When a contractor wants to use the new generation of elevatorsystem, i.e., MCES, the problem of the elevatorsystem no longer lies on the dispatch policy and control strategies, but the problems include the collision avoidance of elevator cars, deadlock, livelock and reversal. For the sake of collision avoidance between the elevator cars, the twin elevator, the first MCES (2002) which has two elevator cars in a shaft, has adopted the approach of limiting the direction of the elevator cars to travel only in the same direction . This restriction causes the performance of the optimization of the elevatorsystem to become extremely inefficient. Consequently, zoning approach is adopted and it is further improved by researcher Valdivielso et al. by considering the avoidance of elevatorcar collision, optimization of floor-call allocation and car selection to answer hall calls . In favour of avoiding the car collision, parking strategies of the elevatorcar have been proposed by Valdivielso et al. This helps to balance the distribution of elevator cars that are prepared to answer the hall call. Scheduled completion time algorithms are proposed by Valdivielso et al as well to optimize the car selection for the floor- call allocation. The zoning approach that included inter-floor and down peak traffic patterns showed better performances than the previous zoning algorithm. In 2013, Ishihara et al. modified the zoning approach by proposing a multi-carelevator control using dynamic zoning. In this method, the size of the zone is not fixed, it varies in accordance to the assignment of hall calls or the movement of the elevatorcar to transport passengers to the destined floor. By adopting the dynamic zoning approach, the movement of the elevatorcar is no longer restricted compared to the previous zoning approach and yet improved the efficiency of the elevator dispatching system .
In an optimized multi-agent EGCS based on RPSO, each elevator has its own controller. Every controller carries on computing by a divide-and-conquer approach to the solution space, eventually leading to a quote of its own cost. In the group controller, the cost function de- pends on each subcontroller’s quotation. This quotation is used to set the particles’ cost attribute. In MAMO with RPSO (MAMO-RPSO), the pBest is found by iterating through randomly selected particles in the group control- ler. The best value from all the pBest values is the final solution, gBest. Once the gBest is gotten, the elevatorcar ID that is optimal for finishing the task assignment is selected. The main difference in MAMO-RPSO is the location of the cost computations. As shown in Figure 2, each controller sends its cost quote to the algorithm. Then the group controller eventually decides which ele- vator car to move based on the results of MAMO-RPSO. Since the computation is distributed across multiple agents, the solution space within each sub-controller is smaller, leading to an overall faster computation. This is different from CMO using RPSO (CMO-RPSO), where the group controller does two things: compute cost of each controller, and also send the controlling signals. In CMO-RPSO, swarm optimization is used in the cost computation and comparison aspect. Possible solutions available to the central controller are represented as groups of particles randomly selected and grouped as a sub-set of the larger solution set, i.e. flock. The entire solution set is represented as a collection of these poten- tially overlapping sub-sets as a swarm. With MAMO- RPSO, there is division of labour between Control and Cost Quote. This allows the solution space to be tackled in smaller sub-sets, consequently speeding up the EGCS scheduling.
The elevator control system is one of the important aspects in electronics control module in automotive application. In this investigation elevator control system is designed with different control strategies. First the elevator control system is implemented for multi-storage building. This implementation is based on FPGA based Fuzzy logic controller for intelligent control of elevator group system. This proposed approach is based on algorithm which is developed to reduce the amount of computation required by focusing only on relevant rules and ignoring those which are irrelevant to the condition for better performance of the group of elevatorsystem. Here only two inputs are considered i.e. elevatorcar distance and number of stops. Based on these data, fuzzy controller can calculate the Performance Index (PI) of each elevatorcar, the car which has maximum PI gives the answer to the hall calls. This would facilitate reducing the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of the passenger.
In this system, the drivers enable to receive information inside the car park by using SMS service. The assignment of the parking space is based on the shortest path and used BFS algorithm, by taking into consider, so the driver can have a nearest entrance into car park.
3.10 Project overview of Safety Car Alert System 33 3.11 The box is drilled according to the size of the sensors 34 3.12 The box is being touch up using mean scar tools 34 3.13 Sensors are attached in the customized box 35 3.14 Installation of ultrasonic sensors at front part and rear part of the car 35 3.15 Installation of carbon monoxide sensor inside a car rooftop 36
Bodies of non self-discharging gondolas do not have hatches in the floor (scheme b, Figure 1) and are designed for unloading them on the car dump- ers. Constructions of this type of body are reflected in the patents [5, 6, 9, 11]. In the first designs of these gondolas the doors were located in the side and end walls to make the semi-automated unload- ing possible. Later, the body began to be manufac- tured without doors. It was fitted with a device for fixing in a car dumper. Before arriving of gondola at the car dumper the frozen load for better dis- charge can be subjected to vibration loosening and heating in the special garage defrosters . An ex- ample of solid-bottom gondola car is the car model 12-757 EI-2 produced by Kriukov car building car- riage works (Fig. 2).
The concept of the system basically can be divided into two parts which is the light detection and the high beam off/on control circuit. In order to design a simple low cost control system, a simple approach is needed to detect the light of the incoming traffic or the ambient lights in the road. A light dependent resistor (LDR) is used (some literature refers to it as photo resistor) as a light sensor. The resistance value of the LDR is changing according to the impinging light on it. Typical LDR has a linear relation with the incident light such that if the light density is increased the resistance of the LDR is decreased. Other electronic components such as a transistor, operational amplifier (used as comparator), relay, diodes and resistor are used to build the electronic control circuit.
In this first chapter, basically it will elaborate about the project which is an introduction of the project, abstract of the project, problem statement, project objectives and finally summary of the chapter. Every chapter has their own specific topics and explanation. In this chapter, it will explain the background of the project. For introduction of this project, it will explain the importance of the anti-theft system and technology that combined together to make a better world human lifestyle. Next is about abstract. Abstract is an explanation of the project‟s operation. Then, it continues with problem statement where it is a short summary of the project‟s problem. The main aspects to be considered in this project are hardware and software that will be implemented from the input to output of the project.
This project for door elevator side mechanism control system using Arduino Uno as a hardware and software to connect electronics through its pins that can control the system such for instance, turn lights or motor on and off or sense such as light and timer. In this study, the different speed of elevator door during open and close used as a parameter of measurement to determine the time for opening and closing door. Developing this control system can be fully velarized trainer kit including to help the users to more understand and can directly see how this control system operating the door lift. Many types of Arduino boards are available, each with its own design to suit various applications. Arduino Uno used for this control system because Arduino Uno is one board can be considered the backbone of Arduino hardware and this is the one that almost all people start with and that is suitable for most applications.
The metrics of gravitational and cosmological models are brought into canonical form in comoving coordinates. The FWR curvature parameter k is read from this and it is shown that k = 0 does not correlate to a flat model, but for a spatially positively curved geometry in which reference systems which are in free fall exist. This also corresponds to Einstein’s elevator principle. Moreover, we will show that our subluminal cosmos is associated with the R = ct h model of Melia, assuming
counterpart electromagnets is controlled, and the other one produces constant pulling force. However, it is unrealistic and cannot be applicable. A method is proposed in  for controlling the ropeless elevator air gaps by manipulating driven double side linear motor normal forces. This con- troller can handle the car air gap just in one direction. However, composition of this system with electromag- netic guiding system can be promising. A guiding system with five controlled spatial degrees of freedom with im- plementation of an additional torsion controller is aug- mented in  and . A solution for the design of both the electromagnets and the feedback control of an eleva- tor guiding system is presented in . Also, an elevator test bench for the evaluation of the simulation results is introduced in this paper.
From table 5, the performance of verifying the distributed real-time elevator sys- tem by three tools is different. The performance of real-time verification by SPIN and NuSMV is not as good as that by UPPAAL. SPIN can add a timing clock into PROMELA program, which serves to the user to calculate the time of using the eleva- tor. NuSMV can calculate the shortest path to reach destination floor. However, SPIN and NuSMV do not have the clock system and can not set the clock constraint on each state while SPIN and NuSMVcan not verify the real-time. UPPAAL is less effective for concurrency verification than SPIN and NuSMV, because the UPPAAL channel can not store two messages at the same time and do description when the two users use the elevator at the same time. Therefore, it can be concluded that SPIN and NuSMV are more suitable for the verification of distributed systems, while UPPAAL is more propitious to the verification of real-time systems.
Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. For this project, Arduino used the ultrasonic sensor as the input and for the output, LED, LCD display, and buzzer was used. There are many type of Arduino such as Arduino UNO R3, Arduino Mini, Arduino Mega, and Arduino nano etc. For Car Security Alert System, the Arduino Uno R3 was used due to easier to get in the market. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can communicate with software running on computer. The analog output pins are located on the bottom- right six-pin female connector labelled as “ANALOG IN 0-5”. The digital-only pins are located on the top labeled “DIGITAL 0-13”. For this project, the all the digital pin was used except the Tx, Rx, and GND pin. 
So in this paper, security system involves face recognition using PCA algorithm which is cost effective. Database consists of several images of the user. PCA algorithm compares the new image with the pre-defined images in the database. If the new image matches with any of the image in the database then the car remains running. But if the image mismatch occurs, then the car will get stopped immediately. The microcontroller module can stop the car once it gets information that the car is being driven by an unauthenticated person.The GSM module can send the information out to the user by SMS.
As discussed above, the existing approaches are categorized into smart phones-based and WSN-based approaches. The former requires the development of a mobile application for Smartphone devices (Android, IOS, Windows Mobile, …) and exploit the existence of sensors in the smart phones, whereas the latter is based on the existence of a sensor network which need to be deployed along the highway, and employ a sensor device in a vehicle in order to collect and process the sensed data from distributed sensor nodes. Smartphone-based approaches are efficient in terms of reliability. However, drivers are required to own a Smartphone device in order to obtain the safety applications. One the other hand, WSN- based system is efficient in terms of cost and reliability, but there is a requirement to install sensor nodes along the way in order to perform the safety functionality.
Short Messaging Services, USSD is also used which is dependent on signal availability However, mobile network may not also be available in multi storey buildings. Another uses a reservation system. While it may enhance productivity, it also has the drawback that slots must be reserved well in advance. A few solutions using video sensors have been pro- posed, but these are expensive and lack in ease of access or fault tolerance Manual way of identifying slots. Because of this it is hectic to manage the parking in malls and there is no efficient space utilization of parking space. A few solutions using video sensors have been proposed in existing system, but these are expensive. Other solutions lack in ease of access or fault tolerance.
ABSTRACT: The collection of the $64000 time information when the detection of collision round the vehicle surroundings and analyze the collected information to possess the conclusion relating to the collision and at the same time transmission the information over the wireless network. The proof assortment System is vehicle primarily based device that is use to gather the information like speed, engine temperature, Brake standing, LPG sensor, Alcohol content, acceleration, GPS position, wiper movement, and time etc. This information may be wont to investigate the crime, operation and insurance claims. This information then transmitted to the information server in order that net application may be ready to access this info at totally different places like station house, underwriter.In this paper, I am reaching to investigate the employment of proof assortment system by exploitation totally different sensors and wireless communication.
this manner gadgets wound up intended for both the cars.This is a stage for crisis salvage which will work ideally so as to lessen the brilliant time of entry of rescuers if there should arise an occurrence of street accidents, when each microsecond checks. Our paper plans to introduce an innovation consequently identifying the mishap and an equipment GPS beacon dependent on GSM/GPS innovation illuminating at the event of mishap with adequate subtleties like accurate area and time at which mishap occurred and alongside that the voice was recorded for two or three minutes when the mishap occurs.This paper build up a correspondence between the control station and the unit introduced in vehicles. Vehicles will have GPS/GSM empowered following modules and will be followed progressively utilizing cell systems. The product installed in the microcontroller will control the different activities of the gadget by observing waveform from the vibration sensor. In the event of mishap the gadget will send an alarm message alongside area data from GPS module to control station utilizing GSM arrange. It is a thorough and viable answer for the poor salvage reaction in the event of mishap. The mishap detailing can naturally discover an auto collision; scan for the spot and after that send the fundamental data to the salvage office covering topographical directions and the time and conditions in which a car crash occurred. At the server end, a control capacity will remove important data and store it in a database, to which mishap data from models will be surveyed progressively. Our framework joins propelled equipment plan and refined control innovation into a conservative, dependable bundle.
The version history of the android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android beta Software Development Kit (SDK) in 12 November 2007 which make the platform to create application, games and other software. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was launched in 23 September 2008 on the HTC Dream G1. In August 2005, android is under ongoing development by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and has seen a number of updates to its base