Top PDF A Review of Solar Water Heater Performance Factors

A Review of Solar Water Heater Performance Factors

A Review of Solar Water Heater Performance Factors

--------------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: This review article deals with performance factor of the flat plate solar water heating system to obtain hot water for the domestic and industrial applications. Fins are helping us to enhance heat transfer rate by extending the area of heat flow. According to Fourier’s law, heat transfer is directly proportional to the finite temperature difference, cross sectional area and thermal conductivity of the conducting material as it is many researchers were working on the extended surface. Fluid velocity has been dominating heat transfer rate in convection by the way of Newton’s law of cooling. Here, our review is analysis different factors that affect heat transfer rate such as number of fins, glassing, number of passes, geometry of fins and site selection. Selection of materials and absorber plate coating is crucial things when we are going to perfect design for flat plate collectors because it is one of the promising technologies to absorb the solar energy.
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Differentiating the Performance of Solar Water Heater under Natural and Forced Circulation

Differentiating the Performance of Solar Water Heater under Natural and Forced Circulation

The solar system for providing domestic hot water and heating of buildings using the current technology, are marginally competitive with heating using another forms of energy as oil, gas, etc. The present work is diverted towards the utilization of solar energy for water heating. They studied the effect of various parameters (Such as local climatic conditions and design factors) on the performance of different types of solar water heaters. However the compact solar water heater i.e. (the absorber and the storage tank are integrated together into our system) has not taken much attention from the researchers.
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The performance of an effective solar water heater enhancement based on experimental study

The performance of an effective solar water heater enhancement based on experimental study

Solar energy has many important applications in life. On the one hand, electricity can now be produced using a solar chimney [6, 7]. Massive amounts of heat can also be obtained from solar ponds [8]. Solar energy is used in solar distillation [9], and can be used to heat the air for comfort in the winter [10]. The production of electricity using photovoltaic cells has become popular in many parts of the world. Stand-alone systems are used to equip homes, departments, and offices in remote areas [10]. It is also used to operate water pumps in remote and rugged areas which are difficult to extend the grid power lines to it [11]. The heat can be produced from this technology using hybrid systems of PV thermal (PVT) [12, 13]. The introduction of nanoparticles in this technique has increased the efficiency of the heat that can be obtained from PV panels and therefore the potential of using this heat in heating water has become a target for researchers and industrialists [14, 15].
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Experimental Study of the Performance of Low Cost Solar Water Heater in Najaf City

Experimental Study of the Performance of Low Cost Solar Water Heater in Najaf City

The aim of the present work is to assess the performance of the Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICS-SWH) designed and manufactured in the Alternative and Renewable Energy Research unit, at the Technical Engineering College of Najaf. Where the collector box has a trapezoidal shape and the upper face is covered by glass and it is inclined horizontally by a slope of 30 0 and it is oriented to the south of Najaf city. Many researchers have discussed using different shapes and orientations of collectors. For instance, [3,4,5] have investigated the improvement of solar collector to enhance heat transfer in water, however, our work mainly aims to minimize the cost by using second hand materials and reduce or eliminating the manufacturing cost of the storage tank. For example, in our work we used an old electrical water boiler tank which is relatively cheap and significantly effective and appropriate to be implemented in weather in Iraq.
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An Experimental Investigation on Stationary V Trough & Parabolic Solar Water Collector

An Experimental Investigation on Stationary V Trough & Parabolic Solar Water Collector

The aim of the project is to utilize the renewable energy unused in a large amount. One of the most important renewable-energy resources is the solar energy which sun emits to the earth. The solar energy can be utilized to a higher amount in areas having tough climatic conditions like India. The sun emits solar radiation as much as 1395 W/m2 to consume this energy solar collector is used. The most financial and efficient solar collector is the flat plate collector which absorbs solar radiation, and the heat is conveyed over the water inside the tubes of the collector. The performance of the solar water heater is increased by several augmentation techniques like absorber plate coating, glazing glass types and thermal insulation etc. Lot researches are being carried out for increasing the thermal performance of heat exchanger. Yet there are still few research works to be carried out to increase the thermal performance in solar water heater. The novelty of our work is to couple a V-trough reflector to the solar absorber to increase the thermal efficiency of the system & compare with the parabolic solar water heater.
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Thermal Performance Analysis Of The Solar Water Heater With Circular And Rectangular Absorber Fins

Thermal Performance Analysis Of The Solar Water Heater With Circular And Rectangular Absorber Fins

therefore not always possible to predict the actual of irradiant for a given location. Nevertheless the analysis of long term meteorological data on solar radiation makes it possible not only the interrelationship between its components, but also the types of parameters governing the statistics of their characteristic distributions. Attempts have been made to determine the hourly values of total radiation through its relationship with the daily solar radiation. Accurate methods of determining incident and transmitted solar radiation values on inclined surfaces from horizontal solar data are usually required in the design, dynamic performance evaluation and control of solar energy systems and devices. Most meteorological data give only the global or total radiation on horizontal surfaces. In order to determine the radiation values on inclines surfaces from horizontal total solar radiation data, correlation procedure is required to separate the direct and diffuse components of the horizontal global radiation. The direct and diffuse radiation has quite distinct characteristics of their collection and transmission of transparent materials comparison of the performance and relative cost different stationary reflector design are required for prospective manufactures of stationary solar collectors. For many applications (for domestic hot water, low pressure steam for industry) a symmetrical reflector is appropriate. Hence a thorough study about the structure, energy of the sun becomes very essential.
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Performance Analysis of Solar Water Heater in NEH Region of India.

Performance Analysis of Solar Water Heater in NEH Region of India.

serves the purpose of reducing direct convective losses to the ambient which further becomes beneficial for rise in working fluid and solar collectors temperature respectively. The heated working fluid moves upward due to decrease in density whereas the colder working fluid settled at the lower portion due to more in density. The heat from the working fluid is transferred to the water and thus the water is heated up, this process is taking place in storage tank. The hot water is collected from the outlet which is connected to the solar water storage tank. Cold water temperature (oC), working fluid temperature (oC), solar collector temperature (oC), storage tank temperature (oC), solar insolation (W/m2), ambient temperature (oC), wind velocity (m/sec.), hot water temperature(oC) and relative humidity (%) were recorded at 30-minute intervals. Figure 3. Shows recording the data of surface temperature of collector with help of infrared thermometer .
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CFD Study of an Integrated Collector – Storage Type Flat Plate Solar Water Heater Without and with Fins, Dimples and V-grooves in Absorber Surface

CFD Study of an Integrated Collector – Storage Type Flat Plate Solar Water Heater Without and with Fins, Dimples and V-grooves in Absorber Surface

Solar Water Heating is a technology used to harness the energy available in abundance in nature. It can be utilized for both residential and industrial applications and can help to conserve our fuel reserves. Conventional Solar water heater consists of a separate solar collector and storage device. Actual energy output and overall system efficiency will depend upon installation location, climate, insulation, system configuration and many other factors. On rainy or heavily overcast days, energy output will be greatly reduced. In compact solar water, since the storage device is underneath the collector as a single unit, space and material are reduced, and hence cost. There is a lot of scope for performance enhancement of solar water heaters by optimizing surface geometry design of the absorber concerned with it.
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Design, Fabrication and Performance Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Water Heater

Design, Fabrication and Performance Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Water Heater

ABSTRACT: The energy is always a need to continue the life cycle with low cost and high efficiencies at the end of the day output. And engineering is always in the hunt of the new and best technology to furnish the vast and clean output which should be obviously friendly to the nature. So, it is intended to build a machine which can give more efficient and clean energy with low cost, powerful and also friendly to the nature, for that it is simple to switch the solar energy system. As everyone knows that the solar energy is enormous and abandon in nature and some thousand watts of heat energy is transmitted to our earth from the sun in the form of light every day. The PTSC (Parabolic Trough Solar Collector) technology is very useful as it is used for approximately all solar energy applications such as steam and power generation, water heating, air heating etc. The prototype of the parabolic trough concentrating collector is manufactured using the available materials (plywood, Reflective Aluminium sheet, storage tanks, and copper tube) and equipment in the workshop. An experimental setup has been developed to investigate the performance of the solar parabolic trough collector. Measurements of total direct radiation on the plane of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, water flow rate, and inlet and outlet temperatures of the water inside the absorber tube are collected and employed in studying the performance of the parabolic trough.
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Solar Distillation: A  Review

Solar Distillation: A Review

source of energy (i.e. solar energy).The model produced 1.5 litres of pure water from 14 litres of dirty water during six hours. The maximum temperature achieved was 530 o C. It was possible to convert the saline water into potable water by using this model. Umamaheswaran studied solar based distillation system for domestic application[12]. These studies gave in detail the information about the construction, testing and analysis of parabolic trough collector/reflector configuration for small scale domestic purpose water distillation application. It was observed that peak optical efficiency of a parabolic trough was in the range of 70-80%.The worrying factor was the area occupied by the collector. There was need to improve collection efficiency to reduce the area requirement. Younis et.al. studied the factors affecting water distillation by solar energy[13]. The performance was studied with respect to the parameters like the water salinity (28, 35 and 58 mmoh/cm,(ds/m), the water depth (6,9 and 12cm), the glass cover thickness ( 2,4 and 6mm), the percentage of daylight (43.7 , 47.4 and 52.1%), the solar radiation, the ambient air temperature, the wind speed and the relative humidity.They observed that the distillation output increased with high value of ambient air temperature and solar radiation. Ozuomba et.al. investigated the performance of a solar water distillation kit fabricated from local materials[14].They fabricated a roof- type solar water distillation (RSWD) kit. This model was tested under various environmental conditions. According to them, it was possible to increase the efficiency of the system by using large absorber surfaces. In their research work, Gowtham et.al. carried out desalination by concentrating solar thermal energy through a parabolic trough concentrator[15].They increased the energy storage capacity
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Investigation on Thermal Performance of Solar Air Heater by using artificial roughness A Review

Investigation on Thermal Performance of Solar Air Heater by using artificial roughness A Review

90°broken ribs, on thermal performance of a solar air heater for fixed roughness height (e) value of 1.5 mm, Relative roughness height (e/D) value of 0.0338, duct aspect ratio (W/H) value of 8, pitch (p) in the range of 10– 30 mm and Reynolds number (Re) range of 3000– 12,000. It was found out that the maximum Nusselt number attained for roughness pitch of 20 and decreased with an increase in roughness pitch. Roughened absorber plates increased the heat transfer coefficient by 1.25–1.4 times as compared to smooth rectangular duct under similar operating conditions at higher Reynolds number. Based on experimentation it was concluded that the maximum thermal efficiency of roughened solar air heater was to be of the order of (51–83.5%) depending upon the flow conditions.
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THERMAL AND EXERGETIC ANALYSISOF SOLAR WATER HEATER

THERMAL AND EXERGETIC ANALYSISOF SOLAR WATER HEATER

A solar water heater represents the most important and most wide spread application of solar energy. Extensive research effort has gone into the various design and performance aspect of solar water heating systems. Most important components on which the investigations have been carried out with the objective of arriving at the optimum value of the sizes/ number/ characteristics of these components are Absorber plate: (Material and absorber coating),Transparent covers and Fluid Flow Network which includes Diameter of fluid tubes, their spacing and bonding of the tubes with the absorber plate.
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An encompassing Review on Solar Air Heater

An encompassing Review on Solar Air Heater

Due to advancement in technology and fast growing population in each and every field such as Agriculture & Research, Industrial, energy is the main requirement and same trend will be increasing day by day. Conventional energy resources are depleting very fast. They are not sufficient to meet the energy demands very long. Hence the desire of mankind is to find alternate energy resources. Alternate energy resources can be divided into renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Although there are many forms of renewable energy resources available to us, solar energy is most promising source, due to clean energy, available freely, free of cost, pollution free, presence everywhere, non exhaustive nature. The easiest methodology for making proper use of solar energy is its conversion to thermal energy using solar collector. These solar collectors are part of solar water heater and solar air heater which are used for heating water and heating air respectively. Solar air heater has been used to deliver heated air at low to moderate temperatures which can be used for crop drying and industrial applications. The thermal efficiency of solar air heater having smooth plate collector is very low due to low convective heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and the air flowing in the duct. In a smooth plate solar air heater a thin viscous sub layer develops next to the wall in turbulent boundary layers where the velocity is relatively low. In this region heat transfer is predominated by conduction and beyond this heat transfer process is dominated by convection. The objective is to increase heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and the air flowing over the plate. By providing roughness element on the absorber surface of plate can improve heat transfer coefficient, but it would result in increased frictional losses. Therefore greater power is required by blower. In order to keep the frictional losses at minimum level, the turbulence must be created only in the region very close to the duct surface i.e. in laminar sub-layer.
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Modeling and Fluent Analysis of Solar Heat for Solar Water Heater

Modeling and Fluent Analysis of Solar Heat for Solar Water Heater

This work studies the performance of heat pipe solar collector for water heating. Experimental results are validated using analysis modeling. heat pipes with distilled water as a working fluid were used for experimental tests. Both natural and forced convective heat pipe condensing mechanisms are studied and their results are compared with different materials and different dimensions using 2 velocities Using solar power as base power and fundamental heat principle is our motto. Solar plate is designed with different dimensions and a experiment is conducted with two velocities ie( 1m/s and 0.5m/s) on copper and aluminum materials Convection is the basic principle which we deal with and calculating higher efficiency on different material on 2 meters length plate.
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Thermal Performance of Modified V Trough Solar Water Heater

Thermal Performance of Modified V Trough Solar Water Heater

The estimated need, targets and actual installed capacities in India over the last three plans. As seen from the figure, the gap between the energy supply and demand increases with year. This clearly implies that the energy security of India is imbalanced. Energy exploration and exploitation, capacity additions, clean energy alternatives, conservation, and energy sector reforms will, therefore, be critical for energy security. Energy conservation has also emerged as one of the major issues in recent years. A. Water heating – requirements and applications

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Experimental Study based Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets Nanofluid Used in Domestic Application on the Performance of DASCs with Indirect Circulation Systems

Experimental Study based Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets Nanofluid Used in Domestic Application on the Performance of DASCs with Indirect Circulation Systems

ABSTRACT: Since the solar energy is from the most well-known and important sources of clean energies, the solutions to absorb solar energy play significant role in the effectiveness of thermal collector system. The present study aims to investigate the experimental analysis of solar volume collector’s performance for usage in domestic solar water heater and using graphene oxide nanoplatelets nanofluid based deionized water. The city of Tehran was the place for conducting experiments. The collector temperature ranges from 35 to 50 degrees Celsius under a clear sky. The uncertainty of experimental results was about 4.7 percent.
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Optimization of melting and solidification processes of PCM:Application to integrated collector storage solar water heaters (ICSSWH)

Optimization of melting and solidification processes of PCM:Application to integrated collector storage solar water heaters (ICSSWH)

It is well known fact that solar radiation is intermittent in the nature and available only in the day time therefore, limitation of solar energy systems lies in the utilization when there is availability of Sun. Keeping the fact in the mind that PCMs act as a thermal energy storage by changing its phase at particular temperature, so PCMs can be used as a thermal energy storage which can be used in the absence of solar radiation. Therefore, integrating n-eicosane as a PCM which is having high latent heat 237.4 kJ/kg in real SWH system will make the system more reliable and sustainable and PCM integrated SWH system will be able to be used even in the absence of solar radiation. The investigated PCM integrated SWH system can be used for the low temperature applications viz. bathing and washing especially in the rural households of Errachidia (Morocco). The missed thermal energy can be saved up to 32% using PCM in SWH. The extra cost incurred by using N-eicosane as a PCM in solar water heater is evaluated and presented in the Table 3 which is calculated based on the total cost of collector/unit is USD 220 and cost of PCM/kg is USD 7.04 as per Moroccan market. From the Table 3 it can be observed that as the thickness of PCM layer is increases, the extra cost also increases due to increased amount of PCM used. Lowest extra cost is found to be for 0.01 m thickness which is also the case of optimised results. Only 14.3% will be an extra burden of cost by using the PCM while, there are several advantages of the integration of PCM in real SWH such as utilization even in the absence of solar radiation, prolonged use, sustainability, overall performance improvements and thermal energy saving.
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Solar Water Heater through Aluminium Foil   A Review

Solar Water Heater through Aluminium Foil A Review

The most important application of PTC is the Direct steam generation technology (DSG) PTC plants are a promising option to reduce the cost by using water as a Heat transfer fluid (HTF). In this study a parabolic reflector has been designed with 1.8 m of length, and height 0.8 m, and aperture width 1.6 m, which gives a geometrical concentration ratio of 42.14. The reflector was made of stainless steel mirror with thickness of 0.6 mm, the absorber tube is placed in the focal line, whereas the focal length is 20 cm, in Fig. 1. It is made of copper of 2.5 cm inner diameter and 2.8 cm outer diameter, and it is enclosed by glass tube of inner and outer diameter of 5.1 cm and 5.3 cm, respectively. An external flat glass cover for the PTC, of 2.5 mm thickness, increases the thermal isolation of the absorber tube and protects the optical properties of the reflector. The stainless steel tube receiver with solar parabolic trough collectors had experienced frequent deflection and glass envelope rupture during the experimental test and application at the solar power plant of the National University of Mexico. Therefore, Almanza and Flores [24-26] had proposed a compound copper-steel type tube receiver, which was composed of two parts. The internal tube stratified was made of copper to achieve a superb thermal performance and decrease temperature gradients, and the external tube stratified was made of steel to strengthen the tube receiver. The compound wall copper-steel tube receivers had been applied in the solar power plant of the National University of Mexico [24-26]. The experimental test results presented that, when operated at low pressure, a large thermal shock was generated, which induced thermal deformation in the steel receiver causing a deflection of over 50 mm, whereas the maximum deflection measured was only 10 mm in the compound copper-steel type tube receiver.
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A REVIEW ON SOLAR WATER HEATER WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS

A REVIEW ON SOLAR WATER HEATER WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS

The use of solar energy in solar water heater by using a phase change material (PCMs) in storage tank is the effective way of storing the thermal energy. Within the past decade uses of PCMs for heating and cooling applications for buildings have been investigated. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage incorporating with PCM for use in solar water heaters. Storing solar energy with the help of phase Change materials (PCMs) and utilizing this energy to heat water for domestic purposes during the night time. The system consist of two absorbing unit one of them is solar water heater other a heat storage unit consisting of PCM (paraffin).As this experiment is carried out for getting a hot water in night with help of phase change material. The storage unit consists of small cylinders which are made of aluminum filled with paraffin wax as a heat storage unit. During the day time the solar collector absorb the heat from sun and the water is heated with the help of solar radiation. The heated water transfer it heat to phase change material (PCMs). The phase change material undergoes the phase change by absorbing the latent heat and the excess heat is stored in the form of sensible heat. The water supply in the night is routed to the storage unit using a suitable control device. The heat is recovered from the unit by passing at room temp through it. The storage tower is completely insulated to prevent loss of heat. The efficiency of this system is scrutinized for the solar conditions.
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Techniques for Performance Enhancement of Solar Air Heater: A Review

Techniques for Performance Enhancement of Solar Air Heater: A Review

The improvement of thermal performance of solar air heater is required for increasing the heat transfer rate and minimizing t he losses to reduce power consumption. This article includes a brief discussion on solar air heaters integrated artificial roughness which showed far more efficiency than the conventional solar air heater. Efficiency enhancement in all these studies is mainly based on increasing the heat transfer coefficient for increasing the heat transfer area for an effective heat transfer rate. Chamfered type of artificial roughness gives the best result among the other types of artificial roughness which about 2.77 times more the value of Nusselt number (Nu=138.5) over the smooth duct for ϕ=14.5°, e/Dh=0.0278, p/e=5.41 and W/H=4.82. Double pass solar air heater is more efficient than single pass solar air heater with the concept involved of doubling the heat transfer area. In the given study it is also investigate the effect of geometric parameters like fin length, fin height, number of fin, selective coating, thermal storage and operating parameter like mass flow rate on solar air heater.
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