average volume, we need some complicated mathematics to see how the errors on the individual quantities translate through the formula to become errors on the volume. Thus it will be convenient for us to devise some simpler system of dealing with numbers that have an associated uncertainty. This system is the system of significantfigures.
The purpose of pretesting your survey is to discover any problems with survey design, including introductory text, instructions, layout, question language and syntax, and response options. Through pretesting you should be able to identify any significant flaws that would prevent your respondents from understanding and completing the survey quickly and accurately, which insures that you will collect meaningful data. Pretesting will also allow you to estimate the time it takes to complete the survey. Methods for pretesting vary from the simple to the complex (here's a list of common methods). The two I will discuss here fall on the simple end of the spectrum, but are effective nonetheless. When time and resources permit, I would suggest you use both, especially if you intend to survey a large sample. 1. Debriefing interview:
Engaged in train driving resulted in a 43.4% increase in serum angiotensin concentrations relative to health blood donors (P < 0.0001 for train drivers vs. health blood donors). In contrast, there were no statistically sig- nificant differences in concentrations for CRP (P = 0.1876 for train drivers vs. health blood donors), IL-8 (P = 0.2767 for train drivers vs. health blood donors), or TNF- α (P = 0.6952 for train drivers vs. health blood donors) between driver group and control group. Median with interquartile range serum concentrations of the four cyto- kines according to working years are shown in Figures 1(a)–(d). The magnitude of increase in angiotensin le- vels was >40% for the short and long working age categories with a 44.6% increase in objects worked for ≤18 years (P < 0.0001) and a 41.9% increase for >18 years (P < 0.0001), compared to health blood donors (Figure 1(a)). There was no evidence for a difference in the angiotensin effect between train drivers in short and long levels of working age in analyses restricted to train drivers (P > 0.9999). Further, no significant differences were observed for CRP, IL-8 and TNF- α level in train drivers short and long levels of working age compared to health blood donors (Figures 1(b)-(d)).
Oral assessment refers to any assessment of student learning that is conducted by the spoken word. Many modes of communication can be used in assessment. Writing is no doubt the most common, with essays, tutorial papers, laboratory reports and written examinations dominating traditional assessment. Online text communication may be a significant recent variation on the written mode. Some assessment, especially in areas such as the creative arts, relies on the direct observation of a student’s performance or other creative work. Oral assessment stands in contrast to these modes of assessment, though often supplementing them.
Digital projects should be peer-reviewed by scholars in fields who are able to assess the project’s contribution to knowledge and situate it within the relevant intel- lectual landscape. Peer review can happen formally through letters of solicitation but can also be assessed through online forums, citations, and discussions in scholarly venues, by grants received from foundations and other sources of funding, and through public pre- sentations of the project at conferences and symposia. Has the project given rise to publications in peer-re- viewed journals or won prizes by professional associa- tions? How does it measure up to comparable projects in the field that use or develop similar technologies or similar kinds of data? Finally, grants received are often significant indicators of peer review. It is important that reviewers familiarize themselves with grant organiza- tions across schools and disciplines, including the humanities, the social sciences, the arts, information studies and library sciences, and the natural sciences, since these are indicators of prestige and impact.
unlimited growing variance that according to the CAPM means with it is public concepts means unlimited increasing risk. In other words, Mandelbrot’s statement actually claims the need for possible revision of Markowitz’ portfolio theory, Sharpe and Miller who a little bit later became nobel laureates. It seems that Mandelbrot has determined the time, because at the beginning of the 1970s the discussions on portfolio theory of risks have ended, its fundamental assumptions concerning self-dependence and the normal law of distribution of expected returns became standard in modeling. The only theoretical achievement of the works of the 1980s devoted to the above subject is the postulate saying that market volatility (namely, the standard deviation of security prices changes) varies over time. It means that volatility is dependent on its previous levels, and it already means the prerequisite for revision of the portfolio theory fundamental assumption on self- dependence of expected returns. The specified potentially possible revision was delayed by the assumption on so called “short-term memory” in studied processes.
In particular I want to recognise Kat Scholtz who has overseen the production of this 5th Edition. I have worked with Kat for over 5 years now and you just couldn’t find a better qualified person to lead such an effort. I mean this both from a skills and experience perspective as well as the deep passion and excitement Kat has for producing a great resource which we know will help many hundreds of thousands of people. Kat has also surrounded herself with a phenomenal knowledge team whose job it has been to synthesize the knowledge of our agency into an easy to use guide which is accessible to all. To Kat and her team, from the bottom of my heart I thank you so very much for your incredibly hard work in making this dream a reality. You deserve all the credit for this fantastic book.
The consensus embodied in the Havana Charter was path breaking for the nations of the world also because it created the template for all other similar broad initiatives. Some fifty countries had produced a framework document combining a statement of intent with practical measures, set a fixed timetable to attack quantitative restrictions and established the broad principles and a realistic set of procedures to get there that included a dispute resolution mechanism and a massive reduction in tariffs. The innovative idea that inspired the ITO was that no country nor powerful business lobby nor trade union ever wants to be tied to an inflexible set of rules that did not let countries protect themselves from the short-term difficulties of adjustment that lead to loss of jobs or markets or both when faced with sharp swings of the business cycle. When the Charter provided a sufficient number of escape clauses, in the GATT, that recognized the diverse needs of countries at different stages of development, it struck the proper balance of serving both the developmental needs of Latin American and Asian countries, as well as the short-term needs of the industrial world.
multiple episodes of isolated SP that are associated with clinically significant distress (eg, anxiety and/or fear related to the bedroom/sleep). It is worth noting that ICSD criteria do not include frequency thresholds or clinically significant impairment, but these can be found in a prior, more spe- cific set of diagnostic criteria developed for use in clinical trials. 15 These criteria for “fearful” RISP require clinically
In keeping with early discussions of statistical concepts in this article, we can never be 100% sure that it is safe to reject the null hypothesis for any study that uses sampling (which is virtually all studies). Rather, statistical analysis of study data provides a probability that the null hypothesis can safely be rejected, where the level of this probability is expressed in terms of a significance level or p-value that the observed results are due to chance. (This is a similar concept to that of confidence level.) Further, for findings to be considered statistically significant, this significance level needs to be <=10% (p=<0.1) and preferably <=5% (p=<0.05).
______ 6. Seller acknowledges that the mortgage and/or lien holder(s) may accept Seller’s proposed short sale and issue a lien release while preserving its right to pursue a judgment against Seller for any deficiencies owed as a result of the mortgage and/or lien holder(s) agreement to accept less than a full payoff. Lepizzera & Laprocina does not warrant and cannot guarantee that a deficiency resulting from the short sale will be forgiven, waived and/or cancelled by the mortgage and/or lien holder(s). Various jurisdictions may be governed by an anti-deficiency statute that prohibits mortgage and/or lien holder(s) from seeking a deficiency judgment against Seller. The scope of Lepizzera & Laprocina’s service does not include negotiating settlements in the event the mortgage and/or lien holder(s) seek to recover monies from Seller stemming from a deficiency balance that may exist after closing. Seller further acknowledges that Seller has been advised to seek the advice of legal counsel in Seller’s jurisdiction to determine whether an anti-deficiency statute or various applicable laws govern the recourse rights of mortgage and/or lien holder(s) which may affect the Seller’s decision to proceed with a short sale.
(Duration, Integrity, Commitment, Effort) as a template framework. From a ‘Duration’ perspective, they noted that a long project that is reviewed frequently is more likely to succeed than a short project that is reviewed infrequently. Capability development goes hand-in-hand with on the job training. Efforts must be planned for active learning session. From an ‘Integrity’ perspective, organizations look at leaders to ensure that they are providing the resources and runway necessary to succeed. It ensures they are not just getting lip-service. This leads to ‘Commitment’. Are the leaders truly backing the initiative? Are they regularly expressing the importance of the effort? Is the message convincing? And finally, ‘Effort’ – it has been noted that if you add workload to an individual’s plate but fail to take anything off, there is a high likelihood that the new item will fall off. Even a slight (10%) increase in work beyond existing responsibilities can drastically reduce the chances of the initiative succeeding.
New Zealand shares some features with Australia but more with the UK, particularly its continued tinkering and reform processes that have led to several new policies over a very short period. The basic New Zealand provision is a universal flat-rate pension available at 65 based on a simple residency requirement and set at a somewhat more generous level than in the UK. 26 The main controversy that has arisen in New Zealand is whether there should be tax-subsidised opportunities for private retirement saving over and above the state-provided minimum. At several stages, imitating Australia, compulsory private saving has been proposed or even introduced, but at other stages, payments from the private scheme have been surcharged or tax reliefs reduced. So, unlike Australia, where public pensions are income-tested and private pensions are free of asset tests, the reverse was the case in New Zealand through much of the 1990s. Although explicit surcharging of payments from private pensions ended in 1998, the government’s decision to end any special tax reliefs for occupational pensions from 1990 has reduced coverage by employer-run schemes and given a boost to some non-pension forms of saving (e.g. owner occupation). In recent years, there have been a plethora of official reports and committees to discuss, in particular, the form and extent of private pension saving arrangements, but agreement seems far away.
Converting the analogue signal, as captured from a patient, into digital format is known as digitizing, or analogue to digital conversion. This is a vital first step in for digital signal processing. The acquisition of high-quality data requires appropriate choices of system and parameters (sampling rate, anti-alias filter, amplification, number of ‘bits’). Thus tutorial aims to provide a practical guide to making these choices, and explains the underlying principles (rather than the mathematical theory and proofs) and potential pitfalls. Illustrative examples from different physiological signals are provided.
Americas than in Africa. In the Americas, the initial focus on elimination of ocular morbidity has shifted to interruption of transmission, and the program has refined both the process leading up to interruption of transmission as well as the critical period following cessation of mass drug administration to document that there is no recrudescence of transmission. This is called the post- treatment surveillance (PTS) period. This report describes the aims, phases, and methodology of PTS as operationalized by the endemic countries and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas. Successful completion of the PTS period without signs of recrudescence leads to a country request for certification of elimination by the World Health Organization. As elimina- tion of onchocerciasis in the Americas proceeds and emphasis in Africa switches from control to elimination, the PTS guide should prove invaluable to those programs going forward.
immigration presence when arriving in the UK from Ireland and you will be unable to make a Short-Term Study application at the port of entry. Therefore, your passport will not be validated with an immigration stamp and you will be unable to prove that you entered the UK legitimately. The only way to then document legitimate entry is to travel to a location outside of the Common Travel Area (Amsterdam, Paris for example) and then return to the UK and make an application at the port of entry. You will not be able study at FIE until we have proof that you are in the UK on a Short Term Study visa.
If you are responsible for repairing and maintaining machinery, par cularly if that machinery is involved in li ing opera ons or other safety cri cal applica ons then you will be aware of the importance of fi ng the right parts in the right way. This shortguide is intended to give you the informa on you need to be able to correctly iden fy and use the metric nuts and bolts most commonly found in plant and machinery.
______ 1. Lepizzera & Laprocina’s scope of engagement is for the sole purpose of negotiating the proposed short sale of the subject Property. Seller acknowledges that Lepizzera & Laprocina is in no way representing or acting as legal counsel to Seller. Lepizzera & Laprocina is not offering any legal advice to Seller. Seller acknowledges that Seller has been advised to seek independent advice of counsel regarding any and all legal issues that may arise as a result of any short sale transaction.
13. A company’s PSC register should contain the information listed in paragraph 10 of this guide for each PSC of the company. However, that may not always be possible. Where for some reason the PSC information cannot be provided other statements will need to be made instead, explaining why the PSC information is not available. The PSC register can never be blank. The full list of these statements is available in Annex 3 of the full guidance.