Top PDF Abstract This research aims to descript validity of students’ book for practicing students’ critical thinking skills. The research used

Abstract This research aims to descript validity of students’ book for practicing students’ critical thinking skills. The research used

Abstract This research aims to descript validity of students’ book for practicing students’ critical thinking skills. The research used

Based on the results of interviews conducted to elementary school teachers, in terms of learning, subject teachers still explain the material using the lecture method [5]. In the learning process, the teacher has not been able to create conditions and situations that allow students to build critical thinking processes [6]. This can be seen from the activities of teachers and students during teaching and learning activities. The teacher explains the material that has been prepared and provides routine and continuous practice questions. Students only record, copy, and tend to memorize without meaning and understanding.
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The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

are ranked from 1 to 4 in which 4 is most consistent with the participants’ learning style 3 to some extent, 2 poorly consistent and 1 not consistent. To find the participants’ learning styles, the first choice of all 12 questions were added together and this was repeated for other choices. Thus, four total scores for the four learning styles were obtained, the first for concrete experience learning style, the second for reflective observation of learning style, the third for abstract conceptualization learning style and the forth for active experimentation learning style. The highest score determined the learning style of the participant. The California critical thinking skills test (form B) includes 34 multiple choice questions with one correct answer in five different areas of critical thinking skills, including evaluation, inference, analysis, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The answering time was 45 minutes and the final score is 34 and the achieved score in each section of the test varies from 0 to 16. In the evaluation section, the maximum point is 14, in analysis section 9, in inference section 11, in inductive reasoning 16 and in deductive reasoning the maximum point was 14. So there were 6 scores for each participant, which included a critical thinking total score and 5 score for critical thinking skills. Dehghani, Jafari Sani, Pakmehr and Malekzadeh found that the reliability of the questionnaire was 78% in a research. In the study of Khalili et al., the confidence coefficient was 62% and construct validity of all subscales with positive and high correlation were reported between 60% -65%. So this test was reliable for the research. Collecting the information was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the questionnaires were given to the students and the objectives and importance of the research were mentioned. In the next stage, the students' academic performance was reviewed. After data collection, the data were coded and analyzed, using the SPSS 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). To describe the data, descriptive statistics were used such as mean and standard deviation for continues variables and frequency for qualitative variables. Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine the relationship between variables at a significant level of p<0.05.
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Research Design prototype of Teacher Book and Student Book based on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) to Practice Critical Thinking Skills of Grade VII

Research Design prototype of Teacher Book and Student Book based on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) to Practice Critical Thinking Skills of Grade VII

The level of thinking in reasoning includes the basis of basic thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking (Krulik & Rudnick (1995). The level of thinking is basic thinking, critical thinking and creative thinking. Thinking is an activity of reason to process the knowledge we receive through the five senses, and intended to achieve a truth Logic thinking can be interpreted as reasoning, where reasoning itself is part of thinking that is beyond the level of remembering. This level of thinking is important (Andreson (2001). A person must master one level of thinking before he can go to the next level. The reason is we cannot ask someone to be creative if he does not know it, does not understand it, cannot apply it, cannot analyze it, and cannot analyze it, and can't evaluate Critical thinking is a disciplined way of thinking used by someone to evaluate the validity of something (ideas, questions, arguments, research, etc.) (Beyer in Filsaime 2008). Screven and Paul (2008) view critical thinking as an intelligent disciplined process of conceptualism, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the active skills collected from conceptualization, application, analysis, synthesis, and active evaluation resulting from observation, reflection, reasoning, or communication. Critical thinking enables students to study a problem systematically, face millions of challenges in an organized way, formulate innovative questions and design solutions. Another theory about critical thinking revealed by Ennis (1996) identifies five systematic behaviors in critical thinking. The behavior can be described as critical thinking stages as follows:
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Design Of Probability Module Based On PBL Learning Model To Improve Critical Thinking Skills

Design Of Probability Module Based On PBL Learning Model To Improve Critical Thinking Skills

AbstractCritical thinking is an important skill in the 21st century learning in the industrial revolution 4.0 era. The ranking of Indonesia in TIMSS is low. 21st-century student skills in Indonesia such as critical thinking is still relatively low. Teaching materials that do not contain 21st-century skills will have an impact on the effectiveness of achieving core competencies and basic competencies. This research has several objectives. First, analyze the module needs as teaching material. Second, knowing the teacher's response to the 2013 curriculum compatibility module. Third, knowing the problem in students' critical thinking skills. The design development model used is the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation). This study uses a qualitative method. The research subjects were teachers and students at Sorong Muhammadiyah High School. The object of this research is critical thinking and the Analysis of the Model Problem-Based Learning model. Data collection instruments used observation guidelines and interview guidelines. Data analysis uses descriptive analysis. Research provides several results. First, teachers and schools need electronic modules. Second, the critical thinking skills of class XII students are still relatively low in material opportunities. Third, teachers need modules for curriculum compatibility in 2013. Fourth, modules that integrate critical thinking skills do not yet exist. This research can be developed based on Problem Based Learning modules to improve critical thinking skills. This research can be continued in the Implementation and Evaluation stage.
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ENHANCING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AMONG AUTHORITARIAN STUDENTS

ENHANCING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AMONG AUTHORITARIAN STUDENTS

It is important for educators to understand that the role they play in developing critical thinking is different than the role they are typically playing. In order to engage students in critical thinking, the educator needs to act as a facilitator to allow for discussion and encourage a freer thought process, as well as to encourage understanding that thinking critically does not always end with a right answer, but instead sometimes ends in more questions or differing evaluations of the topic (Halx & Reybold, 2005; Arend, 2009). The educator’s role as facilitator also encourages a peer review process, even in the youngest of children, and helps students to learn appropriate responses to conflicting evaluations and opinions (Henderson-Hurley & Hurley, 2013; Tsai et al., 2013). Activities such as writing essays and utilizing questions that adhere to Bloom’s Taxonomy higher order thinking are examples of ways to engage students in critical thinking in the classroom(Smith & Szymanski, 2013). Another option for an activity that helps to enhance critical thinking is the use of wikis in education. This activity can be utilized by having students create a wiki about the subject content they are studying or by having them analyze the information currently available in existing wikis (Snodgrass, 2011). This utilization of wikis, a web 2.0 application, also appeals to education in that it enhances the student’s skills in technology, another vital skill for both higher education and the workplace. It is suggested that this endeavor for more critical thinking is a holistic endeavor, which would require cooperation among different departments, divisions, and classes (Henderson-Hurley & Hurley 2013). The development of critical thinking skills is not only applicable to core subjects such as reading, math, language arts, science, and social studies. Kokkidou (2013) sets forth ways that critical thinking can be developed in music education by examining musical environment, comparing and contrasting different eras or pieces of music, and self-evaluation of performance. Results of Increased Critical Thinking
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Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: a Comparison Between Freshmen and Senior Students

Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: a Comparison Between Freshmen and Senior Students

This study aimed to compare the CTS of freshmen and senior nursing students to determine if the current nurs- ing education program is effective on its students CTS. Results showed that the mean critical thinking scores of freshmen and senior nursing students were at a low lev- el. Moreover, no significant difference was observed be- tween the mean critical thinking scores of freshmen and senior nursing students. In addition, no significant as- sociation was found between the students’ scores in CTS and variables such as gender, high school GPA, RUEE and level of interest in the nursing profession. These findings are consistent with the results of previous studies (22). Previous studies on the assessment of Iranian nursing students and nurses’ CTS have reported that the major- ity of nursing students and nurses in Iran have poor CTS (3, 23-25). Consistent with this study, other studies have also found no significant difference between freshmen and senior nursing students' CTS (3, 26). However, Khalili et al. (17), Babamohamadi and Khalili (23) have reported significant differences between the critical thinking scores of freshmen and senior nursing students, which is not in line with the results of the present study. These inconsistencies might not only be attributed to probable differences in learning styles of students (27) but also to the relatively different teaching styles of different nurs- ing schools.
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Abstract This research is about improving the students’ writing skills using English movies with subtitles. In this research, the movie

Abstract This research is about improving the students’ writing skills using English movies with subtitles. In this research, the movie

According to Jalinus Movie is a light-sensitive material in the shooting function to place the image recording. The movie is a media that is very large in its ability to assist the teaching and learning process. English movie is difficult to understand what else for students. Understanding is an important element in the teaching-learning process. To make easier in understanding the content of the movie it can be used as a subtitle. The subtitle is a printed statement or fragment of dialogue appearing on the screen between the scenes of a silent motion picture or appearing as a translation at the bottom of the screen during the scenes of a motion picture or television show in a foreign language. Hossein Sabouri, Mohammad Zohrabi in their research concluded that the use of movies with subtitles can improve students’ engagement in learning and retrieval of new lexical items. However, more studies need to be done in the future in order to get the most advantages out of the movie materials in EFL classrooms [21].
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Developing Of Physics Learning Devices Through Research Based Learning Model To Improve High Students’ Four Cs IN THE 4.0 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ERA

Developing Of Physics Learning Devices Through Research Based Learning Model To Improve High Students’ Four Cs IN THE 4.0 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ERA

Abstract: This research is motivated by the importance of mastering the skills of four Cs (Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication, Collaboration, Creativity and Innovation) in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0. One effort to realize these goals is through the development of high school physics learning tools. The purpose of this study is to develop high school physics learning tools based on the Research Based Learning model to improve the four Cs students' skills. This type of research is design research using Plomp development design which has th ree stages, namely: 1) Preliminary Research; 2) Development or Prototyping Phase, and 3) Assessment Phase. The results of the research on the development phase of the validity test showed that the average percentage of syllabus data was 92.5%, lesson plan was 94.7%, handout was 95.5%, worksheets was 94%, and assessment was 92.5%. This research produced a high school physics learning tool based on the Research Based Learning model t o improve the four Cs skills of students with very valid criteria.
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Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

Background: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the develop- ment of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.
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Design Of Social Arithmetic Students Worksheets With Rme Approaches To Improve Critical Thinking Ability

Design Of Social Arithmetic Students Worksheets With Rme Approaches To Improve Critical Thinking Ability

Example answers from one of the students in Figure 2 above show that critical thinking skills in students are still low. Students have not been able to find the right strategy in solving these problems. Students have not been able to identify problems in the problem.Interviews were given to mathematics teachers in grade VII to find out the extent of students' thinking skills. Based on the results of the interview, the following information is obtained: 1) The ability of students to ask and answer questions is still low. 2) Students think of the answers first before expressing them to the teacher, if the answers are felt to be incorrect then it will be discussed together. 3) Some students have not been able to observe or analyze examples of problem-solving correctly. 4) Not all students can solve the questions correctly after observing the examples of the questions given. 5) Some students have not been able to solve problems coherently, because it depends on the abilities possessed by each student. 6) Not all students can evaluate their work. 7) Not all students can explain the steps in solving problems. 8) Not all students can use other alternatives in solving problems, because it depends on the abilities possessed by each student. 9) There are still students who quickly give up if they have difficulty in working on the problems.
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B learning and the teaching of writing in English in an EFL context : an action research study

B learning and the teaching of writing in English in an EFL context : an action research study

this in mind. For example, Biology and Physics students need to understand that the report writing structure they are learning in a writing course will be used very often when they carry out experiments in other courses throughout their degree. By following Systemic Functional Linguistics, the teacher ensures that writing instructions are contextualised. In this way, students become more aware of linguistic devices which are considered characteristic to Academic Writing. This ensures recognition, control and better use of them. These devices include: Modality (levels of certainty of claims); Nominalisation (increasing levels of density in sentences by turning verbs into noun constructions); Thematic Development (construction of cohesive and logical texts); Passive Voice and Thematic Development (diversion of reader’s attention to what was done). Academic Writing is seen to have evolved in learning centres from ‘remedial’ to ‘integrated’ and ‘transforming’ models of instruction. The model is based on the framework proposed by Kolb (1984) who reports on the importance of scaffolding around exposure to the information, as well as feedback on the written work, and consequently, time to reflect on what has been discussed. These notions of scaffolding have a reflexive relationship with some b-learning principles, which also focus on the integration of the content to be taught and this model aids in explaining and defining how b-learning courses need to be designed. Poskitt (2002) agrees with the aforementioned and argues that learners need to see an example of what they are to achieve. Exemplars enable students to learn faster. These exemplars have similarities to the models used in the genre approach which was used in this research.
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Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

When we compared written case analyses at the beginning and at the end of the program we found that the MBA seemed to improve students’ capabilities to formulate action plans, a very important result within the context of critical thinking for action. However, we also found that the students’ ability to identify and analyze problems appeared to deteriorate, a result which could be at least partially attributed to differences in the complexity of the cases and in the specificity of the instructions. This result suggested the hypothesis that students were not transferring critical thinking skills to unstructured situations outside the realm of the managerial decisions course. Alternatively, following Kahneman (2011), it may be that since critical thinking is a set of higher order thinking skills, students will exercise only those that the situation specifically calls for, due to either an explicit set of rules as provided in the MD course, or a specific set of incentives as offered by the MCP experience. When these rules and incentives are absent, students trust their more basic intuitive thinking processes. This intuitiveness, as opposed to active truth-seeking, could explain the low level of critical thinking dispositions. Or, it could be precisely why we are not having an impact on dispositions (as we are having in skills) as a result of the program: dispo- sitions may be more hard-wired and related to how the brain actually functions. But attempting to explore such a claim is beyond the scope of this paper.
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Logical, Critical and Creative: Teaching 'Thinking Skills' to Law Students

Logical, Critical and Creative: Teaching 'Thinking Skills' to Law Students

An example of a text intended to assist legal academics teaching legal reasoning rather than law students learning legal reasoning is the recent article Deepening the Discourse Using the Legal Mind’s Eye by Hillary Burgess. 42 Burgess presents research that demonstrates how incorporating visual aids and exercises into learning environments can help students to develop higher-order cognitive skills such as ‘thinking like a lawyer’. Burgess begins by explaining what higher order cognitive skills are and by mapping the various steps in legal reasoning onto Bloom’s taxonomy of learning objectives (level 1 – remembering, level – understanding, level 3 – applying, level 4 – analysing, level 5 – evaluating, and level 6 – creating). Burgess argues that the legal curriculum traditionally teaches the lowest four levels of learning but tests the highest four levels of learning. To help law teachers to teach all six levels of learning, Burgess offers a neuroscience and cognitive psychology perspective on how students learn legal reasoning. She reviews research that indicates that students learn more, learn at deeper levels, and retain information longer when they engage in ‘multimodal’ learning, especially learning involving visual aids and visual exercises, and provides concrete guidelines for law teachers interested in incorporating visual aids and visual exercises effectively when teaching legal reasoning. 43
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Promoting Critical Thinking Skills in EFL University Students in Benin

Promoting Critical Thinking Skills in EFL University Students in Benin

Gueldenzoph and Snyder (2008) contend that CT is not an innate ability but a learned skill that must be developed, practiced and continually integrated into curriculum to engage students in active and rewarding learning. They went further to shed light on how attention should be focused on the application of content, the process of learning and methods of assessment. Instruction that stimulates and support CT uses questioning techniques that require students to analyze, synthesize , and evaluate information to solve problems and make decisions rather than teaching techniques that require memorizing information such as vocabulary definitions for instance (Schafersman, 1991); (Templeaar, 2006). Moreover, research supports the evidence that traditional instructional methods most of the time use lectures and memorization which do not lead to long-term knowledge or the ability to apply that knowledge to new situations and consequently to CT skills (Kang and Howren, 2004). This is the case of university learning in Benin and particularly in English language department. Graded assignments, quizzes or tests far from being intellectual challenges are nothing but memory recall. Most of the assessment tools are reduced to multiple choice items rather than essay questions and case studies which are better indicators of understanding. Students are not taught to learn and think independently. Obviously, the current educational trend in Benin seems to undermine the importance of CT in learning at the university level and this for many reasons.
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Critical Literacy Approach in the teaching of literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories

Critical Literacy Approach in the teaching of literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories

This paper presents experimental results about the use of the Critical Literacy Approach (CLA) in literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories. The purpose of the study is to find better teaching strategies to improve studentscritical thinking skills and critical awareness to comprehend the conditions of the world, including social relationships involving disproportionate power relations. This study uses the randomized pretest-posttest control group design (RPPCGD), which is a randomized design by giving pretest and posttest to the experimental group (CLA) and control group (expository). The effect of both teaching strategies is calculated through the difference between the pretest and posttest of both groups. This research involved 170 students in the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature Education of an education university in Indonesia. The results are presented in the form of analytical descriptions of paired samples test and paired samples correlations of each group. The results show that students who did a short story analysis with CLA had significantly increased critical thinking skills and critical awareness compared to students of expository strategy. The average posttest of the experimental group is 80.33, which is considerably higher than the control group, with an average of 76.13. The average increase in skills (posttest-pretest) of the experimental group is 38.71 points, and the control groups have an average increase of 31.19 points. Therefore, it is clear that the teaching of literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories with CLA is effective. The use of CLA strategies in increasing studentscritical thinking skills and critical awareness through literary appreciation of Indonesian short stories shows positive results. The results of this study can contribute to the field of learning design with new ideas to improve critical thinking skills and critical awareness of Indonesian students through effective short story analysis or fictional prose analysis.
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Measuring Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Students in Universiti Putra Malaysia

Measuring Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Students in Universiti Putra Malaysia

The main focus of the pilot study was to evaluate and eliminate items that did not fulfil the required criteria, and to determine the validity and reliability of the research instrument (Wiersma and Jurs, 2005). The CTS instrument illustrated the four stages, namely, analysis, evaluation, deduction and induction subscales, which were reported by (Goel et al., 1997; Stanovich and West, 1997; Choi et al., 2007). The CTS comprised 22 multiple-choice questions with two alternatives. Face and content validity for the instrument was obtained from three experts in the field of Educational studies from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The instrument was administered to 433 undergraduate students at UPM.
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Reflective Reasoning in Groups

Reflective Reasoning in Groups

Students practice the critical and evaluative skills that typify higher order thinking skills on the tutor's and on each others' remarks.. Operationalised, this results in t[r]

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Design and Validation of a Desirable Model for Developing Critical Thinking in The First-Grade High School Curriculum Based on The Upper Documents of Education in Iran

Design and Validation of a Desirable Model for Developing Critical Thinking in The First-Grade High School Curriculum Based on The Upper Documents of Education in Iran

In this research, five hypotheses were analyzed using Chi-square statistical method. The results are: A) According to the result of analyzing the first hypothesis, the proposed features of the desired curriculum objectives for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of education in Iran in the first- grade high school is appropriate from the perspective of Iranian curriculum specialists. B) According to the result of analyzing the second hypothesis, the proposed features of the desired curriculum content for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of education in Iran in the first-grade high school is appropriate from the perspective of Iranian curriculum specialists. C)According to the result of analyzing the third hypothesis, the proposed features of the learning activities of desired curriculum for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of education in Iran in the first-grade high school is appropriate from the perspective of Iranian curriculum specialists. D)According to the result of analyzing the forth hypothesis, the proposed features of the evaluation method of desired curriculum for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of education in Iran in the first-grade high school is appropriate from the perspective of Iranian curriculum specialists. E) According to the result of analyzing the fifth hypothesis, the proposed curriculum model for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of Iran education first-grade high school is valid from the perspective of Iranian curriculum specialists. F) Accordingly, it can be argued that the proposed curriculum model and its sub- scales for developing critical thinking based on the upper documents of Iran's education in the first-grade high school is desired from Iranian curriculum specialists ' point of view. According to the results of the research, the following suggestions can be proposed: 1) Reviewing the objectives, content, learning activities and evaluation practices in Iranian first-grade high school education system with emphasis on developing the critical thinking in students. 2)Training the qualified specialists with the ability to think critically in the field of the first-grade high school curriculum planning in Iran. 3)Training the critical teachers and having the ability to think critically in order to coordinate and align with the new education system, emphasizing the development of critical thinking in the first-grade high school students of Iran. 4) Incorporating suggestions presented in the form of critical thinking development model in the first-
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Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

Our purpose in this paper is to consider how curricula can enable students (particularly at HE level) to engage more frequently with the needs of society through critical engagement with raw data - which is now increasingly made available by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic research institutions as ‘Open Data’. As yet, the literature on Open Educational Resources (OER) has made little reference to Open Data and its potential use as a form of OER. We also present initial qualitative data obtained through an exploratory online survey with academics regarding their use of Open Data in teaching, with the purpose of offering an initial springboard for further research and more complex questions. In connecting these open dots, our aim is to initiate a discussion around good practice in the use of Open Data as a basis for research-based learning activities that can contribute to the development of students’ transversal skills and field-specific competences.
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The Application of Montessori Method in Learning Mathematics: An Experimental Research

The Application of Montessori Method in Learning Mathematics: An Experimental Research

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104140 2 Open Access Library Journal very keen interest to help mentally ill and retarded children learn. Montessori strongly believed that learners could teach themselves. Thus, she developed the Montessori method of learning, regarded by scholars and educationists as unique, effective, and efficient. According to study, intervention by adults in times of need effectively helps learners to learn and progress noticeably [1]. Dr. Maria Montessori believed that each learner is a unique being, and he/she can surprise us with unique talents [2]. The theory of Montessori learning is simple. Students learn by playing. Playing is not in the literal meaning, but pretended playing. Today in this age of technology, many researchers believe that students should learn constructively and enjoyably. This type of learning is indeed flexi- ble, active, constructive and fun. The Theory of Montessori learning is based on guided learning using relevant toys that matches children’s age and capabilities. In the meantime, an adult takes charge of the student and is ready to help if needs arise. Montessori learning method is based on group learning. Similar age groups are stationed to learn effectively. Montessori students consist of 3 to 12 years of age. The beauty of this methodology is that, materials are kept on the shelves and freely available to the children. During the learning sessions, if a student makes a mistake or has any problem, he/she can refer to the material as a reference point.
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