Looking back at my current research I can see that though I am proud of the work that has been accomplished, there is always more that can be done. I can see more areas that can be added towards my current progress, such as the integration of object identification into future designs. Real time object identification will give these autonomous machines the ability to recognize or locate appropriate items, and doing with them on user demand. After all three areas have been completed the project could move to the integration process utilizing GPS localnavigation, local orientation and object identification combine. I have also created a summer internship budget plans that Transbotics will have the option of supporting to continue their research through the summer or possibly even longer. I developed three distinct plans that all have their strengths. The budget for the three plans can be seen Figures 5, 6, and 7.
A control system is developed based on computer industry TANK-800 which is operated with the clock 1.8GHz dual-core processor and PCI card MMC-BDPV42PNX 4-axis controller. The NAV200 system is a laser-based positioning that returns an absolute position of the scanner with respect to a user-defined local coordinate frame. On average, this system can provide up to millimeter accuracy with an update rate up to 8 Hz. The prototype of the experimental AGV is shown in Fig.2.
To overcome these limitations of GPS in urban and in- door environments, many studies have been carried out with various radio sources, such as wireless local access net- work (Wi-Fi), cellular network, IEEE 802.15.4a (UWB), ultrasonic waves, Bluetooth, and DTV signals [2-16]. How- ever, many of those positioning systems have limitations such as the requirement of pre-installation of the infra- structure for the positioning and/or data pre-processing for the region of interest. If the Wi-Fi signal is used for the mo- bile user position determination, building a received signal strength intensity (RSSI) map, which is called a fingerprint for an area of interest, is needed prior to the system oper- ation. The positioning systems utilizing ultrasonic waves, bluetooth, and UWB need the installation of extra transmit- ters. Moreover, the service area for these positioning sys- tems may be smaller than that of other positioning systems for the outdoor environment. The positioning method using the cellular communication channel confronts non- line-of-sight (NLOS) signal paths, because the base stations for the cellular network are located on the top of buildings in general. This may result in poor position estimate
Positioningsystem like global position system (GPS) and Local position system (LPS) have become very important in a large number of applications such as monitoring and tracking, etc. Because of the limitations of GPS in indoor environments due to the lack of line of sight (LoS), the use of LPS has become a true necessary to estimate user‟s or object position with a good accuracy. In order to choose the best LPS system, a compromise between accuracy, precision, power consumption, coverage and cost should be taken into account. This paper introduces an overview of LPS performance parameters, current technologies, techniques and methods used by LPS. On the other hand, the comparison between LPS technologies and techniques used based on those technologies are also discussed. Furthermore, the LPS‟s applications that have been done by previous researches such as human tracking, object tracking, animal tracking and automatic guide vehicle (AGV) tracking will be discussed. We believe this paper would catalyze further investigation by the researcher which is interested on the LPS field.
First, the concept of social navigation and how people make use of it in the physical world are examined. Relevant previous studies and examples are discussed that apply social navigation as a design approach, e.g., for virtual information spaces on the web. Based on the success and popularity of what has now been coined ‘Web 2.0’ services, the second part of this chapter analyses a number of web development trends that foster participatory culture and the creation and exchange of user generated content. Some of these developments that introduced more and more social interaction and navigation methods to the web, such as user participation, folksonomy and geo-tagging, were reappropriated to inform the design of CityFlocks. Given new generation mobile phones that allow global positioning, Web 2.0 technologies that were initially aimed to facilitate social navigation on the web, can now be used to facilitate social navigation in physical places. The third part of the chapter discusses related projects in the field of mobile spatial interaction, a research area covering mobile applications that deal with information related to the user’s surroundings. The review of the aims, strengths and weaknesses of previous research projects in this field refines the research trajectory which guides the development of the CityFlocks prototype and potentially similar mobile information systems. The chapter thus reveals further opportunities and issues regarding social navigation in the context of new generation mobile phone services, the ‘Mobile Web 2.0’ (Jaokar & Fish, 2006).
The Kalman Filter (KF) has been widely used in many navigation applications. Ref.  implements the KF in estimating moving a vehicle’s position and orientation, using GPS, INS, and TANS. One way to process measurements in a multisensor system is to combine all the measurements into a single observation vector in the KF. The computational load of this implementation, however, increases as the number of measurements increases . Ref.  presents a State-Vector Fusion (SVF) method in which each measurement is processed by its own local ﬁlter simultaneously. Then, the updated estimated states and the predicted covariances are fused together . The Measurement Fusion (MF) method, introduced in Ref. , fuses multiple measurements and then the KF is applied to the result. Ref.  has analytically shown that, under certain conditions, the MF method is similar to the standard KF. Both SVF and MF methods require less computational load compared to the standard KF . However, the derivation of these fusion methods assumes uncorrelated measurement noise for multisensor systems [37, 40]. In most of the multisensor systems, the sensors’ noises are correlated due to the interference signal between sensors . Ref.  has presented a weighted MF method in which the input and measurement noises could be correlated. In addition, the computational load of the weighted MF method is signiﬁcantly lower than the KF .
The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) will augment the GPS and complement WAAS by providing an all-weather approach, landing, and surface navigation capability. It is ex- pected that the end-state configura- tion will pinpoint the aircraft’s position to within one meter or less. Curved approach paths, not possible using the current instrument landing sys- tems, will be possible for Category I, II, and III precision approaches as the system evolves. Increased accuracy will allow more arrival and departure procedures. Approaches will be de- signed to avoid obstacles, restricted airspace, noise sensitive areas, or congested airspace. Similar to WAAS, LAAS works by monitoring the GPS signal, but in the case of LAAS, sends corrections directly to the air- craft. This not only provides greater integrity but also much quicker alert- ing.
From the steps that been introduced at above, the robot arm will then learn how to move from components to the desired place from the cart. This method is requiring time to teach the robot how to move in a safe pathway to load and unload the components. Thus, there might provide a “brain” for the robot arm so that it will learn to move along the pathway by learn from itself. Thus, in order to control the motion and operation of robot arm associated with nonprogrammed positions during execution of a programmed cycle of operation, an apparatus is suggested where the positions and functions described by sets of input signals representing respectively coordinates of positions relative to a first coordinate system and function codes (Resnick B.J. 1984). The apparatus being connected to an external path generator for producing further sets of input signals and comprising of (Resnick B.J. 1984):
The target position can be calculated using a trilateration technique based on the distance measurement. Trilateration is a technology that locates object positions by calculating at least of three distances from the anchor nodes [13–15], as shown in Figure 1. Nodes A, B, and C are the anchor nodes, and they are equipped with GPS devices such that the anchor node positions are well known. Three circles are formed based on the distance between the anchor and the target node and meet at a single intersection, which can be denoted as the target position. Every problem in a positioningsystem comes from distance error measurements. This error always occurs in the actual application and has an effect on the accuracy and precision of the position. Accuracy refers to the capacity of a measurement to give results close to the true value of the measured quantity, while precision refers to the capability of measuring to give the same reading when repetitively measuring the same quantity under the same conditions. These two factors are parameters which determine whether the system is reliable. In RTLS, accuracy is related to the mean (µ), while precision is related to the variance (σ 2 ) .
Moreover, the cost of a positioningsystem may depend on many factors. These factors include money, time, space, weight, and energy. The time factor is due to installation and maintenance, also, mobile units may be having tight space and weight constraints. Sometimes, installation of indoor positioning systems may not have to result in additional costs, since previously there could exists hardware being used for another purposes. Energy is another important cost factor. For example, some mobile units like RFID tags are completely energy passive since they only respond to external fields and, thus, could have an unlimited lifetime, unlike most devices with rechargeable battery, which have a lifetime of several hours without recharging .
various velocity and distance values has been computed in Figure 9. Here, we assume 300 MHz bandwidth and 27 ◦ half power beamwidth (consistent with four antenna elements). The first area of interest in Figure 9 is low-velocity and short- range area, which is mainly suitable for applications such as indoor and airport security. Note that the cyclostationarity Doppler spread varies with distance in this area. Hence, we can conclude that for short range applications, DOA would be the dominant condition for cyclostationarity. The second area of interest is high-velocity, long-range area, which is mainly suitable for vehicle collision avoidance system. Note that the cyclostationarity Doppler spread is independent of distance in this area. We can conclude that for long-range applications, the main constraint is the rate of change of TOA.
The importance of including an independent backup system when providing mission critical and safety of life services is currently being highlighted in the aviation community. On April 3, 2010, the service provider for the FAA’s Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) lost the ability to control the orbit of one of the two WAAS GEO satellites. The satellite will drift out of usable orbit within two to four weeks and once out of usable orbit, WAAS service will no longer be available for users in northwest Alaska . While none of the 16 airports in the affected area has published WAAS-based localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV), users in the service area of the remaining satellite, e.g., U.S., Canada, and Mexico, will be without a backup. Additionally, if a WAAS GEO uplink station switchover occurs, typically 3-5 times per year, it may take up to five minutes to restore service at the 2,037 airports with published LPVs. This situation could have been mitigated with technology proposed in this paper. The use of Loran to broadcast WAAS messaging system information has been investigated and it was found that the Loran system can provide backup WAAS coverage over the entire
Single chip is a perfect microcomputer system, which in- tegrates the functions of a central processor, random memory, a variety of I/O ports and interrupts, and timers to a piece of silicon by using the technology of ultra-large scale integrated circuit. Therefore, it is called a single-chip microcomputer and is a kind of programmable operation. Because of its unique manufacturing technology and hard- ware structure design, the single chip microcomputer has the advantages of fast running speed, strong control abil- ity, low power consumption, low voltage, easy to produce, and portable carrying. It has good expansibility and strong practical application . In this study, we use microcon- troller unit (MCU) to filter the vehicle longitude and lati- tude information through program operation and initially monitor the movement state of the vehicle. On this basis, the geographic information is processed and the geo- graphic information is transformed into text form by the
Automatic guided vehicle （AGV） is widely used in the field of logistics and transportation. It is a kind of automatic transportation equipment which realizes automatic navigation by means of optical, electromagnetic and other navigation technologies. The motor vehicle control system of AGV is its own brain, and the fuzzy PID control algorithm is an excellent algorithm based on the traditional PID algorithm for self-tuning PID parameters and applied to the vehicle motion control system. Based on the application of AGV at home and abroad, this paper expounds the principle of fuzzy PID control, and analyzes the structure change from PID to fuzzy PID algorithm. Comparing the application of PID and fuzzy PID, it is found that fuzzy PID has more application value and popularization in the control system. Finally, the application of fuzzy PID control algorithm in AGV control system is summarized. The results show that fuzzy PID control algorithm has good application in AGV nonlinear control problem. 1
The main disadvantage of an AGV based material handling system is its expense. The high cost of the control software used and the number of vehicles required in a system curtail the wide usage of AGVs as material handling systems. A trade-off analysis between the initial setup cost of an AGVsystem and the savings involved is necessary before installation. Other limitations of an AGV include necessity for polished floor surfaces for smooth operation of the AGVs, guide path bed stability problems and restrictions such as height of metal floors that must be crossed and weather conditions that it can operate under when used outside the manufacturing plant. Obstructions in the facility layout and ramp gradients are other obstacles that need to be overcome when designing the guide path for the AGVs. Other issues that need to be considered when installing an AGVsystem are management support, worker attitudes towards the new system, maintenance problems and requirements. It can be seen from above that though the AGV has a number of benefits it also has its share of disadvantages and may not be applicable in all cases.
The testing system consists of three subsystems. High-dynamic signal simulation system is made up of signal control software and satellite signal simulator. Pseudo- range modification function is its key factor for the testing to add the offset. Data collection system is used for the reception of output data of receiver, which must have the capacity of serial-port communication to connect the receiver. Testing evaluation system analyses and evaluates the data logically, computer program is used.
It is the first and most important step for the successful working of this system. This step is abstracted from the user and implemented by the developers.  Wi-Fi fingerprinting fetches the received signal strengths from nearby and authorized access points. This fetched signal strength is stored as an object along with x, y coordinates of the position on map in online database. The fingerprinting method is based on the relationship between a given location and its corresponding radio signature.
Malaysian Real-Time Kinematic Network System (MyRTKnet) is the infrastructure that has been formed by the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations and Control Centre to provide the GNSS data in order to give the position in real time. MyRTKnet service has been developed since 2003 that consist of 27 GNSS reference stations throughout the country. In endeavor to give a better service to the user, another 51 GNSS reference stations have been established by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM) in 2006 until 2008 and the total number of reference stations now are 78 stations as stated in JUPEM circular volume 1/2005.
Do you think that general relativity concerns only events far from com- mon experience? Think again! Your life may be saved by a hand-held receiver that “listens” to overhead satellites, the system telling you where you are at any place on Earth. In this project you will show that this sys- tem would be useless without corrections provided by general relativity. The Global PositioningSystem (GPS) includes 24 satellites, in circular orbits around Earth with orbital period of 12 hours, distributed in six orbital planes equally spaced in angle. Each satellite carries an operating atomic clock (along with several backup clocks) and emits timed signals that include a code telling its location. By analyzing signals from at least four of these satellites, a receiver on the surface of Earth with a built-in microprocessor can display the location of the receiver (latitude, longi- tude, and altitude). Consumer receivers are the approximate size of a hand-held calculator, cost a few hundred dollars, and provide a position accurate to 100 meters or so. Military versions decode the signal to pro- vide position readings that are more accurate—the exact accuracy a military secret. GPS satellites are gradually revolutionizing driving, flying, hiking, exploring, rescuing, and map making.