enterochromaffin-like cell, hyperplasia, and haemopoeitic changes 8 . Therefore, alternative ways are being explored to produce drug from natural product derived from plants to treat pepticulcer 9 . Parkiaspeciosa is better known as ‘petai’ among Malaysians. It is from the family Fabaceae – Mimosoideae. Parkiaspeciosa seed are encapsulated in the pods 10 . This seeds are also reported to treat diseases such as diabetes, cholera and kidney pain 11 . Studies showed that Parkiaspeciosa had a hypoglycaemic effect of chloroform extract from empty pods 12, 13 . It is also reported to have anti-bacterial activity 14, 15 and anti-oxidative effect 16 . The current finding showed that Parkiaspeciosa seed has hemagglutinating activity of proteins 17 .
Morinda citrifolia is a member of the Rubiaceae. It is a Shrub or compacted to twisted small tree up to 8 m high with square stems and large stipules between nodes and petioles. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, glossy, mostly ovate, 15-35 cm long. Flowers white, up to 15 mm long, with a tubular corolla and 5 spreading lobes, the flowers borne on a globose syncarp. Fruit a large fleshy syncarp up to 15 cm long, at first green but becoming white, juicy, and pungent when mature. Flowers and fruits are available throughout the year. To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanolextract of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract in albinorats. Ethanolic extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o administered to evaluate anti-ulceractivity by using Ethanol, indomethacin, and cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulcer models in Albinorats. Ethanolextract gave positive results for the alkaloids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, and flavonoids. Study on acute toxicity of extract was found to be safe at the doses 2000mg/kg p.o. Ethanolextract dose dependent inhibition in ethanolinduced gastric lesions, ethanolextract showed 68.3% % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 51.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, In indomethacininduced gastric lesions, Ethanolextract showed 75.02% protection at 400 mg/kg and 45.86% protection at 200 mg/kg, it also dose dependent inhibition in Cold-restraint stress induced gastric lesions, ethanolextract showed 75.45% protection at 400 mg/kg, and 50.34% protection at 200 mg/kg. All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that ethanolextract possess anti- ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) is a member of the Casuarinaceae. It is common along the coast on beaches, rocky coasts, limestone outcroppings, dry hillsides and open forests in both wet and dry zones from sea-level to mid-montane. It is native to South-East Asia, Australia and Polynesia. It is also cultivated as an ornamental, for wind-breaks, or as a medicinal plant in some tropical countries in the South Pacific. To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanolextract of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) extract in albinorats. Ethanolic extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o administered to evaluate anti-ulceractivity by using Ethanol, indomethacin, and cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulcer models in Albinorats. Ethanolextract gave positive results for the alkaloids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, and flavonoids. Study on acute toxicity of extract was found to be safe at the doses 2000mg/kg p.o. Ethanolextract dose dependent inhibition in ethanolinduced gastric lesions, ethanolextract showed 70.37 % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 52.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, In indomethacininduced gastric lesions, Ethanolextract showed 68.3% protection at 400 mg/kg and 51.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, it also dose dependent inhibition in Cold-restraint stress induced gastric lesions, ethanolextract showed 75.02% protection at 400 mg/kg, and 45.86% protection at 200 mg/kg. All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that ethanolextract possess anti-ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
This study evaluated the anti-ulceractivity of the methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra stem bark on experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were pre-treated with varied doses of the extract and reference drugs- ranitidine and omeprazole. Ulcer was induced in the animals by the administration of either indomethacin (50 mg/kg) or 95 % absolute ethanol (0.5 ml). A total of 20 rats divided into five groups of four animals each were used for each assay. Mean ulcer index and percentage ulcer inhibition by the extract and drugs were calculated for each group. Histological studies of the gastric wall of the ulcer- inducedrats were carried out. Ceiba pentandra produced a significant dose dependent inhibition of gastric lesions in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcers evidenced by the reduced ulcer index of the treated groups. Histological examination of the gastric wall of the control rats revealed severe damage of the gastric mucosa, haemorrhages, along with oedema and leucocyte infiltration of sub-mucosal layer while the Ceiba pentandra extract-treated rats showed little damage of the gastric mucosa. These results show that Ceiba pentandra possess ulcer protective properties against experimentally induced ulcers and validates its traditional use in the treatment of stomach pain and ulcer.
The objective of present study is to evaluate the antiulceractivity of ethanolextract of leaves of Heliotropium indicum. The ethanolextract of H. indicum was investigated for its antiulceractivityagainst Aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl- Ethanolinducedulcer in mice and water immersion stress inducedulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI-Ethanolinducedpepticulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress inducedulcer model. A significant antiulcer activity of plant extract was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation model showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Also extract showed significant ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanolinducedulcer and ulcer protection index in stress inducedulcer. This present study indicates that Heliotropium indicum leaves extract have potential antiulceractivity in the three models tested.
In this model, ethanol, which is an alcohol, produced its action by having a direct erosive irritant effect on the gastric mucosa. It causes significant production of oxygen free radicals leading to increased lipid peroxidation, causing damage to the cell and cell membrane . Ethanol may also cause depletion of gastric mucus content, damaged mucosal blood flow and mucosal cell injury causing an imbalance between the aggressive and defensive factors governing the gastric mucosa resulting in increased vascular permeability, edema formation, and epithelial lifting. Ethanol is metabolized in the body releasing superoxide anion and hydroperoxy free radicals which are involved in the mechanism of acute and chronic ulceration in the gastric mucosa .
On the contrary in India, herbal drugs are an integral part of the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) which is an ancient and main stream system. The antiulcer activity of aerial part of Argemone mexicana was investigated on ethanolinduced model and indomethacininduced model albino wistar rats. In both models the ulcer index was common and it is determined. Ethanolic extract of dose 300 mg/kg and 600mg/kg p.o. produced significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by ethanolinduced and indomethacininduced ulcers. The extract 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg showed significant reduction in gastric acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of glycosides, tannins, alkaloids,
maintaining the cellular antioxidant defense system. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active and is frequently used as a dietary supplement. Alpha-tocopherol is a naturally occurring antioxidant in biological systems and is present in the cell membrane of various tissues, including the intestine and stomach 18 . The anti- ulceractivity of vitamin E is reported in stress, indomethacin, reserpine, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, and ethanol-inducedulcer models 19 . The pretreatment of animals with vitamin E is reported to produce a significant inhibition of gastric lesions. Vitamin E is believed to protect cells from oxidative stress, regulate immune function, and maintain endothelial cell integrity. It is also known to promote the synthesis of prostaglandins and glutathione in tissues of vitamin E treated animals which have been suggested as a possible mechanism of anti-ulceractivity. Vitamin E blocks the free radical chain reaction and thus prevents the ROS-induced injury 20 . The formation of experimental gastric lesions may be reduced through decreasing free radicals and diminishing lipid peroxidation 21 . The mechanisms by which NSAIDs produce acute and chronic gastro- duodenal mucosal injury are partially understood, but it has been suggested that the mechanism underlying the PUD pathogenesis is mediated through lipid peroxidation 22 . In the present study, the antiulcer activity of the combined and individual doses of Aloe vera, vitamin E were evaluated in the Indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats.
The anti-ulcerogenic potential and antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata was investigated. The potential of the ethanolic extract to serve as antioxidants were assayed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Antiulcer activity was determined by three different models in experimental Wistar rats: Ethanolinducedulcer, Indomethacininducedulcer and Pylorus ligation model. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Mussaenda glabrata at 200 and 400mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesions with dose dependent ulcer inhibition in all the three models. The LPO, MPO and antioxidant levels (SOD, CAT, and GSH) were significantly restored in treated groups compared to ulcer control, proving antioxidant activity of the extract. Histopathological sections showed significant decrease in mucosal ulceration, inflammatory mucosal changes and submucosal edema compared to ulcer control group. These findings indicate that ethanolic leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activity and, hence, can be used in the traditional management of pepticulcer disease.
Healthy male and female Sprague Dawley rats (6–8 weeks old) were obtained from the animal house (University of Malaya, Ethics No. PM/07/05/2010/1111/MAA/R). The rats weighed between 180–200 g. The animals were given standard rat pellets and tap water ad libitum and were individually placed in separate cages with wide-mesh wire bottoms to prevent coprophagy during the experiment. An acute toxicity study was performed to determine a safe dose for the P. speciosaextract. A total of 48 rats (24 males and 24 females) were equally divided into 4 groups that received the vehicle (0.5% CMC, 5 ml/kg) or 1, 3 or 5 g/kg of leaf extract (5 ml/kg). The animals were fasted overnight (but allowed water) prior to dosing. Food was withheld for a further 3 to 4 h after dosing. The animals were observed for 48 hours after the administration of the powder for the onset of clinical or toxicological symptoms. Mortality, if any, was observed over a period of 2 weeks. The animals were sacrificed by an overdose of xylazine and ketamine anesthesia on the 15th day. Histological, hematological and serum biochemical parameters were deter- mined according to standard methods . The ethics committee for animal experimentation of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, approved the experiment. Throughout the experi- ments, all animals were treated humanely according to the criteria outlined in the ‘‘Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals’’ .
Pluchea indica (L.) Less (PIL) also known as ‘beluntas’ is one of indigenous plant that is readily available and has been traditionally used to improve gastrointestinal disorder. In the present study, the ethanolic extract of Pluchea indica leaves (PIL) was investigated for its in vivo anti-ulceractivity in various experimental ulcer models; i.e 30 mg/kg indomethacin, 80% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6M HCL, 0.2M NaOH and pyloric ligation model. The extract in dose of 40 and 160 mg/kg body weight had a signiﬁcant anti-ulcerogenic activityagainst gastric ulcerinduced by NaOH and indomethacin. At lower dose, the extract also signiﬁcantly increased the gastric wall mucous content in pyloric ligated rats. The results were substantiated with histopathological ﬁndings. Evaluation agreed with the folkloric use of Pluchea indica as anti-ulcer tool.
ABSTRACT: The study was aimed to investigate the activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cucumis sativus in gastric ulcerated rats. Antiulceractivity was evaluated via oral administration of HACS at the dose 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg thrice in a day for 5 days before pyloric ligation ulceration, indomethacin and ethanolinduced ulceration. Various parameters such as ulcer index, gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, total acidity, estimation of total proteins, total carbohydrates, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose, salic acid and histopathological parameters were studied in the control group and pretreated groups with hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Cucumis sativus and standard drug ranitidine. In indomethacin, ethanol and pyloric ligation model, the pretreatment with HACS and ranitidine significantly reduce the ulcer index, free acidity as compared with controlled group. The % protection of ulcers were evaluated. The extract showed significantly (P<0.05) increase in pH with significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity. Histopathological findings also confirm the antiulcer activity of Cucumis sativus fruit pulp extract in albino wistar rats. The present study showed that HACS have antiulceractivity in 3 models .
The aim of the present study is to investigate the antiulcer activity of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of polygonum barbatum Linn (polygonaceae). Gastric ulcers were induced by Pylorus - ligation model and stress induced model. The effect of single oral dose of the extracts was evaluated at 100 and 200 mg/ kg. It was found that methanolic extract significantly reduces the Gastric volume, Total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index compared to that of control group. A significant effect (p< 0.001) at 200 mg/ kg for both the extracts was observed in both the models.
The conclusion of the current review focused on the medicinal plants and their extracts having remarkable anti-ulceractivityagainst different gastric ulcer inducing models in rats. The level of the gastroprotective activity of different plant extracts are carried out on the basis of the different parameters as ulcer index, ulcer score, ulcer area, pH of gastric mucosa, curative ratio, histopathological observation and antioxidant potential. A significant variation in these parameters was observed with the plant extracts thereby ensuring it as safe for pepticulcer. Along
The study was carried out to find out the antiulcer activity and thrombolytic activity of aqueous extract of Tiliacora acuminate. For this study albino Wistar rats(150-200g) were used .Four groups of rats were selected containing six animals in each group. The study was carried on different gastric ulcer models and ulcers were induced by pyloric ligation and aspirin. The animals were treated with Omeprazole 20mg/kg and AETA 200 and 400mg/kg. Ulcer index was calculated in both models. In pyloric ligation model, free acid, total acid, and total protein were also determined. Thrombolytic activity also determined. AETA produced significant reduction in ulcer index (0.72) when compared with control (4.5) in both ulcer models. In pylorus ligated model it showed significant reduction in volume of acid secretion and increased mucin and total protein content .It also produced significant increase in Free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation content. AETA produces significant antiulcer activity which is comparable to standard drug Omeprazole. It also produces significant Thrombolytic which is comparable to standard streptokinase.
ABSTRACT: The leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, lumbago, nourishing the functions of spleen, stomach, muscle and bone. The intent of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-ulceractivity of ethanolic leaves and fruits extract of Smilax perfoliata Linn in albinorats. Gastric ulcers were induced by employing pylorus ligation method of induction. The anti-ulceractivity was analyzed by estimation of free acidity and the total acidity. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by method of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results obtained showed that the leaves and fruits of Smilax perfoliata possess antioxidant potential and are capable in the ministration of gastric ulcers.
One hour later, groups 2 - 7 were administered with indomethacin. Four hour after indomethacin administration, animals were killed by cervical dislocation. The stomachs were removed and opened along the greater curvature. The tissues were fixed with 10% formaldehyde in saline. Macroscopic examination was carried out with a hand lens, and the presence of ulcer lesion was scored 12 . Ulcer index (UI), the preventive ratio (PR) and degree of ulceration (DU) of each of the groups pretreated with extract were calculated using standard methods 9, 10 .
There are three objectives in the treatment or management of pepticulcer, namely the alleviation of symptoms, the healing of the ulcer and the prevention of its recurrence. A number of Ayurvedic formulations have been advocated in traditional system of medicines to overcome above disorders and diseases. 4
The male albinorats have grouped into 4 groups of six rats each. The experimen- tal groups were designated as follows; Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV. Group I: Normal control-15 consecutive days; Group II: Ulcer control-15 consecu- tive days; Group III: Treat- ment (10 mg/kg/day)-15 consecutive days; Group IV: Treatment (20 mg/kg/day)- 15 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, the animals werekilled, blood and tissues were collected for the analysis.
mg/kg), misoprostol (standard drug, 0.5 mg/kg) and distilled water (control group, 0.5 mL/100 g) were administered orally to groups one hour prior 1 mL of ethanol administration. One hour after ulcerinduced, the rats were sacrificed by dry blow. The stomach of each mouse was taken, opened according to the great curve by using a chisel and washed with the salt solution. Mucosa was taken by means of a spatula and put in beforehand weighed tubes containing distilled water (1ml). The length of each lesion was measured by using a scale. The index of lesion (mm) for each stomach was expressed as the sum of length of all lesions.