogenic ligands and the uptake by the biota . These processes could determine the metal distribution in the environment and therefore their bioavailability and toxicity. Mining activity is a vital and rich source of metal contamination of ecosystems. This activity affects, relatively, small areas but could have a significant impact on the whole environment. Mine closure is predominantly being followed by abandoned piles of the gold miningtailings that are disposed onto surrounding soils leading to their exposure to environment factors. Metal release from the tailings may lead to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), thus impacting both soil and aquatic environments [12-14]. Several studies have been undertaken on the impact of mining activity on soils, waters, sediments and plants. Additionally, concentration of trace elements in the sediment may render soils nonproductive because of phytotoxicity. Moreover, impeded litter decomposition and soil respiration are common features of heavy metals polluted soils . They generally show that the most wide spread phenomenon in these sites is acid mine drainage which is due to the oxidation of metal sulfides (e.g. pyrite (FeS2)), leading to the acidification of the drainage water [12-20]. The impact of mining activity on a given site is controlled by several factors including climatic factors, mining methods, geological conditions, and of whether the mines were active or abandoned. The present investigation is a continuation of our previous published report on monitoring the anthropogenic and geochemical environment surrounding the Butana drinking water sources in the dry season. The primary objectives of the current study are to unveil the chemical composition of the soil, stream sediment and gold mines tailings in the Wet season. The secondary objectives are to carry out a comparative review of the environmental chemical variations between the Wet and Dry seasons and hence obtain basic and simple information permitting a better understanding of the anthropogenic and environmental impacts of the heavy metals and on the quality of drinking water of the Butana region, Sudan.
Table 9 showed the final comparison of different suggested options for experimental work of upgrading phosphate ore tailings of Nasr Mining Company. From this table, it can be seen that option_2 resulted the maximum profit (30,330,800 LE), the least payback period (0.16 year), and the maximum accounting rate of return (630%) while option_1 gave the minimum profit (18,784,400 LE), the largest payback period (0.26 year), and the minimum accounting rate of return (389%). Options_3 and 4 gave nearly the same values of net annual profit, payback period, and accounting rate of return.
The mineralogical variability of the samples of tailings was minimal (Table 3). The predominant minerals and mineralogical groups were quartz, feldspar, clays of the kaolinite group (to 7.3 Å), as well as calcite and ortho- pyroxene (enstatite-ferrosilite series). Phase identification was performed using the PDF-2 database of the In- ternational Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD) with the program Jade v.5. The Powder Diffraction File (PDF) patterns associated with peak identification were 00-019-0002, 00-046-1045, 00-014-0164, 00-047-1743 and 00-019-0607, which correspond to orthoclase, quartz, kaolinite-1 Å, calcite and ferrosilite, respectively. The or- thoclase pattern was associated with potassium feldspars, and ferrosilite was associated with a mineral of the enstatite-ferrosilite series. The adjustment process of the diffractometer allowed for refinement of the unit cell parameters. Phase quantification was carried out using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) method .
Microgrids are regionally limited power systems de- signed to operate semi-independently, usually operating by being connected to the macrogrid or being separated (islanding) from it due to cost effective or other reasons. As described above, the “Energy Supply Chain Net” is based on a generic model and easily supports the estab- lishment of microgrids and their re-connection to the main system, i.e., the macrogrid. Figure 5 shows the mi- crogrid establishment process. Figure 5(a) shows the normal operation in which active and reactive power are flowing through the intersection points of the grids part (red and blue arrows show active and reactive power respectively).
From an analysis of this extensive literature, the follow- ing points can be made with reference to basin construc- tion and management and safety conditions of containment plants. Among the various construction methods usually adopted for earth dam raisings (downstream method, cen- tral axis method, upstream method), the last is recognized as the least suitable in terms of dam stability, because stability characteristics gradually worsen with increasing dam height (Brawner and Campbell, 1973; Rossi, 1973; Bauer, 1978; Klohn, 1979; Robinson, 1979; Watermayer and Williamson, 1979; Highter and Tobin, 1980; Lebegue, 1985; Cedergren, 1998; Salgueiro et al., 2008). According to some authors, this is mainly due to the construction method, which in- volves dam raising on silts, which in large part are not yet consolidated. Highter and Tobin (1980) summarized the re- sulting factors influencing future instability arising from this method as: (a) increased pore pressure in the underlying fine material; (b) differential settlement in the body of the embankment with the potential development of longitudi- nal cracks; (c) establishment of suspended groundwater with roughly horizontal filtration towards the external face of the dam, facilitated by an alternation of silty and sandy mate- rials; (d) high susceptibility of unconsolidated materials to disaggregate not only because of the application of cyclical strains, but also because of the impulsive action of overloads or the effect of a rapid collapse (see also Nyren et al., 1979). Several authors underlined the fundamental requirement of preventing any direct contact between the decantation wa- ter and the embankment. This can be achieved by creating a strip of fine sand and silt (beach formed by a series of delta welded together) near the dam, but peripheral to the area of invasion, with the aim of extending and lowering the groundwater path to prevent direct filtration through the embankment body and seepage into its external face. This implies the need for continuous monitoring systems to con- trol the water height in the basin and assess drainage effi- ciency (Swaisgood and Toland, 1973; Klohn, 1979; Robin- son, 1979; Watermayer and Williamson, 1979; Isaacs and Hunt, 1981; Lebegue, 1985, L´aszl´o, 2006).
The biochar used in this study was found to be inert in terms of both tailing leachate chemistry and microbial activity (microbial respiration). We found little difference in leachate EC and pH, microbial biomass and soil respir- ation between the biochar treatment and the pure tailings. The biochar is practically composed of only unsubstituted aromatic carbon, which is consistent with recent findings that at higher production temperature (>500°C), wood chars only had aromatic structures left . Biochar is generally hard to be used by soil microorganisms [40,41]. The resistance of biochar to degradation has been well demonstrated in recent publications, like Kuzyakov et al.  who estimated that the mean residence time of black carbon in soils under natural conditions is about 2,000 years, and Olivier  who found that biochar cannot be directly utilized by soil microbial consortia as sole carbon source. Thus, the short- to medium-term effects
Proto-analysis in the title of this article comes from the Greek root word “protos” which means the first or earliest or origi- nal. This article considers how Crime Scene Reconstruction (CSR) has evolved from its earliest stages to present day in its ability to present a credible foundation that will with- stand a court voir dire challenge. Crime scene reconstruction has also moved from, in the early days, analyzing small specific points to now doing holistic analysis of the entire incident.
In this technique the servers are transitioned to low power state or turned off when idle or during low activity periods. Another approach called server consolidation is a technique where workload or the existing applications are consolidated onto fewer servers and rest of the unused servers are made to go in low power state. These kinds of approaches are very useful in optimizing data center energy efficiency.
“In most cities, utilities and services are constrained with fast population growth and working around aging infrastructure. The values, businesses and residents seen in new cities, have better experiences, improved services, and utilities that better especially in the KAEC Forum 2015). The world is changing faster than ever before. Knowledge cities are considered one of the global megatrends shaking up the city off with the term “intellectual capital” concept which was first coined to give a structure to the components of the theories that would govern the adoption of knowledge cities. This term (intellectual capital approach) tional, human and organizational. According to recent research, there are several distinctions, derived from many parts of the world, for the term One main characteristic of knowledge cities directs attention to ‘an economy, whether local or regional,
The oil sands industry in Canada has been developing for over 40 years and are expected to grow in the future. During this process, many concerns, such as the geotechnical risk, local groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas emission have been raised on tailings (Sobkowicz 2012, Small et al. 2015). Oil sands tailings, the by-products after oil sands processing, are mixtures of sand, silt, clay, water, residual bitumen and other hydrocarbons. The current tailings management is focusing on several aspects, i.e., production, storage, and reclamation of fluid fine tailings (Sobkowicz 2012). One of challenges in the tailings management is to accelerate the dewatering rate and minimize fluid fine tailings (FFT). The existing tailings require many large tailings ponds for storage, and must be consolidated in order to reclaim the land occupied by these tailings ponds. A major challenge for the dewatering and consolidation treatment is to deal with the mature fine tailings (MFT), which typically have the solid content of about 30% and naturally remain in a very stable condition.
In this paper, propose a system to automatically extract advantages and disadvantages from online reviews. While many approaches have been developed for extracting opinions from the text, the focus here is to take advantage of an online review site with pros and cons that may themselves be in any form of facts or opinions generated by the author. Review text strengths and weaknesses provide a system that matches the review text the largest entropy model is trained in the results set to extract the strengths and weaknesses that are not explicitly offered from online review sites, then the experimental results show that results in the 76% of accuracy . From this research paper conclude that data mining is a very important research topic and that facilitates the improvement process of the business, such as the preference of the user of the mining. Many approaches have been developed for extracting opinions from the text, news and customer reviews that are widely accessible on the internet. Study the various methods and graphical model for modeling complex problems in a natural way.