Wasserman  stated the fact of the accelerated growth of mobile applications, in addition to some characteristics of these applications namely small size, one or two developers, native and web applications, and the needed security. He also worked on the differences between mobile and traditional software engineering . Bareiss & Sedano  tried to find some special needs for mobile applications . Carbon & Hess  put some methods for developing a business mobileapplication, in addition to some guiding principles like user- centric, lightweight, iterative and integrative . Some authors, Charland & Leroux , compared the native and the web applications. They stated the problems that face the mobile vendors, especially the platform requirements and cross platform compatibility. They tried to distinguish between applications and could not recommend but hybrid applications . On the other hand, Dehlinger & Dixon  counted on the rapid development of the mobile platforms. They also categorized four mobileapplication challenges for software engineering, which are Creating Universal User Interfaces, Enabling Software Reuse across Mobile Platforms, Designing Context-Aware Mobile Applications, and Balancing Agility and Uncertainty in Requirements .
Adams Begue, Venitha Kowlessur, Upasana singh, Fawzi Mahomoodally, Sameerchand Pudaruth The best possible recognizable proof of plant species has real advantages for a wide scope of partners extending from ranger service administrations, botanists, taxonomists, doctors, pharmaceutical research facilities, associations battling for imperiled species, government and people in general on the loose. Therefore, this has powered an enthusiasm for creating robotized frameworks for the acknowledgment of various plant species. A completely robotized strategy for the acknowledgment of restorative plants utilizing PC vision and machine learning strategies has been introduced. Leaves from 24 distinctive restorative plant species were gathered and shot utilizing a cell phone in a research facility setting. Countless were separated from each leaf, for example, its length, width, edge, region, number of vertices, shading, border and zone of body. A few inferred highlights were then processed from these characteristics. The best outcomes were gotten from an arbitrary woodland classifier utilizing a 10-overlay cross-approval procedure. With an exactness of 90.1%, the arbitrary backwoods classifier performed superior to anything other machine learning methodologies, for example, the k-closest neighbor, credulous Bayes, bolster vector machines and neural systems. These outcomes are extremely reassuring and future work will be outfitted towards utilizing a bigger dataset and elite registering offices to explore the execution of profound learning neural systems to distinguish restorative plants utilized in essential social insurance. To the best of our insight, this work is the first of its sort to have made a remarkable picture dataset for restorative plants that are accessible on the island of Mauritius. It is foreseen that an online or portable PC framework for the programmed
Abstract— Smart phone is used by most of the population. Over thousands of applications are used daily and a new application gets launched as per need. In order to do work on phones itself many desktop applications are getting converted to mobile version by developers. And it’s real challenge to market are these applications and reach to the maximum users. From developer point of view for application to reach to most of the end users it need to run on max platforms, this needs redevelopment of application, we can solve this problem to some extent by developing cross platform application without additional investment. Several techniques are available which will help to make it happen. Survey of these techniques could help application developers to make a proper choice.
PCA is one of the basic algorithms for face recognition and as the database size increases the computation slows down. There are many more efficient and fast algorithms like neural networks, compressed sensing, etc. which can be modified to be able to implement on mobile phones and achieve real time recognition on huge databases. Also providing the option for online training for large databases is another extension. Even a significant research has been done; there is still open room for continuing working on this subject. With mobile phones usage, traditional method of user authentication changes and raises important security issues. An open question to future work stays in video and recognition subject in mobile phone security as part of mobile authentication.
Mobile terminal manufacturers serve individual persons instead of households; there are more individuals than households the market. Furthermore, there is a large potential for use and fashion-based diversification and innovation of terminals. Car terminal manufacturers currently suffer from vertical markets due to high customization. An open application platform would help them to reduce development time and costs. People, finally, spend more than 10% of their lifetime traveling, either for business or leisure, while they want to stay connected in every respect. This is proven by the current sales figure for mobile phones. Important aspects for car drivers are-security and travel assistance.They desire to use the same services in the car to which they are used to at home and in the office which is only possible with an open application platform.
Traditional desktop delivery model is based on a large number of distributed PCs executing operating system and desktop applications. Management of traditional desktop environments is indeed a challenge and costly. Tasks such as installations, changes in configuration, security issues require procedures that are time- consuming and dedicated desk-side support. And moreover, these distributed desktops are usually underutilized, resulting in low ROI. Moreover, this distributed desktop computing model also creates a security concern as sensitive information could be compromised with stolen laptops or PCs. Desktop virtualization, moves computation to the data center and allows users to access their applications and data using stateless .thin-client devices and therefore alleviates some of the problems of traditional desktop computing. Enterprises can thus leverage the flexibility and benefits by costs of running users' desktops on virtual machines hosted at the data center to enhance business agility and reduce business risks while lowering TCO. Recent research and development in cloud computing provides openings in mass hosting of desktops and providing them as a service. However, transforming legacy systems to desktop clouds and provisioning proper capacity is a challenging problem. Desktop cloud must be appropriately designed and provisioned to offer low response time and good working experience to desktop users while optimizing back-end resource usage and therefore minimizing provider's costs. This paper illustrates the tools and approaches developed to facilitate fast and accurate planning for desktop clouds.
The mobileapplication was designed to support a smart phone via the Android platform. The mobileapplication called ‘Food ASEAN’. Figure 2 shows the details of ‘Developer Economic 2013 Survey: Android Vs iOS’. The survey results found that Android has a clear advantage on development cost (32% Android vs. 14% iOS) and a small lead on the learning curve (26% Android vs. 20% iOS). In fact 24% of developers using Android and iOS indicated that HTML is the best platform in terms of learning curve while 7% indicated that it’s Windows Phone .
Recent advances in computing and communication technology have stimulated the research interest in digital techniques for recording and transmitting visual information. The exponential growth in the amount of visual data to be stored, transferred, and processed has created a huge need for data compression . Compression of visual data, such as images and videos, can significantly improve the utilization efficiency of the limited communication channel bandwidth or storage capacity. The demand for image and video compression has triggered the development of several compression standards, such as JPEG , JPEG-2000 , MPEG-2 , H.263 , and MPEG-4 . In both the compression standards and the algorithms reported in the literature, transform coding has become the dominant approach for image and video compression. The transform, either discrete wavelet transform (DWT) or discrete cosine transform (DCT), is applied to the input picture. Here, a picture can be either a still image or motion-compensated video frame. After quantization, the quantized coefficients are converted into symbols according to some data representation scheme . In transform coding of images and videos, the two most important factors are the coding bit rate and picture quality. The coding bit rate determines the channel bandwidth required to transfer the coded visual data. One direct and widely used measure for the picture quality is the mean- square error (MSE) between the coded image/video and the original one. The reconstruction error introduced by compression, often referred to as distortion. In typical transform coding, both rate and distortion are controlled by the quantization parameter of the quantizer. The major issue here is how to determine the value of to achieve the target coding bit rate, or target picture quality. To this end, we need to analyze and estimate the R-D behavior of the image/video
filesystem and a framework for the analysis and transformation of very large data sets using the Map Reduce  paradigm. While the interface to HDFS is patterned after the Unix file system, faithfulness to standards was sacrificed in favor of improved performance for the applications at hand. An important characteristic of Hadoop is the partitioning of data and computation across many (thousands) of hosts, and the execution of application computations in parallel close to their data. A Hadoop cluster scales computation capacity, storage capacity and I/O bandwidth by simply adding commodity servers. Hadoop clusters at Yahoo! span 40,000 servers, and store 40 petabytes of application data, with the largest cluster being 4000 servers. One hundred other organizations worldwide report using Hadoop. The Hadoop platform is used in the proposed multimedia recommendation system. On the platform, user clusters and multimedia content are collected, distributed, and stored into the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS).
Various current Web applications are completely useful frameworks that give business-to-client and business-to-business online business, and various administrations to various clients. Enterprises, for example, travel and cordiality, fabricating, saving money, instruction and government used Web-based applications to enhance and increment their activities. Furthermore, the Web considers the improvement of corporate intranet Web applications, for use inside the limits of individual associations. The exceptional spread of Web applications into regions of correspondence and business makes it one of the main and most critical branches of the product business. This paper exhibits an overview of various electronic application advancement techniques and the safety efforts taken to secure the site page.
Keeping in view all of these, goal of our project is to reduce limitations and problems mentioned above. Our system allows blind person to his/her voice instead of converting speech to text, the system directly sends recorded voice message to recipients mail address as an attachment. The system also provide option of desktop browser which helps to search contents in computer, Operate multimedia functions of computer such as audio, text, News on internet can be read by system. In this system we use Microsoft speech SDK which is a software development kit for building speech engine and application for Microsoft window. SDK contain SAPI i.e. you can use SDK run time to build application programming interface. This technique has following advantages:
Next, developers were asked if they prefer native, hybrid or web development. 85.47% chose native, while only 5.59% selected hybrid and 8.94% preferred web. While hybrid applicationdevelopment dominates media coverage, the facts reveal that most developers are not actively using this approach.
Some mobility management systems with the focus on vertical handover have been designed to support QoS of multimedia applications. Fernandes and Karmouch  proposed the Context-Aware Mobility Management System (CAMMS) for vertical mobility management. CAMMS is a cross-layer architecture where the handover decision is based on the information from at least two network layers, from the data link layer to the application layer. It considers the context information, power con- sumption, user preferences, and network conditions. The cross-layer handover scheme proposed in  tries to balance the load among different networks. It achieves the maximization of the overall system QoS and user perceived QoE by effi- ciently utilizing the available communication resources. Wu, Yang and Hwang  proposed a handover decision scheme using IEEE 802.21  MIH services in WLAN and WiMAX networks to maintain nearly identical QoS in the handover. The handover decision scheme first used the Analytical Hierarchical Process to cal- culate the weights of the traffic parameters. Then it applied a typical multiple attri- butes decision making to calculate the QoS score, and ranked the preferred network according to the score.
Figure 10 shows the energy consumption of the applications. It can be seen from Figure 10 that compared with the native application, SOM and GOM reduce the energy consumption when m is greater than 15. The gap increases as the number of iterations (m, i.e., the problem size) increases. This is because as m increases it becomes increasingly better off to offload the computation to the Cloud for energy savings. The reason why SOM is worse than the native application when m is less than 15 is because with SOM each application thinks it monopolizes the usage of resources in the mobile device. However, it is not the case in reality. So when all applications decide to offload the computation to the cloud, they compete for the communication bandwidth. As a result, offloading is an unfavourable decision in reality for such situations. On the other hand, the application by GOM always makes the best decision. Another observation from the figure is that when m becomes bigger (than 15 in the figure), the energy consumed by the application with SOM is almost the same as that by GOM. This is because when m is big, offloading is always a better decision, no matter whether making a global decision or individual decision.
Organizations have understood the necessity to effectively use smartphones and mobile apps to reach and attract customers. Many organizations have started encouraging users to utilize their mobile apps and websites for using new and existing operations. The choice between employing mobile apps and websites or both, depends largely on their cost, usability, required features and the audience they target .
6.1 Context-aware mobile caching integrating with ICN The application based on ad hoc and hybrid framework concerning sensor network has become indispensable in future networking. Therefore, facilitating a context-aware mobile cache-enabled cooperative system is a promising research direction, which involves opportunistic sensing, spectrum sharing and performance optimization based on content awareness. Opportunistic sensing is a new para- digm for signal and information processing in which a network of sensing systems can automatically discover and select sensor platforms based on an operational sce- nario, determine the appropriate set of features and opti- mal means for data collection based on these features, obtain missing information by querying available re- sources, and use appropriate methods to fuse the data, resulting in an adaptive network that automatically finds scenario-dependent, objective-driven opportunities with optimized performance. Theory and algorithms of oppor- tunistic sensing are needed for advancing autonomous sensing that not only ensures effective utilization of sens- ing assets but also provides robust optimal performance . With the capability of promoting spectral utilization by accessing licensed primary bands opportunistically, cognitive radios based dynamic spectrum sharing is con- sidered as a key feature of future mobile communication. To implement cognitive radios, spectrum sensing is one principal constituent for the intelligent mitigation of harmful inferences to primary user. Spectrum sensing in cognitive communication enables user devices to acquire the mobile location of primary/incumbent user when deep sensing the spectrum availability , and realize the localization of primary user even in time-varying fading channels , thus make users access different radio access networks for context-aware content based applica- tion communication. Performance optimization based on content awareness refers to optimizing the performance of the mobile cache-enabled cooperative system according to different requirements, metrics and various resources ob- tained from opportunistic sensing and spectrum sharing.
BlackBerry is a publicly traded company based in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. BlackBerry Enterprise Service (BES) is used primarily by organizations that support BlackBerry devices. BES10, the current version of the product, is provided via an on-premises offering or a SaaS model. BES offers the best support for BlackBerry 10 devices. However, the company announced that it will open BlackBerry 10 to be managed by other EMM providers. BlackBerry reduced and simplified its BES10 pricing, and created an EZ Pass program, allowing customers to update BES 5 and BlackBerry OS licenses to BES10 licenses for BlackBerry 10, iOS and Android devices. BES10 provides support for other platforms, such as iOS and Android, but Gartner has not seen substantial uptake of BES on those platforms. While BlackBerry continues to lose ground in the mobile device space, the lack of mature alternatives that offer similar security capabilities has given the company a little bit of extra breathing room. BlackBerry is a good fit for organizations committed to supporting BlackBerry devices.
In this study, the development of interactive multimedia is focused on folk poetry text material. Here students are expected to learn independently through interactive multimedia that has been adjusted by the developer. The development of interactive multimedia in the folk poetry text is very important as a refinement in previous studies. Research related to the development of writing folk poetry texts has been carried out by Astriana. Development of Folk Poetry Learning Media Based on Macromedia Flash in to Students Class VII SMP Negeri 18 Medan Academic Year 2017/2018. Thesis: Education Language and Sastra Indonesia. Master Student at State University of Medan. 2018.
5. Shaoxuan Wang and Sujit Dey  analyse the mobile cloud computing approach with respect to some challenges that need to be addressed to make Cloud MobileMultimedia applications viable and including response time, user experience, cloud computing cost, mobile network bandwidth, and scalability to large number of users, besides other important cloud computing issues like energy consumption, privacy, and security. Probable use for multi-gaming system.