Wheat, (Triticum species) a cereal grass of the Gramineae (Poaceae) family, is the world's largest edible grain cereal-grass crop. It is commonly 60-150 cm. in height, but may be as short as 30 cm. Stem is tufted, erect or semi-erect to prostrate, generally hollow with thin walls, in stem nodes are present generally 5-7 at 3-4 cm. Leaves are long and narrow having glabrous or hairy on one or both surface.(3,4)
Progression of peptic ulcer disease can result in serious complications, including hemorrhage, which occurs in approximately 20% of patients, and perforation, which occurs in approximately 7%, other possible sequelae include penetration to an adjacent organ and obstruction resulting from inflammation and edema or fibrotic scarring near the gastroduodenal junction 5 . Therapies are directed at decreasing gastric acidity, enhancing the lower esophageal sphincter or stimulating esophageal motility 6 . However no scientific study on the anti-ulceractivity of this plant has been reported. Thus the present investigation was undertaken to study the anti-ulceractivity of leaves of Gmelina arborea in experimentally inducedulcer in wistarrats.
RO12, a polyherbal formulation, is a marketed drug which has been used in various gastrointestinal problems, however, there is no such clear documentation for antiulcer activity. So, the present study was carried out to test its antiulcer activity in rats using different models. Wistarrats were grouped into four, each group with 6 animals and injected with Normal Saline (control), Ranitidine 50 mg/kg (Standard drug), RO12 aqueous extract 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg (test drug) per orally in case of pylorus ligation model. In case of ethanolinducedulcer, misoprostol 10 mcg/kg was given as standard keeping everything else same as pylorus ligation method. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol and by pylorus‐ligated technique. The results showed that in both pylorus ligation and ethanolinducedulcer models, the aqueous extract RO12 exhibited significant decrease (P<0.001) in ulcer index, ulcer score, free acidity, total acidity, pepsin content in pylorus ligation inducedulcer as well as in ethanolinducedulcer models. This study demonstrated that, RO12 polyherbal formulation possess significant antiulcer activity. The aqueous extract of RO12 possesses dose dependent antiulcer effect. Current studies confirmed the claimed antiulcer activity in selected doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg).
Recent screening of plants revealed many compounds like Flavonoids, alkaloids, Saponins, terpenoids, monoterpenoids (linalol), glycoprotein’s, polysaccharides, tannins, essential fatty acids, phenolic compounds and vitamins having pronounced antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating potential . Scientific literature is continuously reporting herbal drugs having anti-ulcer potential. There is need to evaluate the potential of ayurvedic remedies as adjuvant to counteract side effects of modern therapy. The present investigation is aimed at studying the anti-ulceractivity of the aqueous extract of bark of Tiliacora acuminate.in order to justify the traditional claims endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana.
224 including NSAIDs) or stimulating the mucosal defences (mucus, bicarbonate, normal blood flow, prostaglandins(PG), nitric oxide). The goals of treating peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and prevent ulcer recurrence. Currently there is no cost-effective treatment that meets all these goals. Hence, efforts are on to find a suitable treatment from natural product sources . In this work, the anti-ulceractivity of the leaves of Hibiscus cannabinus was evaluated in wistarrats by pylorus ligation and indomethacin inducedulcer model.
The study of the effect on gastric lesions by GSE by employing ethanol was done by in 2005 . They evaluated the gastric defense mechanism of grapefruit seed extract against ethanol and stress- induced gastric lesions in male Wistarrats by inducing gastric mucosal lesions by 100% ethanol or 3.5 hrs of water immersion stress. Their study showed a significant fall in the gastric blood flow and superoxide dismutase activity and rise in the mucosal malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Pretreatment with GSE caused a dose dependent attenuation of gastric lesions and, the dose reducing these lesions by 50% was 25 and 36 mg/kg respectively. The study showed GSE exerting a potent gastroprotective activity through an increase in endogenous prostaglandin generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation, and hyperemia. The results obtained in this study do not correlate to the study quoted above. The reasons for this can be the higher concentration (100%) of ethanol being used, and also the different parameters analyzed in their study.
The anti-ulceractivity of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa leaves was investigated on a indomethacin inducedulcer models in wistarrats. In model the common parameter determined was ulcer-index. aqueous extract of dosage 175, 350 mg/kg p.o produced significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin induced ulcers. The extract 175mg/kg & 350mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. This present study indicate that Annona squamosa leaves extract have potential antiulceractivity. This results may further suggests that aqueous extract was found to posses antiulcerogenic as well as ulcer healing property,which might be anti secretory activity.
Animals: Twelve week-old healthy Wistarrats (150- 200 g) of either sex procured from Indian Institute of Sciences Bangalore were used for this study. They are maintained under standard conditions (temperature 22±2 o C, relative humidity 60±5% and 12 h light/dark cycle).The animals were housed in sanitized polypropylene cages containing sterile paddy husk as bedding. They had free access to standard pellet diet and water ad libitum. Experiments were conducted between 9: 00 to14: 00 h. Each rat was used only once. The Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approved the experimental protocol. All the animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the "National Academy of Sciences" and published by the "National Institute of Health".
The antiulceractivity of ficus nervosa was evaluated by pylorus ligation, aspirin, alcohol inducedulcer models. These models represent some of the most common causes of gastric ulcers in human. So it has been proposed that in pyloric ligation, the digestive effect of accumulated gastric juice and interference of gastric blood circulation are responsible for induction of ulceration .The antiulceractivity of ficus nervosa extracts in pylorus ligation model is evident from its significant reduction in gastric volume total acidity, free acidity, ulcer index and increase in pH of gastric juice. NSAIDs like aspirin causes gastric mucosaldamage by decreasing prostaglandin levels through inhibition of PG synthesis.  Ethanolic extract of the plant of ficus nervosa was significantly effective in protecting gastric mucosa against aspirin induced ulcers. Ethanolinduced gastric injury is associated with significant production of oxygen free radicals leading to increased lipid peroxidation ,which cause damage to cell and cell membrane. The various extracts of ficus nervosa has significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol challenge as shown by reduced values of lesion index as compared to control group suggesting its potent cytoprotective effect. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids. So the possible mechanism of antiulcer action of ficus nervosa bark may be due to its flavonoid content. In this study we observed that ficus nervosa provides significant antiulceractivity against gastric ulcer in rats.
In another experimental model, the anti-diabetic effects of ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were investigated from the methanolic extract of seeds of Entada phaseoloides in AIDM (alloxan induced diabetic mice) by Ikram and his associates (2011). The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p) was observed on FBG (fasting blood glucose) level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent activity (250 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg body weight) on fasting blood glucose level and also on TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases) and SGPT (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases) level in AIDM which showed significant effects. The most significant reduction of FBG level of around 72.02% was observed for Et-Ac fraction in AIDM. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in serum TC and TG level of 53.00% and 57.25% respectively was also found for Et-Ac fraction of E. Phaseoloides. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities were comparable to metformin HCl (150 mg/kg). In diabetic mice, SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly elevated that were further reduced after intra peritoneal administration of this fraction. These results indicated ethanolic fraction of E. Phaseoloides have favorable effects in bringing down the severity of diabetes together with hepatoprotectivity.
Peptic ulcer and gastritis have been associated with multi pathogenic factors and could be due to disturbances in natural balances between the aggressive factors (e.g. of acid, bicarbonate, pepsin) and maintenance of the mucosal integrity through the endogenous defense mechanism. Generally various non specific methods are used to restore these imbalances including regular food intake, adequate rest, and avoidance of ulcerogenic agents (e.g. tobacco, alcohol and coffee).Their aims are to attenuate and possibly block the gastric acid secretion or to enhance the mucosal defense mechanisms. The latter can be achieved through increasing mucus production, stabilizing the surface epithelial cells, or interfering with the prostaglandin synthesis. In addition there are also drugs, such as pump inhibitors, histamine (H2)-antagonists, anti cholinergics and antacids, used in the treatment of ulcer.
received vehicle 10 ml/kg, groups 3 and 4 (Test) were given EBL 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, and the group 5 (Standard) given reference drug Sucralfateat the dose of 100 mg/kg. On the 5th day, 1h after final dose of treatment, the gastric ulcers were induced in rats by administering 96% ethanol (5ml/kg). After 1h animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and stomach was incised along the greater curvature and examined for ulcers index . Percentage ulcer inhibition was calculated for each group on comparison with vehicle control group.
Figure 6 The effect of Cibotium barometz on the histology (hematoxylin and eosin staining) of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in male sprague Dawley rats. Notes: g1 (normal control group) had intact surface mucosal epithelium, no lesion; g2 (ulcerated control group) had a severe disruption of the surface epithelium and necrotic lesions; G3 (omeprazole) had a mild disruption of the surface epithelium and reduction in submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. The animals pretreated with C. barometz extract in the g4 (62.5 mg/kg), g5 (125 mg/kg), g6 (250 mg/kg), and g7 (500 mg/kg) groups revealed a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium, reduction in submucosal edema, and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner as shown by the reduction in or absence of the ulcer area in the treated groups (white arrows), submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration (blue arrows).
The Carrageenan-induced paw edema test is widely accepted as a sensitive phlogistic tool for investigating potential anti-inflammatory agents, particularly the non-steroidal type (20). Mechanism of induction of carrageenan edema has been extensively investigated (20). The mean paw volume at 5 hour after carrageenan administration showed immense inhibition, and after 24 hour mean paw volume is almost similar to mean paw volume at 0 hour with various treatment.
Figure. 1. Shows the activity of the PHF to influence the charcoal meal gastrointestinal transit in mice. It was determined by its effect on the traverse of charcoal meal through the length of the small gut of mice. PHF dose-dependently propelled the charcoal meal travel through the small intestines. The distance traveled by the solvent control was 14.93±1.89 %. The PHF at the dose of 100 mg/kg moved the charcoal meal to 20.97±2.99 %, while 50.76±4.56% and 78.95±1.66% (P< 0.001) was caused with the next higher doses (400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively). Carbachol (1 mg/kg) was used as positive control which moved the meal to 83.85±2.66% (P< 0.001).
ABSTRACT: Nature gives numbers of drugs and possibly has all solutions for human diseases. Till date, nature provides a large number of clinically useful drugs. Ulcer and liver diseases are major increasing health problems. Now a day number of drugs are used for the treatment of peptic ulcer and hepatic diseases, but these drugs have various types of side effect such as incidences of relapse, and drug interactions. Drugs of plant origin gaining popularity to treat peptic ulcer and hepatotoxicity. It is difficult to search pure phytochemicals as hepatoprotective and antiulcer drugs. It is time- consuming and also very expensive. From authentic literature sources, it founded that there are no medicinal plants, which utilized for the treatment of ulcer and liver diseases. Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta alba, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Silibum marianum, Phyllanthus and Trichopus zeylanicus, etc. plants are renounced for their satisfactory activity against certain hepatotoxins. The wide range of compounds showing anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effect, among them flavonoids is most important. Flavonoids play an important role in reducing free radicals. Various isolated compounds like apigenin, sylimarin, genistein, quercetin, kaempherol, catechins and so on show the significant result as hepatoprotective and anti-ulcer drugs. From this review article, we can conclude that no. of medicinal plants and their active chemical constituent are responsible for anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effect. Among the all chemical constituents flavonoids also playing an important role.
Oral administration was applied in the study. Silymarin was used as reference hepatoprotective agent. In the preventive study, blood samples were collected on the 0 and 4th days and in the curative study, blood samples were collected on the 0, 26th and 51st days from retro-orbital plexus of rats. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 30 min. The serum obtained was analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT)  , alkaline phosphatase (ALP)  and total bilirubin  using semi-auto analyzer (Screen master-3000) and commercial diagnostic kits. Then on the 4th day in caseof prophylactic study and on the 11th day of curative study, animals were sacrificed and the livers were isolated and washed with fresh saline. Livers were stored in 10% formalin for Prophylactic study.
The collected leaves of the plant were separated from undesirable materials. They were dried in open air for 4 weeks as shown in figure 3. The shade dried leaves were ground into a coarse powder with the help of a pulverizer. The powdered drug was subjected to percolation with 70% ethanol using soxhlet apparatus in 1:4 ratio. The extraction was carried out until the solvent becomes colourless. The extract was evaporated on a hot plate at 40 o C. The marc of crude drug obtained was set for complete drying in a dessicator using calcium chloride until dried powder of the crude drug was obtained. The powdered form of crude drug was suspended in 1% CMC (Micro Crystalline Cellulose), to produce a concentration of 200mg and 400 mg/kg, b.wt.as low dose & high dose.
The collected samples (leaves of Annona squamosa, leaves of Cassia fistula and fruits of Illicium verum) were washed, cut into small fragments and shade dried until the fracture is uniform and smooth. The dried plant material was granulated or powdered by using a blender and sieved to get uniform particles by using sieve number 60. The final uniform powder was used for the extraction of active constituents of the plant material. The powder was kept in dry, clean air tight glass jars. 2000g of each powdered plant was mixed with absolute ethanol (99.9%) for 48 hours with occasional shaking and was filtered. The filtrate was dried in Petri dishes and concentrated to brownish residue by evaporation at 4°C under reduced pressure in drying oven. The dried alcoholic extract is stored in refrigerator. The extract was dissolved in adequate amount of ethanol just before administration to respective group of rats.
The conclusion of the current review focused on the medicinal plants and their extracts having remarkable anti-ulceractivity against different gastric ulcer inducing models in rats. The level of the gastroprotective activity of different plant extracts are carried out on the basis of the different parameters as ulcer index, ulcer score, ulcer area, pH of gastric mucosa, curative ratio, histopathological observation and antioxidant potential. A significant variation in these parameters was observed with the plant extracts thereby ensuring it as safe for peptic ulcer. Along