Top PDF A Knowledge Theory of Tacit Agreement

A Knowledge Theory of Tacit Agreement

A Knowledge Theory of Tacit Agreement

The Ninth Circuit tackled this question in the Petroleum Products case, a private treble damage action filed by several states against a group of ma- jor oil companie[r]

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An Analysis Of Structural Social Capital And The Individual’s Intention To Share Tacit Knowledge Using Reasoned Action Theory

An Analysis Of Structural Social Capital And The Individual’s Intention To Share Tacit Knowledge Using Reasoned Action Theory

Tacit knowledge sharing was examined in terms of the individual’s work experience. It related to their ability to know what to perform and how to perform on the basis of their educational training. This study utilized Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (1998) definition and conceptualization of social capital as its point of departure. They define social capital as “the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit” (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998: 243). Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (1998) perspective lines up well with Bourdieu and Wacquant’s (1992) approach who focus on the advantages and benefits that individuals derive as a result of individual relationships of mutual acquaintances and on the creation of social networks which assist in the creation of resources.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

We invite unpublished novel, original, empirical and high quality research work pertaining to the recent developments & practices in the areas of Com- puter Science & Applications; Commerce; Business; Finance; Marketing; Human Resource Management; General Management; Banking; Economics; Tourism Administration & Management; Education; Law; Library & Information Science; Defence & Strategic Studies; Electronic Science; Corporate Gov- ernance; Industrial Relations; and emerging paradigms in allied subjects like Accounting; Accounting Information Systems; Accounting Theory & Practice; Auditing; Behavioral Accounting; Behavioral Economics; Corporate Finance; Cost Accounting; Econometrics; Economic Development; Economic History; Financial Institutions & Markets; Financial Services; Fiscal Policy; Government & Non Profit Accounting; Industrial Organization; International Economics & Trade; International Finance; Macro Economics; Micro Economics; Rural Economics; Co-operation; Demography: Development Planning; Development Studies; Applied Economics; Development Economics; Business Economics; Monetary Policy; Public Policy Economics; Real Estate; Regional Economics; Political Science; Continuing Education; Labour Welfare; Philosophy; Psychology; Sociology; Tax Accounting; Advertising & Promotion Management; Management Information Systems (MIS); Business Law; Public Responsibility & Ethics; Communication; Direct Marketing; E-Commerce; Global Business; Health Care Administration; Labour Relations & Human Resource Management; Marketing Research; Marketing Theory & Applications; Non-Profit Or- ganizations; Office Administration/Management; Operations Research/Statistics; Organizational Behavior & Theory; Organizational Development; Pro- duction/Operations; International Relations; Human Rights & Duties; Public Administration; Population Studies; Purchasing/Materials Management; Re- tailing; Sales/Selling; Services; Small Business Entrepreneurship; Strategic Management Policy; Technology/Innovation; Tourism & Hospitality; Transpor- tation Distribution; Algorithms; Artificial Intelligence; Compilers & Translation; Computer Aided Design (CAD); Computer Aided Manufacturing; Computer Graphics; Computer Organization & Architecture; Database Structures & Systems; Discrete Structures; Internet; Management Information Systems; Mod- eling & Simulation; Neural Systems/Neural Networks; Numerical Analysis/Scientific Computing; Object Oriented Programming; Operating Systems; Pro- gramming Languages; Robotics; Symbolic & Formal Logic; Web Design and emerging paradigms in allied subjects.
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The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

organization and viscosity, which is the richness and thickness of the delivered knowledge. The approach of knowledge visualization in learning environment can be explained using [38] theory who stated that students’ performance can be uplifted through guidance from a lecturer. The basic idea behind externalization process is the guidance from the expert that can improve students’ knowledge to a higher level from the current level through interaction and transaction process opting tacit and explicit knowledge. Knowledge visualization model explains expert’s guidance method that exercises [38] theory. The guidance method comes from direct relationship between the lecturer and students through the use of teaching materials in learning environment. The scaffolding introduced by [38] is the process of teaching new knowledge in which students gradually become more responsible in performing their task or applying new knowledge [23].
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Polanyi's tacit knowledge applied in intelligence

Polanyi's tacit knowledge applied in intelligence

Owen Ormerod has developed a theory that Michael Polanyi's opinion on science can contribute to understanding the process and the "product" of intelligence analysis. (Ormerod 2018) Michael Polanyi's arguments about the activities of scientists are transferable in the field of intelligence analysis, providing a nuanced perspective for perceiving the epistemological challenges and the problems faced by analysts. Polanyi's concepts of "tacit knowledge" and "personal knowledge" contribute to the development of a more efficient epistemological understanding of some aspects of the process and the intelligence analysis product.
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Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Managers concerned with implementing knowledge management in their organizations today face a number of challenges in developing sound methods for this still emerging area of management practice. Both the growing literature on knowledge management and the advice offered by various knowledge management consultants, however, seem to advocate forms of knowledge management practice that often appear incomplete, inconsistent, and even contradictory. This paper suggests that the current lack of coherence in the diverse recommendations for knowledge management practice results from the fact that the development of both theory and practice in this emerging field is being driven by two fundamentally different approaches to identifying and managing knowledge in organizations. These two approaches are characterized here as the “tacit knowledge” approach and the “explicit knowledge” approach.
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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

The phrase “tacit knowledge” has been widely used in the knowledge management and organization studies areas. There are many definitions and approaches that have been used in explaining and examining tacit knowledge. This paper intends to further elaborate the nature and attributes of tacit knowledge by comparing the works done by distinguish authors on tacit knowledge. The study found that basically there are two issues concerning tacit knowledge. First, whether tacit knowledge is individually-owned or is it collectively-owned and secondly can tacit knowledge becomes explicit. Many authors seem to agree on the definition of tacit knowledge, but in conflicting views of the scope of tacit knowledge. However, three basic attributes of tacit knowledge has some agreement between the authors. The three attributes are tacit knowledge is experientially acquired, difficult to articulate and plays an important role in the attainment of goal of an individual. Tacit knowledge is potentially the most valuable asset in an organization, if it can be elicited and used efficiently and effectively in an organization. The findings for this study are the nature and attributes of tacit knowledge, categorization of tacit knowledge, and a conceptualization framework of tacit knowledge.
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the pro- cess of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and deter- mination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM): depict the es- sence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Trans- fer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of De- sign are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonym- ous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) proves the sig- nificant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey re- sults, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

In the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the most important strategic resource for an organization is knowledge. The application of knowledge in an organization creates new knowledge that leads to competitive advantage for an organization (Grant, 2002; Zack, 1999). However, knowledge within a firm or organizational knowledge is a wide-scope concept. It involves people and context, depends on people’s value and assumptions that leads to its behavior, decision and action in a specific context (Guzman and Wilson, 2005). Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) define organizational knowledge as what is commonly known within a group of people associated with the organization. Common knowledge is knowledge shared among members of society entity, and also known as “collective knowledge” (Baumard, 2001) and originates from the experiences of those in an organization (Dixon, 2000). For Liebotwitz (1999), knowledge in an organization resides in human mind, organization, documents and can either be personalized or diffuse and distributed.
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

This study confirmed the theoretical construct that succession can be framed in socialisation terms (derived from societal socialisation theory), but adds that family and business socialisation while distinct, are not necessarily sequential or triggered by the identification of the family member as the successor. The study also supported the application of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge spiral in the context of family business succession. The role of trust in family business succession is supported by the study’s findings, but the findings expand on the existing literature by differentiating between relationship trust and business competence trust and defining the two types of trust as essential. This study supports prior knowledge that female successors are often viewed as having less leadership ability than male successors, however in this study females experienced more business socialisation than reported in prior studies.
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Balancing on ice: the implicit learning of tacit knowledge

Balancing on ice: the implicit learning of tacit knowledge

However, an increase in self-awareness of one’s own learning is a double-edged sword when one fails to adjust psychologically to meet a learning demand. According to Self-Regulatory Theory (Doerr & Baumeister, 2010), three constituents are essential for self-regulation to function: a realistic and ideal standard, an ability to self-monitor one’s own state of mind and behaviour, and an aptitude to align the current condition with the standard identified. Failure to do so may result in negative emotion and impact on the subsequent learning (Schunk, 2008; Doerr & Baumeister, 2010). In the I.C.E. workplace, the inability to self-regulate, due to lack of physical, social, or emotional resources, may result in “underregulation” or “misregulation”; both states refer to a failure of self-regulating energy or resources in an appropriate level or direction that can result in a generation of a negative affect (Doerr & Baumeister, 2010, p. 75). In other words, self-regulation and psychological well-being show interdependent, or “bidirectional” relationships (Doerr & Baumeister , 2010, p. 77). Thus, the features and aspects of Model B and Table 5 may also serve as a diagnostic tool for individual effects as well as organisational effects. However, further research will have to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of cognitive or behavioural interventions, such as self-regulation strategies and skills, based on the findings in this study.
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THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

Effective and efficient knowledge sharing brings the sustainable competitive advantage for organizations that are not easily imitated by competitors. But knowledge sharing itself is worthless for employees and the organization, unless the people, who need special knowledge, get it and apply it at the right time. One of the problems the majority of research in the field of knowledge management face it, is the absence of a theory and general guidelines for knowledge sharing that is applicable to all organizations, and there is no shortcuts that guarantees the success in the field of knowledge sharing and every organization has to identify key factors that will ensure their success in this field, with the investment and attention to these factors (Mac Derkot and O'Dell 2001 : 80).
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Tacit Knowledge Transfer at Engineering Consulting Organizations

Tacit Knowledge Transfer at Engineering Consulting Organizations

The conceptual framework for this study was SECI (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). The framework is grounded in (a) knowledge creation theory developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1995 and (b) transformational leadership theory (Burns, 1978). These theories are the basis for understanding leaders’ perspectives on strategies to influence knowledge transfer and identification of potential barriers. I chose a case study so as to explore and capture the participants’ experiences and develop themes from emerging data. Bailey (2014) pointed out that the case study design adopts a step-by-step process for a better understanding of a given outcome. The basis for the use of a case study is to follow the path of constructivism. The view of constructivism centered on how people construct their understanding and knowledge of the world (Tadajewski, 2016). The described position allows me to examine the complexity of views of the research participants rather than the restricted meaning of the few ideas on the phenomenon of interest.
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Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Innovation A Societal Perspective

Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Innovation A Societal Perspective

Knowledge and competence are increasingly regarded as the most critical resources of firms and economies. Much recent attention has focused, in particular, on the importance of 'tacit knowledge' for sustaining firms’ competitiveness, and its role in technological innovation and organisational learning. This paper argues that the extent to which tacit knowledge constitutes the knowledge base of the firm, and how it is formed and used are powerfully shaped by the broader social and institutional context. It builds upon the premise that the knowledge of the firm is socially embedded. It is rooted in organisational coordination mechanisms and routines which, in turn, are heavily influenced by societal institutions. Societal level factors such as education and training systems, the structures of the labour market and social relationships between different occupational groups are important factors shaping organisational structures and processes within which the knowledge of the firm is embedded. The paper develops a four-fold typology, at the individual, organisational and societal levels, as an analytical framework to explain the links between knowledge types, patterns of work organisation and societal institutions. It shows how the three levels interact to shape the learning and innovative capabilities of firms. The theory developed in this paper represents the first attempt to integrate the diverse strands of literature and different levels of analysis into a single coherent framework. It holds promise for interpreting and understanding the sources of differences in learning and innovation practices between firms, industries and countries.
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Information encountering on social media and tacit knowledge sharing

Information encountering on social media and tacit knowledge sharing

The information exchanged among individuals on social media is usually articulated, therefore, it might be argued that information encountering on social media mostly facilitates sharing of explicit knowledge (documented and articulated knowledge). However, based on Nonaka and Takeuchi’s [7] knowledge creation theory it can be argued that information encountering on social media may also facilitate tacit knowledge sharing (the knowledge that resides in human minds that cannot be easily verbalised, e.g., ideas, rule of thumbs, technical skills, and intuition). According to Nonaka and Takeuchi, tacit knowledge creation relies not only on personal experiences and knowledge acquired at the workplace, but also depends on the availability and adequate consumption of existing knowledge and information. The increased interaction with existing knowledge provides more possibilities for internalising the assimilated knowledge which then establishes more opportunities for creating new tacit knowledge.
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Exploiting Distributed Cognition to Make Tacit Knowledge Explicating

Exploiting Distributed Cognition to Make Tacit Knowledge Explicating

The current studies of tacit knowledge explicating fo- cus mainly on the methods of explicating, transfer model and technique, especially SECI model pushes up greatly the development of knowledge management theory and practice, and becomes one of important foundations of knowledge management theory [34]. However, it is a pity that SECI doesn’t take cognitive psychology into account [35] when it provides a suit of analysis paradigm [36]. In recent years, cognitive psychology has been paid more and more attention to by scholars when they are studying tacit knowledge. The inner mechanism of tacit knowledge and implicit cognition has been discussed. Implicit cog- nition provides empirical evidence for tacit knowledge from psychology, and tacit knowledge provides theoreti- cal basement from epistemology [37]. And cognitive structure of tacit knowledge is also discussed, which is comprised of implicit system mechanism, ingredients transferred mechanism and motivation mechanism [38]. However, most of the research works focus on the indi- vidual cognition of tacit and few discuss on the cognitive activity of tacit knowledge explicating. From the most fundamental terms, tacit knowledge explicating is one kind of cognitive activity. The success of tacit knowledge explicating depends on individual, artifacts, environment, cultures, etc. in the cognitive activity. How to reveal the cognition activity is the most essential question. Only after having discussed the activity which is like black box, we can made further research on how to increase the ef- ficiency of tacit knowledge explicating.
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit knowledge is more difficult to share rather than explicit knowledge, because explicit knowledge is theory-based and transmitted in formal, systematic language (Nonaka 1994). Nonaka and Konno (1998) stated that converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge using a process of externalization before sharing can take place. On the other hand, Polanyi (1966) suggest that to be able to share tacit knowledge the possessor of it must first become conscious of the knowledge he possesses and then finds a way to express the knowledge. Only after this occurs can a sharing of knowledge take place.
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A Theory of Tacit Collusion

A Theory of Tacit Collusion

Of some relevance to the current paper is the literature on the rational learning of strategies in a repeated game; see, for example, Kalai and Lehrer (1993) and Nachbar (2005). The main result of Kalai and Lehrer (1993) is that if players are rational and each starts with a set of beliefs on other players’ strategies that are compatible with the strategies actually chosen then play must converge in finite time to an −Nash equilibrium of the repeated game, for arbitrarily small . Assumptions are very weak in that a player need not know other players’ payoffs or whether they are rational. In contrast, it is assumed here that rationality and payoff functions are common knowledge. While both that literature and the current paper explore behavior in a repeated game setting when strategies are not common knowledge, their objectives are very different. The rational learning literature seeks to determine how weak one can make the assumptions on beliefs in an infinitely repeated setting and still achieve convergence on an equilibrium. The current paper’s goal is to develop a theory of tacit collusion; that is, making predictions on price based on plausible assumptions on mutual understanding. Given these distinct goals, the amount of structure placed on prior beliefs is very different. The rational learning literature only requires that a player’s prior beliefs on the other players’ strategies include their actual strategies
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Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge: An epistemology of skill in science

Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge: An epistemology of skill in science

The third thesis states: “Not only is it impossible to make all knowledge explicit, since “we can know more than we can tell” but the knowledge that cannot (always) be specified is more fundamental than explicit knowledge ...”. (2001, p. 18) As I have noted in my response to the first thesis, what is tacit knowledge at some point can be made explicit at some later point. What happens is that should we succeed in making erstwhile tacit knowledge in some area of investigation or engagement explicit, we rely in turn on implicit knowledge of some other area of the matter under investigation etc. An example is in the learning of a language. A language, e.g. a mother tongue can be passed on from parents to children just by allowing the child to grow up in the environment where the language is used. But a language can also be broken up into explicit grammar, idiom etc. and passed on to a learner. What went as tacit knowledge in the first instance has now been mostly made explicit in the second instance where there is a written grammar. And yet when a learner relies on the written grammar and idiom to learn the language, she must still rely on these tacitly in order to use the language. She cannot be thinking of the correctness of the grammar all the time if she is to become fluent in the language.
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Structure, wellspring or content? : a conceptual analysis of the notion of tacit knowledge in knowledge management theory

Structure, wellspring or content? : a conceptual analysis of the notion of tacit knowledge in knowledge management theory

The conclusions reached regarding the role of the concept of tacit knowledge in the theories of Polanyi and Nonaka are illustrated by gauging the reception of the concept of tacit knowle[r]

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