H1: Information based on accounting data for which exists typical values to deter- mine business quality based on company’s characteristics are important for busi- ness decisionmakingprocess.
For businessdecisionmakingprocess, different qualitative and quantitative infor- mation that are available from all organizational units, and including, available fromaccounting system, are necessary. “Every investor or other businessdecision maker, and especially, every manager, to make valid decision, has to have clear perception on accounting terms and concepts” (Belak, 1995, p. 5). Every company has on its disposal basic accounting data that need to be transform into information that will represent basis for businessdecision-makingprocess. The research includes obtain- ing information about style in which are information used in Croatia, i.e. weather they are used as the original data available fromaccounting system, or they are used in form of fi nancial ratios. The research includes question if knowing typical values of individual fi nancial ratios, categorized by business activity or size of companies, would improve quality and increase level of using accountinginformation within businessdecision-makingprocess. Frequency of using fi nancial information within businessdecision-makingprocess depends of several factors as its availability, price, organization, and from the other side, important role has manager himself, and his tendency to use quantitative information and generally his willingness to use modern tools for processing them.
Making strategic business decisions, as a key activity of company management, is aimed at solving the problems of strategic importance for the company. It should also be noted that the problems in operations on which a strategic decision should be made are the so-called unstructured problems, which are not easy to define. Most of the problems that the company faces are not isolated, but interdependent on each other and their solu- tion assumes that the company management has quality information, particularly informa- tion on the costs and benefits of each of the alternatives. In addition to information, in making strategic business decisions, it is necessary to start with the pre-determined gen- eral and individual aims of the company. In this sense, strategic businessdecisionmaking is "a process of predicting the behavior of the company in order to integrate, harmonize, and direct its activities towards the achievement of the defined aims" (Novićević, 2002).
Despite the fact that MA has been a widely endorsed topic by academic researchers in recent decades, these studies only occasionally refer to transition economies. The reasons may concern at least two facts. Firstly, most research was done in the field of financial accounting (Hopper et al., 2009), and, secondly, the MA was less developed. It has received greater focus only in recent decades. At the beginning of this century (Haldma & Laats, 2002) determined that MA is still in its initial stage of development. To date, the situation has not changed significantly. So far an updated literature review of existing MA (Hopper et al., 2009) has demonstrated that MAS in transition economies and less developed countries has still not been highly developed and comparable with developed market economies. However, the authors found that research in the field of MA in less developed countries is increasing, with a broader spread across less developed countries at different development stages. Yet, there is no extensive research in any of these countries (including Europe), apart from China. (Islam & Kantor, 2005) investigated the development of quality management accounting practices in China (a review of the literature based on MA practices in selected Asian countries was made also by (Sulaiman et al., 2004). According to the authors, changes in the way enterprises are run in China have required more management information, and have consequently forced the development of MAS. Vamosi (2003) examined selected aspects of MA in a Hungarian company that shifted its operation from a command to a market economy. His results suggest that changes in accounting practice, to a larger extent, are a consequence of changes in the environment.
Accountinginformation system is a tool used by management in organizations to provide added value in order to generate a competitive advantage for the organization (Stair and Reynolds, 2006: 6). The same thing is said by McLeod and Schell (2008: 51) that the accountinginformation system can be used to provide a competitive advantage to the company. Further, said that the accountinginformation system to support strategies to achieve competitive advantage (O'Brien and Maracas, 2009: 8). Competitive advantage is superior organization in decisionmaking than its competitors (Laudon and Laudon, 2008: 14). Competitive advantage as the company has a product or service features with better value than its competitors, so that the company can continue to develop strategies based on the competitive advantage (Baltzan, 2012: 14). Competitive advantage can be achieved at three levels: strategic, tactical and operational (McLeod and Schell, 2008: 51). Further, said that the quality of accountinginformation system is used as a tool for achieving the operational control of long-term strategic program and is one of the organization's resources are used by executives to gain a strategic advantage, tactical and operational (McLeod and Schell, 2008: 29). Further explained Laudon and Laudon, that the accountinginformation system generates accountinginformation used in decision-making processes (Laudon and Laudon, 2008: 13). Internal users of accountinginformation system will use accountinginformation as a basis for decisionmaking (Azhar Susanto, 2013: 72). Accountinginformation can be aligned with labor, raw materials, machines, money and described as blood flow through the human body (Laudon and Laudon, 2008: 7).
XBRL is an open standard, free and avail- able language which is created based on XML for the production of financial reports (Santos and Castro,2011a). As a language, does not intend to modify any accounting operations of the GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Practices) and only intended to show the proper form of finan- cial and accounting data. This data can include fi- nancial information (such as balance sheet, gains and losses statement or cash flow statements) or non-financial information (such as performance appraisal, loan applications or reporting forms of rules / regulatory). XBRL is an open standard that facilitates many of the activities related to the fi- nancial reporting supply chain that involves the storage, exchange and analysis of financial and sta- tistics data (Reporting activities such as reporting financial status of company to different groups of legislators and tax authorities, banks and govern- ments, risk assessments, etc.). Its major benefits in- clude enhancement of speed and reduction of pro- duction cost and investigation of reports, no need to transfer, translate or data searching, creating the ability to search and compare types of busi- ness data. From a technical perspective, XBRL to be replaced the previous standards of XML to de- scribe the financial content and businessprocess- es over the past few years, such as FpML, RIXML or cbXML. One reason for this replacement refers to its extensive coverage. The nonprofit consortium of XBRL International, with approximately 450 members of companies and agencies is responsible
primary research regarding management relations towards accountinginformation that is used in the businessdecisionmakingprocess applied in manufacturing companies of the Tuzla Canton (here on: “TC”). The research commences from the fact that the interaction between accounting function organization quality and businessdecisionmaking is important, because it has direct effect on applied practice when managing operating performances of a company. Taking into consideration management relations towards accountinginformation in the decisionmakingprocess, dysfunctional areas within accounting function organization segments are identified. This opens up possibilities to affect modernization of the performance management through the process of redesign of those dysfunctional areas. According to our knowledge, similar research has not been conducted on the area of B&H manufacturing companies' operations.
Indonesian Institute of Accountants (IAI) establish and publish the accounting standards for SMEs with the aim of answering the phenomenon that not all business entities carrying out public accountability. SMEs is one of the entities that face the dilemma associated with public accountability, particularly on the entity's financial statements. The accounting standards formation and ratification is expected to help SMEs accounting system for the provision of better yet simple (Setiady, 2012). SMEs and the informal sector other people's economy - which is sometimes called the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) - have viability in Indonesia. SMEs in Indonesia has proven to still be able to survive the current financial crisis hit Indonesia. Based on the data of 2008, SMEs accounted for GDP share of Rp. 2,121.3 trillion, or 53.6% of the total GDP of Indonesia. The number of SMEs in Indonesia grew up to 99.98% of the business units are available.
Management reporting is a systematic process that starts with an event - all events cre- ate data. An event may be a call from a customer or an employee arriving at work; they all create data that may be subsequently used for management reporting. (Axson, 2010, p. 141) However, reporting is not the same as data generation. According to Kohler (1985) reporting refers to "a body of information organized for presentation or transmis- sion to others. It often includes interpretations, recommendations and findings with sup- porting evidence in the form of other reports." In other words, reporting requires summa- rization of data that will provide useful information to the user. Reporting is the process of communicating information. Management reporting is the process of providing infor- mation to the management, an organized method of communicating to each manager all the data required for decisions, when needed and in a tailored form, which supports understanding and stimulates action. (Periasamy, 675) Management reporting covers all activities associated with the reporting of performance measures, events, analysis, and other information to support decision-making. The information reported contains, but is not necessarily limited to, reporting current and prior period results and forecasts of future periods; comparing actual results to any comparison basis (e.g. plan, forecast, or relevant external measures) in variance analysis; calculation and reporting of perfor- mance measurements, both financial and nonfinancial; consolidation; and fulfilment of ad hoc reporting requirements. (Axson, 2010, p. 26)
In this manner, potentially hidden environmental costs are identified and separated from the general costs; this enable the managers in determining the true cost of a particular product or process and the proportion that are actually environmentally driven costs (UNDSD, 2001).Consequently, environmental accounting notifies corporate stakeholders of environmental costs, and creates a platform for key players to identify possible ways of reducing or avoiding those costs while at the same time improving environmental quality. All these are directed towards enhancing accurate assessment of costs and benefits of environmental preservation measures of firms and provide a framework for organizations to identify and account for past, present and future environmental costs to support managerial decisionmaking, control and public disclosure (Schaltegger & Burritt, 2000; KPMG and UNEP, 2006). Ditz, et al, (1995) opine that environmental costs can be substantial, ranging from five to twenty percents of the total cost of business. The view above supports the argument that environmental cost is very relevant in decisionmaking since such a large percentage of business resources cannot be undermined in any strategic decisions.
The understanding of the accountinginformation system, according to some experts are as follows: Wilkinson et al. (2000): Accountinginformation system is an integral structure of the entity, such as a business enterprise that uses physical resources and other components for menrubah economic data into the accountinginformation, with the goal of satisfying the information needs of a wide range of users. Jones and Dasaratha V. Rama (2006): Accountinginformation system is a sub-system of management information system that provides accounting and financial information and other information that is obtained in a routine process of accounting transactions. Moscove, et al. (1990) Accountinginformation system is a component of the accumulated organsisi, classify, process, analyze and communicate financial information relevant external and internal parties to parties in decision-making. Heogy (2003) Accountinginformation system is a delivery system for the purpose of accountinginformation: 1 / to meet the reporting requirements organizations, 2 / to provide reliable accounting inforamsi those who need it, and 3 / to protect organizations from misuse of accounting data or the system itself. Romney and Paul (2009) Accountinginformation system is a system that collect, record, store and process the data to provide onformasi for the decision maker. Bodnar and Willliam (2010): Accountinginformation system is a collection of source-source example of people and equipment designed to finance modify data and other data
The first data processing phase consists of collecting data about occurred business events. After data collecting comes the second phase of the accountingprocess that consists of business event analysis. After that recording in journal and general ledger comes. At the end of accounting period, just before preparing basic financial statements, we need to check data accuracy in the books since we make financial statements on the basis of those data. Therefore we prepare the trial balance. It represents the recapitulation of all ledger accounts and financial transactions. After all records are coordinated and after we find all data accurate, we have the last phase of the accountingprocess that refers to preparing financial statements. As it has already been pointed out, financial state- ments have to satisfy interests of different accounting (financial) information users.
Avg. 1 h 39 min I managed to book interviews with many relevant persons but some of them remained unobtainable. HardwareCo case lacks insights especially from the sales department. A sales director and a salesperson would have brought important information to this anal- ysis. In addition, at least one person from the subcontractor would have benefited the case as well. Despite having only two informants, AnalyticsCo case is not missing any crucial information, in my opinion, since we were able to interview a co-founder and a chair of the board who are part of the top management and the whole company is quite small. ProcessCo, however, misses an informant from the user side of the investment, although it probably does not have a significant impact on the research questions but the overall understanding of the investment process. From the data point of view, Manufac- turingCo is the weakest case. Despite the interview with the business controller being one of the best in terms of relevance and context, there is an information gap. The busi- ness unit manager was able to give us only the 48-minute interview where we had to rush through some questions, and we used most of the time when the business unit manager explained what kind of target setting system they have in general. Other view- points would have been needed for a more comprehensive understanding of the case, but I was not able to get more interviews.
2. Statement of the problem
Kurdistan Region is in a very distinct economic year. Some aspect of our economy are experiencing unprecedented hyperinflation whereas other aspects are worst by devastating depression, for years now, the emphasis is on the restructuring of our economy. The international monetary fund (IMF) prescribed some better-internal restructure measures (without regards to our socio economic (background) which were applied. The cream of our economists who can dictate economy is still running heedlessly into the words culminating in failure of business and pauperization of a great majority of Kurdistan Region. Under the present economic dispensation very different to stop a float vis-à-vis those that are yet to be submerged.
Accounting serves the following two functions in most firms: financial accounting, which reports financial status of a firm for certain stakeholders as shareholders, banks or the tax administration; and management accounting, which provides cost analysis for internal decision-making and strategic planning . The increasing adoption of enterprise information systems focused on BPM approach and associated technologies, particularly BPMS, requires rethinking on how accounting, especially management accounting, is carried out within the organization, i.e., accounting can evolve in order to focus on entire processes and not on isolated transactions. It should be possible to log all transactions associated with a particular process and report financial and non-financial information regarding the process. An example of this situation is the production of a particular product. From a traditional point of view, accounting includes registering costs and revenues (journal entries) relating to the production of a particular product, in a aggregated way, not showing detailed financial (and non-financial) data associated with part of that particular production process. For instance, it would be useful to have not only the aggregated data about the process, but also detailed data relative to the activities that comprise the analyzed process. Although some accounting systems and instruments seek to present the costs and revenues by product, the truth is that these systems are more focused on the production of reports based on account items (classification), for further balance sheet producing. This reality, from management point of view, is not always the best, as it is the case for product price setting policy which in same strategies depends on how much they cost . To know how much a product costs, or better, to know how much a product costs in a given date (e.g. today) to be manufactured, we must assess the costs associated with the product manufacturing process. A methodology that resembles to BPM to assess the cost of a product is the Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology , but even this, in our opinion, should be process oriented and not product focused.
From the results that were found, we could verify the existence of some effect of social bias on the provision of credit. In more detail, the article highlights how women are discriminated against men in officers’ choice regarding the accep- tance of a credit application; moreover, in this territory, it seems that bank offic- ers still have greater confidence in older borrowers. Finally, a positive effect on the perception by the banks regarding the beauty of the borrower was found. No evidence has been found concerning discrimination regarding race and cultural level of those applying for credit. This study has potential implications for both companies and policy makers. With reference to the first ones, we highlight which characteristics seems to be more appreciated by bank officers and this may lead firms to select the appropriate applicant in order to raise their possibil- ity to be positively valuated. On the other hand, policy maker may have a more challenging problem to analyze when orienting their policy in order to protect banks from non-performing loans. Behavioral biases seems to have some influ- ence on the credit decisionmakingprocess, that means that provision concern- ing the creditworthiness, such as the ones put in place with the Basel accords, may only partially solve the problem. More in depth analysis concerning how to mitigate the effects of these social biases should be put in place.
Accounting and Auditing programs.
B.4 Academic reputation
In our view, the academic reputation of our group has steadily grown since we created ARCA in 1998. In recent years, this was mainly caused by several publications in international reputable journals, and strong presence at international conferences (e.g. MAS, AAA, GMARS). We think our reputation may grow even further in the future as we reach a more balanced composition of our staff positions in which relatively more positions will be occupied by senior researchers. We assess our reputation by three measures: memberships in editorial boards, acting as reviewer, prizes received, and invitations for guest lectures, presentations and special research projects.
in Indonesia. The rise of educated middle class population and increase of consumer trends has compelled the F&B manufactures to make new innovations. The employment situation showed that organizations have difficulty retaining talents. Employee empowerment is closely related to decisionmaking where the superior shares authority with the employee. A conceptual model was built where the leader, employee, leader and employee relation and organizational tools profiles were measured on employees' level of involvement on types of decisions in a food and beverage factory. Nine decisionmaking questions common in food factories were selected and validated. A quantitative survey was conducted with 203 respondents'. Using multiple regression analysis, the overall model of each leader, employee, leader and employee relation, and organizational tools proved significant and positively predicting decisionmaking and innovation. In addition, seniority position and level also showed significance. F&B manufacturers should use employee empowerment as a key strategy to stay competitive, build an innovative culture,and retaintalented employees.
In Hammersmith and Fulham Council a protocol has been presented which highlights the idea of gist and the fact that members shouldn’t expect access to all information in all instances and neither should the public. This is not unreasonable; if they have a need to know, they can have the information in question, but it is not absolute and they should be satisfied with gist where this is necessary and appropriate. This appears to reinforce Licht’s (2014) findings in that a degree of transparency can be achieved without complete disclosure of the actual information provided that the gatekeeper is perceived as credible. In the advice to members the case of the House of Lords case of Birmingham City Council v. O  is cited and members are advised that although in circumstances where they can establish a “need to know” in order to carry out their functions as a member they can have extensive access to the appropriate information, it is for the council to determine whether such a scenario actually exists. The public interest, the very heart of the matter, is also highlighted in the advice to members, with an emphasis upon the fact that the council has a duty to balance the rights of its members with the rights of any third party who have submitted information in confidence.
political levels and actor groups. As a result, decision- preparation and -making arenas reflect the requirements of consultative exchange on evidence more than they did before. IAs accompany the policy process in two ways: ex-ante IAs have become an obligatory tool in EU policy planning, gathering the best possible evidence to evaluate the potential impact of a policy in the planning stage; and ex-post IAs focus on evaluating the impact of policies in place. To determine policy responses and ensure uniform preparation, both instruments require intensive analysis of the evidence available concerning problem definitions, a comparison of policy options and objectives, the setting of targets, identification of actor groups affected and mutual learning, possible and actual societal impacts, and policy monitoring and evaluation. The evaluation of applied knowledge systems plays a particular role here in identifying potential biases in the underlying assumptions that inform IA. Consequently, IAs include: (1) problem definition (‘assess what is going on and who is affected’); (2) objectives (‘define the point on the horizon’); (3) policy options (‘consider possibilities and alternatives’); (4) analysis of impacts (‘ensure broad understanding of effects’); (5) comparison of options (‘choose the most advantageous’); and (6) policy monitoring and evaluation (‘define future success indicators’). Additionally, specific programmes for reviewing existing legislation focus on administrative burden reduction, increasing the efficiency of legislation, recasting, consolidating, reviewing requirements, and applying the ‘evaluate first principle.’ Consultations form an important part of interactions during all the stages of an IA. They involve stakeholders of all kinds (those directly affected; those implementing decisions; those interested) in targeted consultations and open online public consultations. Such consultation processes are particularly important as they offer new insights and information, communicate and make the work performed visible, increase the transparency of governance structures, result in feedback on ideas, and identify potential bottlenecks, concerns and other implementation challenges.