Questions about trainers’ feedback-giving behaviour in relation to the three dependent variables (frequency, quality of content and consequential impact) were put to trainees because we were more interested in trainees’ perceptions of the feedback they received than in trai- ners’ perceptions of the feedback they provided. Six questions about ‘frequency’ (Additional file 1: Table S3) asked about the number of observations and the time spent on observations and feedback discussions. By mul- tiplying the number of observations by the mean num- ber of minutes per observation we obtained the total time (in minutes) spent on observation and feedback during the first two months of training. We adapted the measure of ‘quality of content’ from the study by Adams  to the setting of our study and translated the ques- tions into Dutch. This resulted in twelve questions with five-point Likert scales. Based on recommendations from a review by Archer , we measured ‘ consequential im- pact’ using three questions about the linkage between
In the research by Olanrewaja et al (2010), on an assessment of influence of budget process on budget performance in Kwara State Government agencies in Nigeria using explorative survey design covering 33 ministries and departments adopted a sampling technique to select a sample of 150 respondents to who questionnaires were administered and were randomly selected found out that better awareness of budget process has a positive impact on budget implementation. State ministries and departments adhered to budget guidelines to some extent, has effect in the process of budget formulation & execution. The study also observed that there is need to improve the level of awareness among stakeholders on budget implementation which could be done through workshops, seminars etc. organised by incumbent accounting officers, it also found out that state departments need to improve on the level of compliance with due process on budget formulation & implementation by ensuring strict adherence to relevant law guiding budget process, and state departments involved in fund release should fast track the process of release by prompt release of funds without compromising the need for its prudent use. The study found out that existing budgetary process and budgeting controls should be improved upon within the legal framework of the relevant laws and regulations so as to foster the achievements of ministries and department’s budget objectives through improved budgetary controls. It recommended that the Kwara State government to try to achieve strong relationship between budget & actual expenditure by incurring expenditure in line with budget, thereby increasing the citizen welfare through improved level of budget implementation.
WSN consists of several sensor nodes. For all the applications of the WSN, the sensor nodes can be either hand deployed or randomly deployed [1 ,5]. In the latter case, finding the location of the nodes becomes necessary before initiating the communication process. The process of finding the exact location of the sensor nodes after its deployment in the environment is called localization [1, 4, 10]. The localization problem can be solved by the use of GPS. The main drawback of having GPS in all the sensor node is that the network will be very costly. Further, the role of GPS is vital only during the initial phases of the network setup process. Thus, its use results in increase in power consumption, thus reducing the battery life of the sensor nodes. This in turn reduces the effective lifetime of the entire network. Further the main architecture of the sensor node will be changed if equipped with GPS, thus increasing the production cost of the sensor node as a whole. In addition to this GPS signals are not available in some of the environmental conditions like underground water and so. All these factors results in a high cost network with extra overhead. The alternative to this is the usage of GPS in only few nodes called anchor or beacon nodes. These anchor nodes are special nodes having GPS attached on them, thus they know their location. Based on the known location of the anchor nodes, the location of all other nodes can be calculated . The main advantage of this scheme is the usage of very few GPS based nodes, thus reducing the cost of the network setup. Various GPS free localization techniques have been proposed for measuring the distances in range-based algorithms  which are based on complicated mathematical formulations. Bischoff et al.  used received signal strength (RSS) to estimate distances
exclusion of low-income households. The exclusion faced by non-car owning households has increased due to dispersed land uses and changes to work and lifestyle patterns. A report by the Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College, and MacDonald (undated) highlight the ways in which problems with transport provision may act as barriers to participation in the normal range of activities (and thus, social mobility) as well as the ways in which the cost of transport may be disproportionately borne by certain people. A Social Exclusion Unit review (2003) highlighted problems with access to work, learning, healthcare, food shops and activities, as well as the problem of the impact of traffic on deprived communities. Nearly one in three households do not have access to a car. Finally, Kenyon et al. (2003) demonstrate the ways in which transport and social exclusion are linked – some people are excluded from use of certain types of transport and this is then associated with exclusion from activities such as training, social events, family trips, and employment. Levels of exclusion are associated with economic status, location and age and negatively affect both urban and rural dwellers, due to factors such as inadequate routing and timings of public transport, lack of money or physical mobility (2003: 326). Unequal access to transport might also have implications for social mobility through structuring choices over access to public services, including education and schooling.
The study of consumer behaviour tells us how the people make their choices while make any purchase decision. It gives the answer of the question how consumers buy, when they buy, why they buy. All these answers depend on the accuracy of knowledge about consumer Behaviour. The accurate knowledge means here the factors that affect consumer Behaviour such as cultural, social, psychological, etc. The market experts and analyst need to understand consumer choices and their pattern of purchases. The success merely depends on the strategy adopted by the marketers by taking into consideration those factors which influence buyer Behaviour in any manner.
People remain in jobs that they like even though higher pay may be available elsewhere. A number of factors will influence this decision: - if there are good employment conditions, if staff like working in the business and if there are realistic opportunities for advancement, people are likely to want to stay 7 .
Culture is crucial for understanding the needs and behaviors of people who share the same values system or a similar lifestyle. For a brand, it is important to understand and take into account the cultural factors inherent to each market in order to adapt its product and its marketing strategy. McDonald’s is an excellent example of adaptation. For example it has special aloo tiki burger (with Indian spices) and it does not sell beef keeping the religious sentiments of Indian people in mind.
The above total variance table indicates that initial number of factors is same as the number of variables used in the tested dimension. However not all 8 factors will be retained. In this test only 1 factor is retained since their Eigen value is greater than one i.e, 5.14. The total variance for the two factors is 64 percent, which is considered as statistically significant.
The sport of triathlon provides a unique model for pacing analysis, due to the involvement of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines in continuum, and the ability to examine the influence of race distance on pacing. To date, a compre- hensive review examining factors that may be responsible for differences in pacing over various triathlon distances and disciplines is currently lacking. As such, the strategy or strategies that assist in optimizing performance during the various standard triathlon events is presently unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1) identify factors regulating and influencing pacing in triathlon; 2) discuss the effectiveness of and provide recommendations for
Thus, while the individual, the environment and the support systems directly influence entrepreneurship, the socio-cultural milieu contributes through the individual and support systems. Broadly speaking, support systems and social cultural factors also constitute the environment. Thus, finally there remain only two factors on which entrepreneurship development depends. These include personal characteristics of the individuals and the environment where entrepreneurial activities can flourish and grow.
For this commodity group, there are typical so-called limited purchases which are characteristic by the fact, that the consumer does not know the purchased product, but issues only from a common experience. At the purchase there is supposed a higher level of consumers’ involvement and a high measure of inter- ference (by quality, characteristics, design, or price). chance for the incidence of situation factors. housing equipment, contents
Frequent use of the NGS mention burdens the savings gained from the use of generic drugs, with an additional cost of € 100 million in France . The generic market in Europe ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom . The use of the NGS mention re- sults from the attitude of both participants in the doctor-patient relationship . For prescribers, an op- position to substitution can arise from concerns about the strict bioequivalence between drugs (single-dose studies, studies restricted to healthy volunteers ), es- pecially for Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) drugs like antiepileptic drugs . Patients may perceive drug sub- stitution as interfering with their usual care. In a survey conducted in Greece in 2015, only 40% of patients agreed that generic drugs are as effective as brand-name drugs . No definite conclusion can be made regard- ing the effect of a patient’s income on his perception of generic medications [12, 13]. Willingness to be treated with a generic drug decreases when the disease is chronic . Older age has been associated with lower likelihood to endorse generic medications for patients in Germany and in Portugal [15, 16], but not in Japan . Finally, a feeling of therapeutic ineffectiveness due to
Age at marriage of girls has been increasing over the years in India, yet on the contrary, nearly 46 percent of the girls are still marrying before attaining the legal age at marriage. This in turn suggests that more than half of the females are getting married during adolescence period. Further, there are wide disparities between the states, particularly between the states of South and North India. Kerala has the highest age at marriage for girls (22.2 years) in India. On the contrary, despite the similarities with respect to the socio-economic conditions and stan- dard of living among the South Indian states, Andhra Pradesh has lowest age at marriage (18.4 years). This in turn suggests that in spite of Andhra Pradesh being one of the southern states, the age at marriage in the state is comparable to BIMARU states. Given the disparities in „age at marriage‟ and similarities in the social settings within the states of South India, the present research attempts to understand the determining factors that favor adolescent marriages in South India.
In this context, a lot of research is trying to analyse and to understand the factors which influence physician pre- scribing decisions and practice. The related literature sug- gests several factors that may have a role in influencing the prescribing behaviour of physicians [6-9]. Some factors are fixed and they do not offer any opportunity for modi- fication and improvements in prescribing behaviour. Such factors for instance include, the age and sex of the physician or the patient, the socio-economic characteris- tics of the practicing area or the reimbursement status of therapy [10,11]. On the other hand, there are factors which can be influenced and in turn cause a modification to the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Such factors may be the under and post graduate education and the experience of the physician, various social factors, the number of practitioners in a practice and others [12-15]. It is notable that no other study has attempted so far to analyse the prescribing behaviour and its determinants amongst Greek or Cypriot primary care physicians. There- fore, we carried out a survey in order to investigate the pre- scribing attitudes of physicians in these two countries and in the present paper we present the main survey results. The paper outlines in a comparative and detailed way the main factorsinfluencing the decision making and the drug prescription choices of physicians in the two coun-
sample. Even for the studied countries, we cannot assume that all researchers working in the field of bioethics were reached through our procedure since we sampled specific- ally those who were affiliated with a bioethics centers. Although we collected information through several chan- nels, it is possible that we have missed some bioethics centers. Third, the response rate could be considered rea- sonable in comparison to other social science studies. Nevertheless, the fact that many identified bioethics scholars did not respond to the study also means that the voices of more than half of the sample are not known. It is likely that this has led to a selection bias, namely that many of the non-respondents were more normatively ori- ented bioethics scholars who simply considered the topic of the survey as not being relevant for them. Thus our estimation of the proportion of bioethics scholars who conduct empirical research (or plan to do so) is an over- estimation. This is particularly unfortunate since we aimed to gather data also from researchers who did not conduct empirical research on questions unrelated to method- ology. However, this study is valuable in that it provides insight into for instance, bioethics scholars who use em- pirical research methods, their background, the methods they use as well as their level of confidence with the most common methods and their attempts (and the methods for that) to integrate empirical findings in normative ana- lysis. Furthermore, the study is novel in that it gathered data from the perspectives of bioethics scholars and in that way, it is a much needed addition to the studies based on published papers from which methodological informa- tion was extracted [1, 2]. The added value of surveying bioethics scholars is shown for example in findings such as the discrepancy between the proportion of ‘empirical researchers’ who say they have integrated the empirical with the normative and those who planned to do so for their current work. Therefore, this survey is an important first step in mapping the empirical work done in the field so that it is possible to have a well-informed debate about how things should be done.
In summary, the current study provided detailed infor- mation about the national population-based incidence, characteristics, and related risk factors of calcaneal fractures, which could be used as reference data for healthcare policy makers and health consultation and prevention for individuals. Specific public health policies focusing on decreasing alcohol consumption, quitting smoking, and encouraging individuals to obtain suffi- cient sleep should be implemented. Reasonable meat consumption and maintaining a normal body weight should be emphasized in individuals, especially in those with history of previous history.