Top PDF A study of gallstone disease

A study of gallstone disease

A study of gallstone disease

Role of calcium is indicated by the presence of calcium salts in majority of gallstones. Preliminary results suggest that gallbladder bile from patients with cholesterol gallstones contain high levels of calcium. Exact mechanism by which biliary calcium increases the formation gallstones remains unknown but possible explanation includ es enhanced absorption of H2O and solutes by the gallbladder and increased gallbladder secretion of calcium, or decreased absorption of calcium. Crystalline structures of calcium carbonate and cholesterol monohydrate crystals provide the frame work for gallstone formation. In addition to the structural role , data suggests that calcium promotes fusion of the vesicles and cholesterol crystal growth.
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Metabolic syndrome among patients with gallstone disease   a strong risk factor for postoperative wound infection after cholecystectomy,   a study from northeast India

Metabolic syndrome among patients with gallstone disease a strong risk factor for postoperative wound infection after cholecystectomy, a study from northeast India

Out of 100 patient studied 36 patients had metabolic syndrome (36%). This result is comparable with that of Nahum et al. who reported that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in gallstone disease is 40% (Mendez-Sanchez et al., 2005). In our study, we found that 61% of the patients have abdominal circumference greater than the cut off value for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (men≥90cms, women≥80cms) and infarct, it was the component of metabolic syndrome which was most commonly associated with gallstone disease. Chung-Jyi Tsai et al. (2004) found out that both a higher waist-to-hip ratio and a higher waist circumference were significantly associated with a higher risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Next commonly associated component in our study was serum HDL cholesterol. 36% of the patients having gallstone diseases have low serum HDL cholesterol value than the cut off (HDL<40 mg/dl or on treatment). A study from Korea demonstrated lower levels of HDL cholesterol in patients with gallstone disease (Kim et al., 2011) Another cross-sectional study from Mexico City described the influence of low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.32) on developing gallstone disease (Mendez-Sanchez et al., 2005).
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Nationwide epidemiological study of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan

Nationwide epidemiological study of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan

those aged 50–59; 11.9% for those aged 60–69; as high as 10–16% for those aged ≥65 years. Our findings were con- sistent with prior study results suggesting that incidence of severe gallstone disease leading to hospitalization is high- est in the elderly. In Taiwan where pigmented stones are more prevalent, no predominance of gallstone disease in females was seen, as is common in western countries [1,30,31]. Women, though, did have a higher rate of elec- tive cholecystectomy, probably because they were more likely to develop symptoms attributable to gallbladder stones [39,40]. The rate of acute cholecystitis was higher for men than women. However, this can not be entirely explained by the substantial lower rate of elective chole- cystectomy rates in men versus women because the change in cholecystectomy rates were almost parallel in both genders during the period studied.
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Epidemiology of Gallstone Disease among Pregnant women in Egypt: Multicenter Study

Epidemiology of Gallstone Disease among Pregnant women in Egypt: Multicenter Study

Most women with gallstone disease in this study significantly practiced faulty risky nutritional behaviors as the preference of fried meals, taking more than two food servings rich in animal fat per day, the habit of eating eastern sweets ≥ twice weekly, food intake between meals, night eating, taking more than two sugary beverages/day, eating more than three meals/day, taking more than five sugar teaspoonfuls/day, eating more than two rice servings/day, eating more than three breads/day. In general, from the literature ecological comparisons offer indirect evidence that diet may be an important factor in gallstone development and higher prevalence rates of gallstone disease in westernized than in non-westernized countries had been reported [9,18]. Positive associations have also been found for fried food consumption and gallstone disease [19].
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Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease after bariatric surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (UPGRADE trial)

Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease after bariatric surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (UPGRADE trial)

At the follow-up visits during the first 6 months, symp- tomatic gallstone disease, side effects of UDCA and other possibly related (serious) adverse events are assessed. Ther- apy compliance is measured by asking the patient to indi- cate the average number of days (0–7) the medication was taken. Pill count is performed after 6 months to objectify the therapy compliance [40]. Hereafter, patients are asked for the occurrence of symptomatic gallstone disease at each follow-up visit. At the 24-months visit, the gallbladder ultrasound is repeated. Furthermore, patients fill in the EQ5D-5 L, iMTA Medical Consumption Questionnaire (iMCQ) and iMTA Productivity Costs Questionnaire (iPCQ) preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Furthermore, the SF-36 is already administered in regular care preoperatively and at 12 and 24 months. The iPCQ and iMCQ have been slightly adjusted for this study in order to be more specific for the study population and pro- cedure. In the original validated version of the iMCQ and iPCQ the authors explicitly permitted these kind of changes to the questionnaires without limiting the validity [41].
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<p>Association Between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome with Gallstone Disease, South Iran: A Population-Based Study</p>

<p>Association Between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome with Gallstone Disease, South Iran: A Population-Based Study</p>

Results: Overall, 59 patients with GSD and 177 age- and sex- matched participants without gallstones as a comparison group were enrolled. According to GSD groups, NAFLD was observed in 42.4% and 22.6% of patients with and without GSD, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically signi fi cant (P = 0.003). MetS was present in 33.9% and 39.0% of GSD subjects, compared with 32.8% and 33.3% of the non-GSD group, based on NCEP/ATPIII and CCDMIA, respectively. Although the mean of all components of MetS except HDL-cholesterol were higher in the GSD group than in the non- GSD group, the difference was only signi fi cant in waist circumference (P = 0.041). Conclusion: The present study found an obvious association between NAFLD and GSD. This study also showed a signi fi cant association between increasing waist circumference and risk of GSD. We recommend that patients with GSD should be evaluated for the likelihood of NAFLD and its treatment in addition to lifestyle changes to gain proper weight. However, further researches are needed to clarify the relationship between the nature of GSD, NAFLD, and obesity.
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Comparative study of morbidity of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in complicated gallstone disease

Comparative study of morbidity of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in complicated gallstone disease

In our study the majority of cases (88%) of OC group felt moderate to severe pain and late recovery as compare to LC group where 31% felt mild to moderate pain (p=0.005) with quick re- covery and early mobilization and therefore was less need of postoperative analgesia in LC group. In other studies laparoscopic cholecystectomy have minimum surgical stress, less postoperative pain, fast recovery 25 and early gut motility and feed-

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Relation of cholesterol metabolism to pediatric gallstone disease: a retrospective controlled study

Relation of cholesterol metabolism to pediatric gallstone disease: a retrospective controlled study

Statistical Solutions Ltd., 2007, Kaysville, Utah). Logarith- mic transforms were calculated for skewed distributions. Comparisons between gallstone subclasses and controls were performed with general linear model analysis of vari- ance using age, ISO-BMIs and gender as covariates. If p- values were below 0.05, comparison between the groups were carried out with two-tailed unpaired t-test. Categor- ical variables were summarized as count and compared using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test where appro- priate. Correlations were analysed by calculating Pearson’s correlation test or by Spearman rank correlation test in case of skewed distributions. The sample sizes for the study groups were calculated according to the following hypotheses. Pediatric gallstone sterol compositions differ by several fold between the pediatric BPS and CS patients [7]. Thus, it could be estimated that the difference in serum non-cholesterol sterol ratios (e.g., lathosterol/chol- esterol and campesterol/cholesterol) is two-fold or more between BPS and CS patients, and that the differences from the respective control values is 40 % or more. The type I error rate and the power of the study were consid- ered to be 5 % and 80 %, respectively. Consequently, at least 8 patients in a subgroup were required for the study using a two-sided test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.
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A comparative study between open and Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in gallstone disease

A comparative study between open and Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in gallstone disease

Most series quote a major bile duct injury rate of around 0.2% during OC, whereas the incidence of bile duct injuries during LC is 0.40% or higher.10 These injuries can cause major morbi[r]

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Organochloride pesticides induced hepatic ABCG5/G8 expression and lipogenesis in Chinese patients with gallstone disease

Organochloride pesticides induced hepatic ABCG5/G8 expression and lipogenesis in Chinese patients with gallstone disease

Dyslipidemia are known to be risk factors for gallstone disease [17, 18], which is a common disease in western countries. Our recent survey in Shanghai city, China showed its incidence climbing up to 13.7% (Jiang ZY, et al. unpublished). Interestingly, in a previous case- control study, OCPs residues in serum were found to be higher in patients with gallstone disease in the area of Xiamen, China [19]. Since the serum OCPs levels are influenced by dietary lipids, they cannot reflect the burden of OCPs accumulation in body. However, the difficulties to obtain human adipose tissues, which can only be collected during surgical operation, make it a barrier to study the accumulation of OCPs in adipose tissue in association with certain diseases.
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Strong association between metabolically-abnormal obesity and gallstone disease in adults under 50 years

Strong association between metabolically-abnormal obesity and gallstone disease in adults under 50 years

phenotype had a similar risk of CKD compared with the MHNO phenotype [16]. Luo et al. showed no increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in the MHO phenotype. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia between the MHO and MHNO but MANO and MAO are increased risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia in a study by Kim et al. [14] In contrast, Ryoo et al. concluded that the MHO phenotype had an increased risk of diabetes according to the degree of obesity [25]. In addition to age, the levels of serum uric acid, liver function tests, and renal function significantly differed amongst the four groups, being more abnormal in MAO and MANO than MHO and MHNO in our study. However, after adjusting all these factors by multivariate regression, only age, HCV infection and the four phenotypes were independent factors associated with gallstones. We also found that the MAO phenotype had a higher prevalence (7.2%) and odds ratio (5.41) for gallstones than the other three phenotypes (prevalence 2.2–4.8%; OR: 2.17–3.78) in people younger than 50.
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Correlation of serum biochemical characteristics with its gallstone compositions

Correlation of serum biochemical characteristics with its gallstone compositions

Gallstone disease is usually an asymptomatic disease affecting millions of people all over the world. It is also considered as the most important risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer. Gallstone is found in populations in most parts of the world, while its existence is prevalent in certain regions like India, Chile, Japan and USA. Analysis of gallstone and biochemical characteristics of patient may provide the important insights to pathophysiology of gallstone disease. For this purpose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied for the compositional analysis of gallstone. Later, the observational study was carried out by comparing the composition of gallstone along with specific biochemical characters of gallstone patients. On the basis of present study, it was revealed that the gallstone disease mainly affected the late youth and early middle-aged persons. It was also found that women are at a higher risk than men. Majority of patients had derangement of liver functions as well as derangement of lipid profile. An association between serum bilirubin and cholesterol levels was found in our study. The findings of present study showed that cholesterol is the most common component in gallstone and amount of cholesterol in gallstone was associated with serum bilirubin levels and dyslipidaemia. Obesity, non-vegetarian diet and increased levels of were possible etiological risk factors warranting lifestyle and dietary modification as a possible preventive measure.
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Clinical value of elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase and/or alkaline phosphatase in non-jaundiced symptomatic gallstone disease

Clinical value of elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase and/or alkaline phosphatase in non-jaundiced symptomatic gallstone disease

Common bile duct stones assessment by biochemical testing of liver enzymes is a common clinical practice with a high sensitivity [7]. When a stone becomes impacted in the CBD, obstructive jaundice results. Bile stasis triggers release of liver enzymes e.g., serum ALP and GGT [8]. Thus, this study was to evaluate the clinical value of elevated GGT and ALP as predictor factors for choledocholithiasis in non-jaundiced symptomatic gallstone disease. In our study, the age of adult population ranged from 20–67 years; median age was 46.5 years with a mean age of 42.6±14.77 years. Regarding the patient sex; there was higher frequency of gallstone in females (80%). That was in agreement with the study done by Reshetnyak et al. that revealed gallstone is more common in women than in men [9].
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Role of Sequencing Genetic for 708 T>A of Cholesterol 7α Hydroxylase (CYPA17) in Patient with Gallstone Disease

Role of Sequencing Genetic for 708 T>A of Cholesterol 7α Hydroxylase (CYPA17) in Patient with Gallstone Disease

Within this locus, the samples were included in the present study that had shown to amplify CYP7A1 genetic sequences in the chromosome number 8. The latter gene is responsible for encoding on cholesterol 7- alpha-monooxygenase; an enzyme catalyzes a rate-limiting step in cholesterol catabolism and bile acid biosynthesis by introducing a hydrophilic moiety at position 7 of cholesterol. Important for cholesterol homeostasis (https://www .uniprot.org/ uniprot/P22680).The sequencing reactions indicated that the exact identity after
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GASTROESOPHAGEAL LE IOMYOMATOSIS IN A YOUNG WOMAN WITH V ULVAR LEIOMYOMATOSIS AND GALLSTONE DISEASE: REPORT OF A RARE CASE

GASTROESOPHAGEAL LE IOMYOMATOSIS IN A YOUNG WOMAN WITH V ULVAR LEIOMYOMATOSIS AND GALLSTONE DISEASE: REPORT OF A RARE CASE

the criteria for malignancy is negative. Leiomyomas of the vul va are also very uncommon.2 Ta vassoJi and Norris, in a study of 32 smooth muscle vulvar tumors accessioned during a 16-year period at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, proposed that tumors with an infiltrating margin should be considered malignant.2.23.24 Nielsen et a1. did a clinical pathological study of 25 cases of smooth muscle tumors of the vulva,24 According to their findings, tumors that manifest at least three of the following four criteria should be considered malignant: moderate to severe cytologic atypia, more than five mi­ toses per 10 high-power fields, infiltrating margins, and a size greater than 5 cm in size. In our case the vulvar nodules were larger than 5 cm in size, but mitoses num­ bered fewer than two per 10 high-power fields and mar­ gins was not infiltrated. More importantly, in this case, the patient has had a history of nodules in the vulva for more than 4 years and the pattern of growth in the esoph­ ageal and vulvar masses were not suggestive for a ma­ lignant process. Tapered narrowing of the distal esopha­ gus with increased esophageal peristalsis, mimic the ap­ pearance of achalasia. U,6.8.14-15 Early evaluation with CT is valuable in detecting the intramural location of leiomyomatosis and differentiating this entity from acha­ lasia and other causes of dysphagia.6.22.25 In our case the presentation of dysphagia was insidious and interest­ ingly it wasn't a problem for the patient and she thought it is a normal condition
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Obesity, dyslipidemia and cholesterol gallstone disease during one year of Antarctic residence

Obesity, dyslipidemia and cholesterol gallstone disease during one year of Antarctic residence

Obesity and dyslipidemia: Obesity is a well recognized factor in GD pathogenesis. In our study, 35% of subjects had a normal BMI, 40% were overweight and 25% were obese. Of the six subjects with GD, two had grade 1 obesity, one had grade 2 obesity and the other three were overweight. Up to 50% of the obese individuals in the team developed GD. Caloric intake in Antarctica was noted to be higher in older articles in view of the increased metabolic need of thermogenesis and activity 13-15 . However, with the availability

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Chen et al. (2006) Studied the risk factors and prevalence of gallstone disease and their aim was to determine the prevalence and risk

Chen et al. (2006) Studied the risk factors and prevalence of gallstone disease and their aim was to determine the prevalence and risk

Abstract- Gallstones are crystal like collections that formed by merging of normal and abnormal gallbladder content. Usually there are two types of gallstones exist i.e. cholesterol stones & pigment stones. The current paper focuses on symptoms of the disease, major cause for the disease and on the treatments that majority of patients preferred. For this purpose, sample of size 170 data from different hospitals in Multan is collected by using convenience sampling. Main demographic factors involved in this study are Gender, Age group, marital status for patients of GSD. Frequency distribution has been formed for these different demographic and social factors and a bar chart is constructed for differentiating between gender as gender is also an important factor in GSD. For weight factor, paired t test is applied to see the difference between before and after weight after having treatment. Findings show that 67 percent people prefer govt. hospitals because of the people suffering from this disease were from backward areas or villages & their income not meet to pay the private hospitals expense.
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Obesity effect on xanthine oxidoreductase activities in gallstone patients

Obesity effect on xanthine oxidoreductase activities in gallstone patients

Xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme is part of a group of enzymes known as the molybdenum iron-sulfur flavin hydroxylases, it widely distributed throughout various organs including the liver, kidney, gut, lung, heart, brain and plasma with the highest levels found in the gut and the liver. Cholelithiasis or Gallstone disease (GD), is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal tract diseases, with a substantial burden to healthcare systems and it is abnormal masses of a solid mixture of cholesterol crystals, mucin, calcium bilirubinate, and proteins that have affected people for centuries; it is the most common problems affecting the digestive tract, however obesity is a firm risk factor for gallstone disease. Total of (133) individual samples were included in the present study the control group consist of (57) apparently healthy individual samples, while the gallstone patients were (76) individual samples. The studied samples were classified in to two groups according to gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) for each control and patient groups, xanthine oxidoreductase and other biochemical parameters were measured by colorimetric tests. The results showed that there were significant differences in the mean xanthine oxidase activity and its specific activity and the mean xanthine dehydrogenase activity and its specific activity of patients when compared to control group and between another parameters according to (BMI). The present study suggests that there is a correlation between the obesity and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme.
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Epidemiology and Risk Factor of the Gallstone Disease in a Southern Tropical Country

Epidemiology and Risk Factor of the Gallstone Disease in a Southern Tropical Country

Abstract: Despite the tendency to westernize our way of life, the Malagasy culture keeps its peculiarities. We report the epidemiological features of patients with cholelithiasis in our population in order to raise hypothesis about their risk factors. This is a retrospective descriptive multicenter and analytical case-control study of patients with cholelithiasis as "cases" and non-carriers of cholelithiasis as "controls". The odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval to verify the correlation between food consumption and the occurrence of cholelithiasis. 51 patients were respectively enrolled for both groups. Consumption of animal products and legumes, such as offal (OR 95% CI 3.23-1.36-7.67), chicken (OR 95% CI 8.85 [3.02-25.9]), peas (OR 95% CI 1.13 [0.43 - 2.95]) and Bambara peas (OR 95% CI 1.31 [0.57 - 3.01 ]) would expose the risk of occurrence of cholelithiasis. In contrast, whole milk (OR 95% CI 1.27 [0.58 - 2.77]), sweet potato (OR 95% CI 0.72 [0.23 - 2.25]) and cassava (OR 95% CI 0.83 [0.36 - 1.92]) would be a protective factor. To conclude, the diversification of our fruits and vegetables could be an asset to reduce the frequency of occurrence of cholelithiasis, giving priority to their consumption.
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Immunosuppressants and new onset gallstone disease in patients having undergone renal transplantation

Immunosuppressants and new onset gallstone disease in patients having undergone renal transplantation

Figure 1 shows the flowchart of how the study population was selected. RT recipients were identified from the NHIRD using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 55.6, 76020A, 76020B, or 97416K from January 1998, when RT was first included in the health insurance system in Taiwan, to December 2012. During this time, 2,979 patients who received RT were registered in the NHIRD. Of these, we excluded 198 patients who had been diagnosed with GSD (ICD-9-CM 574) or had undergone cholecystectomy (ICD-9 -CM 51.22 or 51.23) prior to RT surgery, another 150 patients who were younger than 20 years at the time of receiving RT, and one patient whose sex was not disclosed. The final study cohort consisted of 2,630 RT recipients (Figure 1).
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