Respondents mentioned a variety of steps that they would take if they were to take part in future learning. Almost one in five adults stated that they would conduct a general internet search for courses of interest; over one in ten would contact their local college, university or learning centre or talk to their employer. However, over a quarter of adults did not choose any of the options presented to them. This suggests that information about learning should be available through a range of sources; it also shows that a substantial minority of adults do not know where they would go for information, therefore indicating that learning opportunities need to be more visible and proactively promoted. When asked their opinion on different types of post-16 education, respondents indicated that they would be most likely to go to college to do a vocational qualification, followed by university and then an apprenticeship or higher apprenticeship. At least three-quarters of respondents would be likely to recommend each option to a friend or family member. This suggests that participation in any of these types of provision may not necessarily reflect their perceived value, with a substantially greater proportion of respondents saying they would recommend each type of provision even if they are unlikely to take up these opportunities themselves.
There are a variety of indicators used across Canada to monitor and evaluate adult-learning and skills-development programs. International surveys, such as the 2003 Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) and the upcoming OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), provide population-based assessment of the skill levels of adults. Most provinces and territories use administrative data on enrolments and participation provided by service providers. Some also use national census data and direct testing. Most provinces and territories report that they face challenges in collecting adult-learning data, ranging from unavailability of data — especially on initiatives not funded by government — to inconsistent reporting and a lack of consistent standards.
The picture is also mixed when it comes to participation in learning in relation to age. Whereas current or recent participation in learning has increased among adults aged 7-24 (+2%) and 45-64 (+4%), it has decreased by 2% in both adults aged 25-44 and those aged 65+. Given the reality of demographic change, the falling birth rate, decline in flow of new young entrants to the workforce, coupled with the raising of retirement age and greater life expectancy, there will have to be enhanced learning opportunities for adults, including work related education and training, if the goals of
2.1 This chapter provides an overview of participation in different types of learning, including taught, self-directed, vocational and non-vocational learning (see Chapter 1 for definitions of these different learning types). The main focus of this Chapter is on learning in the past 3 years, though more recent learning over the past 12 months is briefly considered. Future learning intentions are also examined – how likely do people feel it is that they will participate in job-related or non-job-related learning in the next 3 years? How likely is it that they would take a course at an FE college? Where possible, the figures for England and Wales are presented alongside figures for Scotland. This Chapter focuses on learning among adults under 70 years-old, with the learning patterns of older respondents considered in Chapter 3.
The statistical population included all stroke patients who were or are undergoing treatment in urban health centers in Rafsanjan city. All subjects were included in the study, 97 of whom were willing to participate in this research (97%). Two questionnaires were used to collect data, a demographic one which assessed factors like age, occupation, level of education, marital status, location, economic status, type of treatment, duration of illness, severity of illness, duration of diagnosis, symptomatology, length of treatment period, duration of disease control period, participation rate in life, and the site affected by the stroke; the second questionnaire was the Persian version of Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA-p) scale. The questionnaire was answered according to The Likert scale, expressing the aspects in five categories of strongly agree, agree, no idea, disagree, and strongly disagree. The questionnaire contains the following sections; the first part is about mobility and self-autonomy at home which consists of 9 questions. The second part is about being the ill person in the family, using and taking care of your money and having fun which consists of 11 questions. The third part consists of 6 questions about mobility and autonomy in out-of- home affairs. The fourth part is about playing a role in social life and communicating with relatives and enjoying their help and support, and it consists of 9 questions. The fifth part is about autonomy in obtaining academic qualifications which includes 3 questions. The sixth part is about autonomy in the acquisition and preservation of a job and consists of seven questions; finally, there were 5 questions related to being active in religious affairs, which were added to the English version of IPA (IPA-e), based on the results obtained from a previous work on (13). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was obtained in a similar study, where about 50% of public respondents reported their perception of their participation to be "good" or "very good," and 60 percent of the experts reported the ability of the IPA-p scale to be desirable and excellent. Total Spearman's correlation coefficient was more than 0.8. For each of the Cronbach's alpha-IPA-P domains, IPA-p mean scores in two separate cases ranged from 0.885. The highest and lowest internal consistency belonged to the domain of social relations and learning and acquisition. The test retest ICCs were between 0.789 and 0.919 for 9 domains, all of which were significant p<0.001 (14). First, all patients over 18 years of age were
Distance education provides individuals with greater freedom of access to education. Thanks to education programs offering degrees and supporting personal development, students of all ages are able to enjoy more accessible opportunities to become well‐equipped individuals. Today, several educational institutions offer their programs in both face‐to‐face and distance education versions. In addition, institutions may require involvement in certain certificate programs for the criterion for employment or to assist employees in specializing in specific fields. Figures provided by statistical studies on distance education funded by private companies indicate a rapid increase in demand in recent years. In 2018, Docebo reported that the global e‐learning market is compound annual growth (CAGR) of 10.26% between 2018 and 2023, reaching a total market size of US$286.62 billion, up from US$159.52 billion in 2017.
In developed countries emphasis is given to adult education programs and a formal strategy is being followed to encourage and improve adult education. Starting with the “1996 Lifelong Learning for All” initiative by OECD education ministers, the developed world has started putting an increasing emphasis on the need to identify the full range of an individual’s knowledge and skills – those acquired not only at school but also outside the formal system. The European Union discloses its strategy and support on adult education with two communications: It is Never too Late to Learn (Commission Communication 2006) and Action Plan on AdultLearning (Commission Communication 2007). These documents highlight the benefits of adult education as greater employability, increased productivity and better-quality employment, reduced expenditure in areas such as unemployment benefits, welfare payments and early-retirement pensions, but also increased social returns in terms of improved civic participation, better health, lower incidence of criminality, and greater individual well-being and fulfillment. Following these communications, the EU started to implement an adult education survey (AES) in the EU area to reveal the developments.
This report presents the findings of NALS 2005, which was carried out by the National Centre for Social Research on behalf of the DfES. The survey, conducted between October 2005 and February 2006, achieved a 50% response rate and included 4,983 computer-assisted personal interviews with adults aged 16 or over in England, Scotland and Wales. As in the 2001 and 2002 surveys, those over the age of 69 were included to monitor participation in learning among older people. In order to maintain comparability with previous NALS, the results for older respondents are usually presented separately. Similarly, Scotland was included in NALS for the first time in 2005 and the Scottish findings form the basis of a separate report.
Further analysis of learning patterns was carried out to provide some indication of the frequency and ‘quantity’ of learning adults do. This shows that the majority of 2001 respondents had engaged in some learning in the previous year and most of the learners reported learning episodes of 10 or more hours. These results, coupled with the findings showing that most adults do different types of learning, seem to suggest that engagement in some form of learning is likely to act as a stimulus to carry on learning. This conclusion was supported by the results of NALS 1997 follow-up, which showed past learning to be one of the strongest predictors of future learning. The NALS 2001 results seem to suggest that the group of ‘infrequent’ or ‘occasional’ learners is rather small, although with cross- sectional data it is difficult to explore learning patterns over time and the potential effect on future propensity to learn. What the 2001 survey clearly shows is that there is a substantial minority of adults who still do not engage in any of the wide range of learning activities covered by NALS. The interplay of socio-economic factors which affect adults’ propensity to learn are discussed in the next chapter, which explores participation in learning among different groups.
Serious adverse impacts were relatively rare in the sites surveyed, although overgrazing and erosion were recorded at some locations. Most sites were grazed to some extent. Grazing is beneficial in that it prevents vegetation from becoming too closed or rank, introduces bare patches which can act as germination niches for Juniper seeds, and prevents dense growth of other shrub species such as Corylus avellana and Ulex spp., which could otherwise out-compete Juniper for the same niche. Undergrazed sites run the risk of providing no germination niches for Juniper seeds, which usually require bare soil and a certain amount of light to germinate and grow, at least for a number of years. The issue of grazing is complex. While an appropriate amount of grazing is acknowledged to be beneficial, too much grazing can be detrimental to Juniper by causing trampling of adult plants and seedlings, or browsing shoots or saplings. The findings from this survey suggest that overgrazing of Juniper is not a serious problem for 5130 Juniper formations habitat, at least not in the short term. Browsing of Juniper shrubs by grazers was either low or absent. Trampling was noted at some grazed sites, and the frequency and size of Juniper shrubs in a more heavily grazed area of one site (DL31 Melmore Head) did appear to be slightly reduced compared to adjacent less grazed areas; overall, however, the 5130 habitat at DL31 covered a reasonable area, cattle grazing was non-intensive, and no shrub mortality was seen. It should be noted, however, that the condition of the associated heath habitats was not assessed during this survey and their assessment results could be less favourable, particularly if peat erosion is occurring.
particularly as there are both arguments and a certain amount of evidence to suggest that this can assume some importance in certain countries and contexts. Geographically, CEDEFOP (2008: 79), for example, suggested that such employee training is more than twice as prevalent in Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Austria, Sweden and the UK than it is in Bulgaria and Spain. Likewise, informal training, including instruction by colleagues and learning through experience, may be an important source of workplace training, particularly in small firms (Pischke, 2007). Indeed, it seems possible that the mix of training within enterprises may have cyclical properties, although there would not appear to be any evidence bearing directly on this issue. Taking a wider perspective, informal learning may be a way to re-connect excluded individuals to both civic society in general and the world of education in particular (Feinstein et al., op. cit.: 76-77). Furthermore, such pedagogy appears to be particularly important for older people, which may be because, at least in part, formal learning is often associated with work, while many in this group are retired (Jenkins and Mostafa, 2012).The caveat is, of course, that informal learning is difficult to quantify and the precise definition adopted can vary greatly across particular studies, if indeed it is taken into account at all.
Both colleges have a long and proud history of providing excellent teaching and learning and working together in partnership. The new college will continue to serve learners, stakeholders and the wider community with developing enhanced opportunities and choice of curriculum.
The “What Works For Whom?” series also examines what has been learned about literacy programs aimed at families and workers. Social policy research has been successful in providing a better understanding of the nature and extent of the adult literacy problem. A great deal is now known about who has, or is likely to have, literacy problems, classified by age, gender, geography, education level, first language and other identifiers. Such information is invaluable for targeting literacy programs to those most in need and for tailoring the programs to fit the specific literacy problems of these groups. In addition, much has been learned about the importance of literacy for economic success and social well-being. In particular, data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) show that adult literacy is highly associated with critical outcomes such as employment and incomes, and that in economies such as Canada there is a substantial reward for workers with higher levels of literacy.
As show in the Policy Awareness section, researchers are Birkbeck often do not have Data Management Plans for their research. In this comparisons section, we wanted to find if this is common across the sector. To achieve this, we took the results of our survey and compared them to the results of similar questions asked in the Jisc 2016 study of multiple institutions, and the 2014 Sheffield survey.
The framework includes a continuous programme of quality assurance and quality improvement activities carried out throughout the year with providers and the Direct Delivery Unit. Clear performance targets are set for delivery across the provision, which are reviewed at regular intervals. All providers are contractually responsible for maintaining quality and high standards in teaching, learning and assessment of their delivery.
These overlap in any combination and we know that learners work ver y well in groups which bring together highly qualified learners and people with few qualifications on the basis of a shared interest. The pre-eminence of oral learning is one of the complex of features which, taken together, distinguish ACL from other sectors. It is why mixed and multi-level groups are so often successful. It is par t of the way adult learners bring themselves and their experience to learning. This applies at all levels of learning and across subject boundaries. Developing a mutually suppor tive community of learners is one of the skills of the tutor who sees herself or himself as a learner within an adult and self-motivated group. What is the purpose of seeking to identify levels within such provision ?
Professional learning community (PLC) is a common term used to describe many collective learning opportunities happening in schools over the past two decades (DuFour, DuFour, Eaker & Karhenak, 2004; Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012; Hord et al, 2010; Mitchell & Sackney, 2009a, 2011; Stoll et al, 2006). Due to the popularity of the concept of PLCs, many schools believe they are ‘doing’ a PLC when they gather and discuss students’ needs or participate in discussions about what is happening in their classrooms (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012; Mitchell & Sackney, 2009b). When schools gather teachers together and explain it is their collaboration time, teachers do not necessarily know how to collaborate and for what purpose. PLCs need to be developed organically to fit the needs of each individual school culture; therefore, no two PLCs will look the same. According to Hargreaves and Fullan (2012), a PLC “should be neither inconsequential talking shops nor a statistical world of scores and
The National Education Philosophy for Malaysia, enshrines the Ministry’s and Government’s vision of education as a mean for the holistic development of all children: intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, and physically. Generally the Malaysian National Education Philosophy is focusing on student’s individual to create them to be intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physically knowledgeable and competent. The philosophy also stressed on the ability of students in achieving high level personal capability by contributing a betterment in society which make them to be collaborated among nations. It is one of the vital learning processes to be gained in their education system.
Respondents reported that they had undertaken a variety of adult education courses including courses leading to an academic qualification, leisure courses, personal development and well- being courses and skills development courses. Figure 2.7, below, presents the types of courses respondents have attended or are currently attending. Significant proportions had or were engaging with Arts and design craft (26 per cent) and Languages (20 per cent), particularly in the East of England. Numbers engaged with selected core courses were low in, for instance: