There are scopes for even greater efficiencies in the future through greater sharing of processes within and between departments. Of all the security methods and issue that are common in e-commerce is understood can also be used to e- government risk management subject, but e-government is different because it has direct network access to each other that is much better than business networks because most of them are linked for passing, transferring and sharing information. Moreover, business network accesses are competitors where they don’t allow their sensitive information to be shared publicity. The importance of e-government is to use electronic information technology to break boundary of government administrative organization to have virtual electronic government security (Kaur, 2003).
Persons who are unable to hear or speak clearly, may use e-mail or instant message systems to communicate with co-workers and complete tasks, and, persons with chronic health conditions or limited mobility may be more comfortable taking rest breaks and handling personal care at home. In their home environments, persons with physical and sensory disabilities often have special equipment, a specially designed environment, and, in some cases, caregivers that facilitate their independence and ability to complete tasks in a more efficient and cost effective manner. In spite of the advantages that virtual workplaces offer persons with disabilities, social isolation may pose special problems for them. Persons with disabilities already have problems fitting into mainstream society and need opportunities to observe appropriate role models and practice social skills .
Papagiannidis et al also further points out that the development of the second dimen- sion of VE regulation, in the real world, would benefit the introduction of a global advisory or even regulatory body thus taking into account the global reach of VEs, or whether differ- ent countries, organizations or communities might introduce separate regulatory frameworks and legislative codes. From this Spinello , considered some options for possible Internet governance and suggested three top-down models: The first model, direct government / state intervention, could be abused by regulation tourists who shop around for more relaxed regulatory nations. However, this a common phenomena in real world regulation. The sec- ond model, coordinated international intervention, could address this problem due to the global nature of VEs as it would transcend geographical boundaries, although as the na- tions of the world do not seem capable of agreeing on such a framework for their real world trading Spinello seems extremely naive to think it could happen for VEs. The third model, self-internet governance, the option favoured by the US government, but has problems of accountability and management of politics between the various stakeholders involved.
rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. On the other hand, according to the NIST definition of cloud computing, there are three different models of cloud services which are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). In SaaS, model Cloud Service Providers (CSP) run and maintain computing resources, operating system and application software. While in PaaS model, CSP is responsible for providing, running and maintaining system software and computing resources, and the user has little control over the operating system and hardware resources. Finally, in IaaS model, CSP provides a set of virtualized computing resources (e.g. Storage capacity, processing power, memory and network bandwidth) to the customer who runs and maintains the operating system and the software applications using these virtual recourses. All these services can be deployed through one of four different deployment models which are public, private, hybrid and community models 30 . Public cloud is a model by which the services
Abstract— The failure of the UK government in setting up the first e-university in the early 2000 is attributed to several reasons including poor business models, branding, disruptive technologies, lack of organizational structure that accommodates such challenges, and failure to integrate a blended approach. Key to this failure is the lecture/lesson delivery model whereby e-university lesson models did not adapt much of the original classroom model of teaching with that of the virtual environment. A key obstacle is believed to be the lack of technologies of the time to support such processes. The conditions have since changed and are set to continue to change. This paper looks at academic research, technological innovations, employs process analysis, and reflective analysis to provide a lecture/lesson delivery model for the next generations of e-universities. The aim is to find to what extend current online lecture/lesson deliveries have evolved. In this process, the team reviews the case study of a UK e-university using Adobe Connect learning model that mirrors much of the physical processes of lecture/lesson delivery. Using Riva model, the paper compares the physical with the virtualmodel of lesson/lecture delivery processes. The paper concludes that this key process has shown promising results but there remain some challenges for e-university processes to overcome.
Over the last forty years attempts to apply the marketing concept to business organisations have predominantly used three fundamental processes. These are the cost process, the societal process, and the strategic planning process (Stildsen & Schutte 1972: Worthington & De Marzio 1990). Of the three, the strategic planning process, the most recent and appealing, was developed in response to marketing practitioners’ needs to be more professional, and it has a major role in the development and implementation of the business strategic plan (Worthington & De Marzio 1990). Based on this assertion the use of a strategic marketing approach was justified as the foundation of the model developed in this research. Chorn’s (1991) strategic model that considers alignment within organisations has been applied as part of the dependant variable within the local government marketing application model as shown in figure 3. This model identified four logics that assist organisations in achieving strategic alignment by ensuring the dominant logic is consistent across all activities. The four logics are integration,
Only UNICEF referred to the guidelines for the manage- ment of Separated and Unaccompanied children devel- oped by the inter-agency working group . This was unexpected as the literature review indicated these uni- versal guidelines were widely used. Other organisations made vague references to other documents, however there was no evidence suggesting a definite set of guide- lines were in active use throughout Iran. Even though documentation was only rarely referred to, many of the principles contained within the international guidelines on the management of separated and unaccompanied children were put into practice in Bam. This was espe- cially true once UNICEF’s assistance began in accor- dance with international guidelines. These state that when an event overwhelms the national government, the victims of the disaster are the responsibility of the United Nations , after which other humanitarian organisations should assist where appropriate.
The data openness (DO) indicator is focused on evaluating the degree of openness of the published data and is thus comprised of eight criteria that are consistent with the Open Government Working. Group's list of eight preferable characteristics for open data (2007). Table 1 gives short descriptions of each criterion alongwith their values and a total value for the DO indicator (Veljković, N. et all, 2014). To evaluate the Data openness is necessary to choose a relevant subset of the data for each published dataset category. This happens with statistical approach which provides a reliable method for sample size determination with given restrictions, such as the confidence level andmargin of error. The Evaluation gives 5 levels of Data Openness - cradle (0-5%); basic openness (6- 35%); average openness (36-75%); openness (76-90%) and high openness (˂90%).
The third stage incorporates a transactional capability and requires more advanced security capability at the mobile devices and the technologies. To move from stage 2 to the stage 3, the government needs more effort and time, because security and its verification is the greatest concern in this stage. This stage requires systems or applications capable of performing secure transaction. Small transaction can be done with the use of simple application or simple mobile phone. Citizens can initiate financial transaction with a simple SMSs services, for example, paying their utility bills and other services. Based on research, there are many examples in some countries on how they use mobile government to carry out financial transactions. For instance, mobile parking fee payment in Sweden that allows citizens to pay the parking fee with their mobile devices. M-local tax management system in Korea, which allow officer to access information and transfer particular data to the local database .
The IT infrastructure constituted internet accessibility, access to computers, and activity level in using the internet. All the aforementioned constituents of IT infrastructure were significant determinant of e-governance awareness and adoption in Ghana. This was confirmed with a Pearson Correlation and a regression analysis conducted at the 0.05 significance level. The test showed an R = 0.884 and p<0.05 to give the indication that, there was a positive and significant relationship between IT infrastructure and internet accessibility, access to computers and activity level in internet usage. The study further showed an R 2 = 0.782 to give the indication that, 78.2% of the changes that occurs in IT infrastructure in relation to e-governance awareness and adoption were explained by internet accessibility, access to computers and activity level in internet usage. Furthermore, the results showed coefficients values of 0.602, 1.236 and 0.115 with p<0.05 respectively. This information gives the implication that, internet accessibility, accessibility to computers and activity level in the internet usage does have a significant impact on determining whether or not an organization or use will adopt and implement e-Tax payer system and other e-government services.
• Innovation with the user in mind. A user-focused e-government builds on the following principles: (1) know users and their needs: formally and regularly monitor user needs and expectations; (2) customise services to user needs: develop e-government services according to needs and expectations, and establish multi-channel management strategies to meet customisation challenges; (3) create the look and feel of one single public sector entity: simplify, integrate, and standardise front- and back-offices ( e.g. business processes, application navigation structures, databases, etc.) to enable the provision of seamless services from a public sector acting as one entity.
computational models being solved in time domain with high portions of flexible bodies. Other powertrain parts like a valvetrain, are included only as an additional mass or frequently, they are not included at all. Crankshaft and engine block interactions are solved using a hydrodynamics model of a slide bearing most often. A slide bearing model comes from a numerical solution of Reynolds equation, often without pin tilting influences  and  or with a simple pin tilting approximation . Full elastohydrodynamic solution of Reynolds equation including shell and pin deformations is still not fully applied for powertrain dynamics with many slide bearings. The elastohydrodynamic solution of slide bearings of a separate connecting rod is often used for detailed slide bearing solutions. Theoretically, simultaneous full elastohydrodynamic solution of all cranktrain bearings can be used but numerical costs are high and there are no significant benefits for the cranktrain dynamics.
An extensive eight-page questionnaire was developed to survey organisations about their e-business (and e-government) initiatives and development practices. The survey had ethics approval and respondents were assured that all information would be made anonymous and that only de-identified summary statistics would be reported. The survey was conducted in June and July 2007. The object of the survey was to provide a benchmark of current practice. The survey instrument was developed by California State University and contained five components (Tsai and Ching 2003). The first component sought information about organisational characteristics, how they classified their e-business goals and what objectives they wanted to achieve with their initiatives. The second component sought information on the key decision makers and other participants to the decision- making process. The ICT infrastructure was the focus of the third component of the instrument. The physical components that make up the ICT infrastructure were sought along with tools used for data mining and communications; the information management functions performed within the organisation and functions that were outsourced. The component also required the identification of areas impacted by the implementation of e-business initiatives. The fourth component focused on network usage, particularly the use of the Internet, extranets and intranets by the organisation. Information on the benefits realised from these initiatives and how performance or outcomes were measured were also sought. The final component asked for name and address details on the organisation as well as the name and title of the person completing the questionnaire. The final part of the component provided the respondent with a space where they could write any comments they believed were relevant to the study.
Generally, the real world is complex, various factors might involve to an issue and there might be diverse view points to consider for tackling it. This implies it’s frequently hard to understand the actual problem or find out the origin cause. Through all these hassles and confusions frequently surrounding problems, identifying suitable solution might sometimes look almost unfeasible. Therefore, it is essential to find out a suitable and accurate method to employ it, in order to evaluate the system in an accurate manner. In regards to e-government system the evaluation of e- government stage models has been relatively less investigated. Most studies on evaluating e- government systems have focused mainly on the individual elements or components within a model such as; planning, strategies, service provision, ICT projects, with little or no in depth evaluation of e-government stage model as a whole. In addition, this domain has not been investigated sufficiently from the view point of system acceptance.
Based on the PMO No. 202/2005, are set the minimum criteria with regard to the layout and the required information published to the central government institutions. Similar requirements and specifications should be defined for the LGU, especially in order to define the minimum information required for the services offered at local level. Moreover, including e- Government Service Provision at Local Government level in the National Strategy on Decentralization would enable a smooth transition of this process and to increase use and trust.
Accounting professionals have also been influenced by these technological improvements in Turkey. Among the changes created by these developments is the fact that traditional accounting applications have been transferred to information technology, with data registrations being input into computers. This has produced quick, reliable accounting processes, helping both accountants and customers access accounting information swiftly. With the advent of e-government online services being more widely used, online taxation services are now being utilized through integrating internet-based technologies. Following this, tax returns have begun being approved through online services. Finally, all offline processes have been transformed into online taxation e-processes by adding e-bills to the online services. The Ministry of Finance in Turkey has transformed all offline processes into online e-processes in order to minimize tax evasion, to collect taxes swiftly and to decrease the workloads undertaken by the tax office.
TheRepublic of Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab World. Ithas reported strong growth since 2000, and its economic fortunes dependmostly on oil. The government is represented by the president initiated aplan to develop the new country infrastructure and build a democraticadministrative system, which is responsible for the provision of publicservices to all Yemenis whether in the country or abroad. According to Alsohybe, the Republic of Yemen long- term’s strategy aimed todevelop a reliable and efficient administration and government by improving and reforming its ministries and institutions to deliver betterpublic services for all its citizens and gain recognition around the world.
coordinating actions to be in line with moral goals of the organisation, while at the same time limit corruption. Al-Raysuni (2011) listed 10 purposes and benefits achieved from the practice of Shura: 1) determining the course of action which is correct, or most correct, 2) release from the tyranny of subjectivity and selfish whims, 3) preventing high-handedness and tyranny, 4) teaching humility, 5) giving everyone his due, 6) promoting an atmosphere of freedom and initiative, 7) developing the capacity for thinking and planning, 8) increased readiness for action and support, 9) promoting goodwill and unity, and 10) willingness to endure undesirable consequences. Shura is not in conflict with formal authority, as it is a form of checks and balances. Despite this, there can also be disparity between espoused principles and those that is practiced, because Shura depends entirely on the participants and their moral consciousness. The practice can be detrimental if the participants are majorly of diseased hearts and have more formal authority, as they can influence Shura sessions with their cunningness to suit their interests. Wise agents are thus needed as champions to expose deceptions concocted by these groups of people. But since the diseased hearts are between the two extremes, there is no full-proof practice to ensure the eventual moral development of the organisation, except with having agents exercise their own wisdom and consult each other to arrive at a common understanding and determined course of action. This is why agents need to purify their hearts continuously, so that the shared understanding is towards moral end, and not otherwise.