# Top PDF A Statistical Tree Annotator and Its Applications

### A Statistical Tree Annotator and Its Applications

Syntactic parsing has made tremendous progress in the past 2 decades (Magerman, 1994; Ratnaparkhi, 1997; Collins, 1997; Charniak, 2000; Klein and Manning, 2003; Carreras et al., 2008), and accu- rate syntactic parsing is often assumed when devel- oping other natural language applications. On the other hand, there are plenty of language applications where basic syntactic information is insufficient. For instance, in question answering, it is highly desir- able to have the semantic information of a syntactic constituent, e.g., a noun-phrase (NP) is a person or an organization; an adverbial phrase is locative or temporal. As syntactic information has been widely used in machine translation systems (Yamada and Knight, 2001; Xiong et al., 2010; Shen et al., 2008; Chiang, 2010; Shen et al., 2010), an interesting question is to predict whether or not a syntactic con- stituent is projectable 1 across a language pair.

### A Collaborative Annotation between Human Annotators and a Statistical Parser

On the basis of the success of the research on the corpus-based development in NLP, the demand for a variety of corpora has increased, for use as both a training resource and an evaluation data-set. How- ever, the development of a richly annotated cor- pus such as an HPSG treebank is not an easy task, since the traditional two-step annotation, in which a parser first generates the candidates and then an annotator checks each candidate, needs intensive ef- forts even for well-trained annotators (Marcus et al., 1994; Kurohashi and Nagao, 1998). Among many NLP problems, adapting a parser for out-domain texts, which is usually referred to as domain adap- tation problem, is one of the most remarkable prob- lems. The main cause of this problem is the lack of corpora in that domain. Because it is difficult to prepare a sufficient corpus for each domain without

### Monte Carlo Tree Search and Its Applications

In order to address problems with larger search spaces, we must turn to alternative methods. Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) has had a lot of success in Go and in other appli- cations [2] [1]. MCTS eschews the typical brute force tree searching methods, and utilizes statistical sampling instead. This makes MCTS a probabilistic algorithm. As such, it will not always choose the best action, but it still performs rea- sonably well given sufficient time and memory. MCTS per- forms lightweight simulations that randomly select actions. These simulations are used to selectively grow a game tree over a large number of iterations. Since these simulations do not take long to perform, it allows MCTS to explore search spaces quickly. This is what gives MCTS the advantage over deterministic methods in large search spaces.

### Balancing Multiple Goals In Observational Study Design

Because Proposition 10 is of no use on its own, its actual usefulness is a matter of speculation. The additional assumptions that would make Proposition 10 useful are stringent assumptions about an unobserved covariate, and any investigator who makes these assumptions can expect an argument from skeptics. Rather than argue for or against the additional assumptions that would make Proposition 10 useful, we suggest conducting two analyses, one with and the other without these assumptions. A simple version of this has two control groups, one matched to treated subjects for (x, x), the other matched for e x alone. Heller et al. (2010) observe that if treatment assignment were ignorable given (x, e x) and if e x were innocuous given x, then these two comparisons of treated subjects to these two matched control groups would estimate the same parameter, the average effect of the treatment on the treated, so contrasting these two estimates provides a test of these two assumptions. In contrast, Proposition 11 in § 3.6 frames the discussion of these two control groups when they may both be affected by bias from an unmeasured covariate u.

### Moringa olifera (shigru): a miracle tree for its nutritional, ethnomedicinal and therapeutic importance

Pakistan, Philippines, Hawaii and many parts of Africa (Anwar et al., 2003). Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium and potassium and act as a good source of natural antioxidants; and thus enhance the shelf-life of fat containing foods due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotinoids (Dillardetal., 2000). In the Philippines, it is known as ‘mother’s best friend’ because of its utilization to increase woman’s milk production and is sometimes prescribed for anemia (Siddhurraja et al., 2003). With the leaves being rich in nutrients, pregnant women and lactating mothers use the powdered leaves to enhance their child’s or children’s nourishment, especially in under developed countries suffering from malnutrition (McBurney et al., 2004). The World Health Organization (WHO) has been promoting the use of this the plant to help those countries suffering from malnutrition, which is one of the major causes of death worldwide. United Nations Food and Agriculture reported that one in twelve people worldwide is malnourished, including 160 million children under the age of 5 (United Nations Food and Agriculture Statistics, 2008).

### Inhibition of germination and growth behavior of sesame under selected Agroforestry tree species in the tropical rainforest area of Nigeria

The treatment combinations were replicated four (4) times and the trial was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Control experiment was also set up along the treatments outside the canopy of the trees which were also replicated three times. The control was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data were collected on seedling emergence at 4, 6, 8, and 10 days after sowing (DAS) and later converted to percentage emergence. Seedling growth parameters measured included plant height using measuring tape, stem girth with venier calipers which gave the diameter value and was later converted to circumference using a fomular of πD (i.e. 3.142) multiplied by the obtained diameter (D) value, number of branches determined by direct counting of all well-developed branches per plant and number of leaves. These were measured at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing (WAS). Seedlings root lengths were measured at harvest using measuring tape. The results obtained from the plants under these tree species were compared statistically to those obtained from the control experiments following the procedure of analysis of variance (ANOVA) where differences were observed, Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT), at 5% level of probability, was used to compare differences between the treatment means.

### Block Chain Technology and Its Applications for Financial Inclusion

In India, Unocoin enables individuals and businesses to buy, sell, store, use and accept bitcoin. The company provides a bitcoin wallet with a point-of-sales platform. It also partners with other blockchain business providers to increase the application of bitcoin in India and improve its processes. Icici bank has partnered with Stellar, a Open, non-profit payment platform to enable low-cost global money transfers to the Philippines and cross-border payments to and from India, Europe, Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria.This partnership will enable cross-border payments without traditional wire fees. ICICIis also planning to launch a blockchain backed mobile wallet application for its university and office campuses, which they will potentially roll out to their entire customer base.

### Research on leaf protein and its applications

Leaf protein was separated 199 years ago, 50 years ago its use as human food was suggested, and 30 years ago equipment suitable for largescale separation was designed and its poten­ tialities were stressed (2). Since then much has been pu­ blished, sone, from several institutions, and a comprehensive book on leaf protein (3), resulted from a conference held in In­ dia in 1970 under the auspices of the International Biological Program. This article can therefore be limited to a general account of the processes used in making and handling leaf protein, and to its quality and use, without giving references. Some material published after the conference will also be dis­ cussed.

### Porous microsphere and its applications

The use of three-dimensional porous microspheres as scaffolds in tissue engineering is widely reported. Usually the porous microspheres are heated just above their glass transi- tion temperature to sinter into porous scaffolds. However, it’s reported that heat sintering is not applicable across a broad spectrum of polymer types due to its dependence on specific physicochemical properties such as: glass transition temperature, specific heat, crystallinity, viscosity, and surface tension of the polymer to be sintered. 48

### Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from the mangrove avicennia marina and its applications

Marine environmental conditions are extremely different from terrestrial ones; it is surmised that mangrove plants have different characteristics from those of terrestrial Nanoparticles are the basic essential elements in the wall of nanotechnology and it exhibits fabulous advanced characteristic features based on their properties such as size, morphology and other size dependent (Gnanadesigan et al. 2011a; Ravikumar et al. ,2011a, b). Among the different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina is previously proved to have antibacterial, antiplasmodial, antiviral activities (Ravikumar et al., 2011) and also it is proved to have high content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins (Ravikumar et al. 2010). Water is an essential requirement for life. To an average individual of our modern civilization, it is too often taken for granted that it is always available at the tap (Walton, 1970). Fresh water being a finite resource (Wetzel, 1975), comprising only 3 percent (1, 04,900) of the total water on land (Deming, 1978), solicits prime importance to be given for its conservation. Among fresh

### Syntax based Statistical Machine Translation using Tree Automata and Tree Transducers

Initially the corpus will be parsed using the tools de- scribed in section 5.1 and divided into a training set and a test set. For the TTS systems (one for each translation direction), the training set will be lexi- cally aligned using GIZA++ and for the TTT system, its syntactic trees will be aligned using techniques similar to the ones proposed by Gildea (2003) and by Zhang et al. (2008). Both TTS and TTT systems will be implemented using Tiburon and Moses. For evaluation, BLEU and NIST scores on the test set will be used. The baseline will be the score for fac- tored translation, shown in Table 1.

### Statistical tests for large tree structured data

The statistical analysis of tree-structured objects has received appreciable attention in recent years owing to the emergence of datasets wherein the underlying quantities of interest allow for tree-like representations. However, some central challenges have stymied the systematic development of tools for statistical inference: The non-Euclidean nature of the underlying space offers considerable challenges while developing probability models for fully observed trees; tree-structured data rarely contain the same number of vertices leading to issues in comparing trees of differing sizes; generating trees from a probability model for simulation purposes is not straightforward. Motivated by these issues, our approach in this article is based on the abstract notion of a Continuum Random Tree (CRT) from Aldous [1991a] and Aldous [1993] which arises as a continuous limit as the number of vertices grows without bound for a large class of random trees. Our objective is to investigate the utility in employing the CRT in developing asymptotic inferential tools on fully observed tree-structured data containing a large number of vertices. To this end, we confine our attention to finite, rooted trees: trees with a distinct vertex, referred to as the root, containing a finite number of vertices. These trees can be labelled or unlabelled, ordered or unordered, have positive branch lengths, unequal number of vertices and are referred to in combinatorial literature as simply generated trees, or equivalently (leaving aside some extreme cases) within the probability community as Conditioned Galton-Watson trees (CGW) obtained as the family tree of a Galton-Watson process conditioned on a given total number of vertices. The CRT is an archetypal example of the weak convergence paradigm proposed by Aldous [1994b] based on an isometric ` 1 embedding of a tree with n vertices such that the graph distance between

### Statistical deferred weighted $$\mathcal{B}$$ summability and its applications to associated approximation theorems

Quite recently, Mohiuddine [28] introduced the notion of weighted A-summability by using a weighted regular summability matrix. He also gave the deﬁnitions of statistical weighted A-summability and weighted A-statistical convergence. In particular, he proved a Korovkin-type approximation theorem under the consideration of statistically weighted A-summable sequences of real or complex numbers. Subsequently, Kadak et al. [1] in- vestigated the statistical weighted B-summability by using a weighted regular matrix to establish some approximation theorems.

### Fractional calculus of generalized k Mittag Leffler function and its applications to statistical distribution

It is observed that the pathway fractional integral operator (.) can lead to other inter- esting examples of fractional calculus operators regarding some probability density func- tions and applications in statistics. Recently, Nisar et al. [] studied the pathway frac- tional integral operator associated with the Struve function of the ﬁrst kind [] and the k-Mittag-Leﬄer function.

### Study of carbon nanotubes structures and its properties for sensor applications

This concludes our study of CNT properties, simulation with different chirality vector. In this paper we studied the property of carbon nanotubes, types and its modes, we study the carbon nanotube characteristics under the chirality vector of 9,9; 6,0; 2,9. CNT are used in CNT field effect transistor for different sensor applications mainly in biomedical field. CNTFET with different signal conditioning circuit plays an application on biomedical sensor field.

### Entropy generation minimization: the method and its applications

The performance record of the natural and engineered flow systems (e.g.,. Fig. 12) suggests that the constructai principle is important not only in engineering but also in physics and biology in general. In this theoretical framework the airplane emerges as a physical extension of man, in the same way that the body of the flying animal (e.g., bat, bird) developed its own well adapted extensions. All such extensions are evolutionary, discrete marks on a continuous time axis that points toward the better and the more complex. This theoretical line o f inquiry is explored in a new book (Bejan, 2000).

### Nano-selenium and its nanomedicine applications: a critical review

on neutrophils’ characteristics in sheep was compared. To determine the chemotactic activity and respiratory burst activities of the neutrophils, the leading front assay and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test (it is based on the reduction of the oxidant substances inside the phagocytic cells by NBT revealed by color change) were carried out on heparinized blood samples. It was found that in the Nano-Se group and the Na 2 SeO 3 group, on the 10th, 20th, and 30th days, the neutrophil chemotactic activity increased significantly com- pared to its basal value. In contrast to the Nano-Se group, in animals supplemented with an inorganic form of selenium, chemotactic activity at day 30 compared to day 20 decreased significantly. In the SeNPs group, a significant increase was observed after 10, 20, and 30 days compared to the control group and at 10 days as compared to the Na 2 SeO 3 group (increase on day 10 was 24% in Nano-Se group and 5% in the group administered with Na 2 SeO 3 , compared to basal levels). In the Na 2 SeO 3 group, a significant increase in chemotactic activity was observed after 20 days compared to the control group. Respiratory burst activity value showed a significant increase in both groups from day 0 to day 30.

### Statistical Decision Tree Models for Parsing

Evaluating SPATTER against the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal corpus using the PARSEVAL measures, SPATTER achieves 86% precision, 86% recall, and 1.3 crossing brackets per sentence fo[r]

### A Survey Paper on Ontology Concepts in Semantic Web Technology and it’s Applications

Abstract:- Semantic Web is an advanced form of the World Wide Web (WWW) to collect, manipulate and interpret the information. It is an intelligent incarnation that provides classification, identical access to the property and transforms the available information into machine readable format. To make up the information in to machine readable format, “Ontology” concept was introduced by the semantic web technology. Ontology concept is approved by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is a collection of interrelated concepts of semantic web that are modeled based on the defined finite set of conditions in information integration and knowledge management. Ontology provides solutions to some issues like document detection, end-to-end service validation, endorsement, concealment, association, data veracity and allocation of isolated parts of information problems. It is said to be a good technique to embody the available data in machine processable format. Implementing ontology in an OWL (Ontology Web Language) depends on some ontology tool support which is said to be complex and time consuming process. Several research fellows and development organizations have designed a number of ontology building environments and algorithms for different applications. A survey of various ontology concepts, building environments, ontology designing tools and the algorithms developed in semantic web technology is presented in the paper which mainly concentrates on the real time applications.