Cocaine and crack are highly addictive. This addiction can erode physical and mental health and can become so strong that these drugs dominate all aspects of an addict's life. Some users spend hundreds or thousands of dollars on cocaine and crack each week and will do anything to support their habit. Many turn to drug selling, prostitution, or other crimes. Cocaine and crack use have been a contributing factor in a number of drownings, car crashes, falls, burns, and suicides. Cocaine and crack addicts often become unable to function sexually. Even first time users may experience seizures or heart attacks, which can be fatal.
These measurements of drug use provide a numerical estimate of the population that is at risk of developing a substance abuse problem. Usage measurements, however, do not provide a gauge of the population having clinically defined alcohol or drug problems. Estimates of the population using alcohol and drugs are useful for planning prevention programs designed to forestall more serious substance use problems. The analysis of treatment need, however, entails the estimation of the Delaware population that exhibits a pattern of abuse on alcohol or drugs and/or dependence of alcohol or drugs. Abuse and dependence items are included in the interviews with the sample of 2,070 respondents throughout the State. This diagnosis of abuse and dependence is operationalized the DSM- IV Criteria for Substance Abuse (Figure 19) and the DSM-IV Criteria for
Abuse of alcohol or drugs can affect performance and behaviour in the service users personal progression either through serious misconduct at college / work sector or in meeting of key worker (where there is a direct and demonstrable breach of the disciplinary rules regarding alcohol or drugabuse).
In social causes we can discuss about all those social problems which are the basic causes of drugabuse. A poor relationship with parents is responsible for drugabuse among children, in most of the families we can see a huge lack of communication between child and parents and these things leads the child towards drugabuse. 20 Sometimes we can see it become trend among friends to take drugs by influence of those friends who are usually taking drugs. Drug users are taking drugs because it is easily available, we can see in border area the people are taking drugs in a large scale because it is easily available in those areas. 21 Few of drug users are taking drugs because of their atmosphere, usually we can see it in those people who are growing up in a home where alcohol and drugabuse is considered as a normal behavior. Nowadays people are engaged in love affairs, the loss of a loved one and depression attracts a man more and more to the misuse of a substance. Unusual life style is also responsible for drugabuse, usually it is found in sex workers, transportation workers and street children. 22
Those workers most vulnerable to pressure tend to suffer from scarce social and personal resources with which to respond adaptively to stress. In this case, the effects of psychoactive substances may exceed the stressed worker’s posi- tive expectations. Thus, the aim is to analyze the scientific evidence on the re- lationship between drugabuse and workplace stress, based on an integrative review of the literature. Data were collected in February 2016 from the data- bases of the Virtual Health Library and PubMed. The final sample of 16 ar- ticles was divided into two categories: alcohol and drugsabuse in professions with high degree of psychosocial hazards and risks, and alcohol and drugsabuse for workplace stress in other professions. A relationship between preca- rious conditions, the nature of the work and its influence on drugabuse could be seen. However, other variables may strengthen psychoactive drug use as a coping strategy for stress.
Abstinence from alcohol and other drugs is typical for most people most of the time. Occasional use of psycho-active substances may begin because of curiosity or because of the influence of friends. Initial experimental use of mood-altering substances usually occurs during the adolescent years, most often between 12 and 15 years of age. The typical pattern is experimentation with tobacco and alcohol, followed by initial use of marijuana. As use continues, other illicit drugs that can be inhaled or ingested orally may be consumed. Use of more potent drugs, particularly those requiring hypodermic administration, begins somewhat later. During this initial period, use of drugs is intermittent, and most people return to periods of complete abstinence during which they do not seek or consume drugs and experience no adverse consequences from their use (Institute of Medicine, 1990). See Table 1-A for a brief summary of the characteristics of experimental and social use of alcohol and other drugs. The metabolic effects of alcohol and other drugs alter the individual's chemistry because psycho-active drugs mimic, displace, block, or deplete specific chemical messengers between nerve cells in the brain. Certain areas of the brain control drives such as hunger, thirst, and sexual libido. When we are hungry we feel uncomfortable; when we eat, we feel satisfied–a positive reward. psycho-active substances act upon the same areas of the brain and they can produce euphoria, an extremely pleasurable feeling, or cravings for the drug, an unpleasant feeling. With gradually increasing use of a substance, the cycle of euphoria and cravings results in dependence or addiction to the drug (Dackis & Gold, 1992; Institute of Medicine, 1990).
Southeastern Oklahoma State University is committed to compliance with the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, and a campus culture that reduces alcohol and drug use, abuse, and illegal conduct. This commitment includes the development, enforcement, and continual evaluation of policy and programing, and promotion of awareness. Southeastern will continue to host and promote alcohol-free events and housing, and promote student learning opportunities in regard to alcohol and drugabuse. Southeastern is committed to offering primary wellness and counseling options to students who are at- risk or abusing alcohol and other drugs.
Law Enforcement: Though there are current narcotics departments in both state and many local law enforcement agencies it is necessary at this time to take a hard look at the current methods and their effectiveness. Because law enforcement has been addressing this problem for many years, there should be data available to evaluate current and past programs. For the purpose of this act, once the data has been reviewed, funding for current programs that should be increased to provide needed man power, tools and training to continue and to expand such programs that have proven effective in addressing supply. Additionally, a law enforcement liaison to oversee, evaluate and adjust tactics, training and dispersing of funds should be hired. This liaison will also interact with the office of oversight named above, as well as the liaison of all other departments named in this act in order to encourage exchange of information throughout the state and the program. Funds should be dispersed fairly, dependent on communities with greater need, based on studied trends and number of cases. Cooperation from the entirety of the law enforcement with this law enforcement officer will be “expected” but not legislated, however, funding will depend on cooperation. Finally, “begging” for money in any community that has known services (soup kitchen, homeless shelter etc.) shall be illegal, as the money gained by most (if not all) beggars is used for drugs and/or alcohol.
Attitude plays an important role in developing both positive and negative behaviour. Parents and other significant others influence attitudes and behavior of adolescents. If adolescents see their parents or other significant adults using alcohol and drugs or if the attitudes of the prominent figures are tolerant of alcohol and drugs use, adolescent is more likely to experiment with drugs, acquire accepting attitudes towards alcohol and drug use and choose friends who drink or use drugs. Very little attention has been given to how attitude towards alcohol and drug influences adolescent alcohol and drug use. If one has a soft attitude towards alcohol and drugabuse at early ages, it is likely that he/she is more likely to take alcohol or drugs at that time or letter. Therefore attitudinal influences are very significant in developing interest towards alcohol and drug use. Therefore, this further highlights the importance of the present measure.
unpleasant (Figure 6). Another study documented that the numbers of DA D2 receptors predicted how much subjects liked the effects of methylphenidate (53). These findings suggest that one of the mecha- nisms underlying the differences between subjects in their vulnerability to stimulant abuse may be the variability in the expression of DA D2 receptors. Sub- jects with low numbers of D2 receptors may be at higher risk of abusing stimulant drugs than those with high numbers of D2 receptors, in whom drugs such as methylphenidate may produce unpleasant effects that limit its abuse. A causal association between DA D2 receptor numbers and propensity to self-administer drugs was corroborated by a parallel preclinical study that showed that insertion of the DA D2 receptor gene via a viral vector to increase DA D2 receptor expression in the NAc of rats previously trained to self-administer alcohol resulted in marked reductions in alcohol intake (54). Alcohol intake recovered as the number of DA D2 receptors returned to baseline levels. These results could be taken as indirect evidence of a protective role of high DA D2 receptor numbers against drugabuse. Baseline levels of DA D2 receptors in the brain, which have been shown to be affected by stress (55) and social hierar- chy (11), provide a molecular mechanism that could explain the influence of the environment and genet- ics on predisposition to drugabuse.
Iran as a middle income country having a republic and Islamic government has a significant teenage population . In the Iranian society, religious values, cultural norms, and traditional practices emphasize the strength of family structure, obedience of adolescents from their parents, respect for them, and observation of Islamic sects. Out-of-norm communications with the opposite gender and any sexual contact between a girl and a boy outside the family and official marriage frameworks, al- cohol abuse, and drugabuse are not accepted in this country. Sale and consumption of alcohol and drugs are prohibited in Iran. However, like in other developing countries, it seems that these traditional attitudes and cultural values have changed in recent years . The prevalence of risky sexual behaviors, the use of drugs es- pecially synthetic drugs, the consumption of alcohol as risky behaviors has increased in recent years in Iran . The outcomes of sexual behaviors outside family frame- works include unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmit- ted diseases, and other consequences mentioned in various studies in the world. Furthermore, according to the studies conducted in Iran, these behaviors cause anx- iety, depression, disclosure of adolescent sexual relation- ships, dishonor, fight and divorce of the parents blaming each other for adolescent behavior, depriving the adoles- cents from social activities such as continuing education and being rejected. On the other hand, considering the prohibition of alcohol and drug use in Iran, users are hidden groups that will not be identified until they ser- iously harm their own health and community .
Virginia Union University is committed to providing a campus environment free for all to attend and work at the highest levels of academia. High risk behaviors related to drug and alcoholabuse can lead to decreased productivity, serious health problems, strained social interactions, and impaired learning. An academic community is harmed in many ways by the abuse of alcohol and the use of other drugs. To that end, Virginia Union University offers alcohol and drugabuse programs from a variety of departments including the Student Health Center, Student Counseling Center, Housing and Residence Life and Student Integrity, Campus Police, and the Human Resources Department.
Drugs included in this classifi cation include cocaine (e.g. coke, crack), methamphetamine, ritalin/adderall, amphetamines (speed), high doses of caffeine and other stimulants. Cocaine has been known to cause sudden death by causing the heart to beat in an abnormal rhythm resulting in a heart attack. The heart attack can be sudden and unexpected and can occur at anytime when a person is using cocaine. Stimulants can cause a person to become emaciated, resulting from an increased metabolism and an extremely decreased appetite. Psychologically, cocaine and most amphetamines are extremely addictive and affect the pleasure center of the human brain. Stimulant intoxication can lead to visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations and delusional type thinking. After a person develops dependence upon cocaine or an amphetamine, sudden or gradual cessation in use can cause markedly diminished interest or pleasure in most daily activities. Fatigue, insomnia, and feelings of worthlessness are also common and can possibly result in suicide attempts.
Upon enrollment to Greensboro College, students pledge to uphold and abide by the Student Conduct Code. All students are bound under this code and any violation of the Student Conduct Code will be dealt with accordingly. The Student Conduct Code has been established in an effort to promote a balance between the interests of the individual and those of the Greensboro College community. The regulations contained within the Student Conduct Code regarding alcohol, drugs, paraphernalia and controlled substances apply to all students, faculty, staff, alumni, and visitors or guests of the College.
The possession or the attempted or actual sale, furnishing or use of alcohol, or any illegal, dangerous, or controlled drugs on campus premises or at any College sponsored event is prohibited. This does not include use or possession of drugs prescribed by a person legally authorized to do so. Specific penalties for the possession, use or sale of illegal drugs or alcohol are contained in detail under the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act section. All of the following information can be accessed through the Campus Security page of the SCTC Website.
d. Those who voluntarily seek medical attention in these circumstances due to abuse of alcohol or illegal drugs will be immune from University College’s disciplinary action concerning abuse for an initial offense. They must, however, submit to a substance abuse evaluation and to any treatment (counseling, therapy, outpatient or inpatient care, etc.) the evaluation suggests. Failing to comply with the evaluation or treatment recommendations will result in full disciplinary action for the original violation.
The abuse of narcotics, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, or alcohol can cause serious detriment to a person’s health. The health risks associated with the misuse of the previously mentioned drugs vary but include, and are not limited to: convulsions, coma, paralysis, irreversible brain damage, tremors, fatigue, paranoia, insomnia, and possible death. Drug and alcoholabuse is extremely harmful to a person’s health, interferes with productivity and alertness, and attending classes/rotations while under the influence of drugs or alcohol could be a danger to the student under the influence, fellow students, and to patients/clients under the student’s care.
2. The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks. The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia and anxiety or convulsions and death. Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result
(MDMA) Also known as XTC, X and E, Ecstasy is a mind altering drug with hallucinogenic and speed like side effects. Often used at raves it is taken to promote loss of inhibition, excited-ness, euphoria, energy, and sexual stimulation. Ecstasy increases the amounts of serotonin in a person’s brain, which causes increased energy and cheerfulness; it also contains anti-coagulative properties, which can cause a person to bleed to death if injured. Ecstasy can also cause serious brain damage in a short time. Side effects of ecstasy are: depression, increase in heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, chills, brain damage, organ damage, and death. Similar “designer drugs” include MDEA and MDA (also known as “Adam” and “Eve”)
13. Advertising promoting alcoholic beverages must not encourage any form of alcoholabuse or place any emphasis on quantity or frequency of use. the advertising of alcoholic beverages on campus may not portray drinking as a solution to personal or academic problems or as necessary for social, sexual or academic success. Advertising of alcoholic beverages and other promotional beverages may not associate alcoholic beverage consumption with the performance of tasks that require skilled reactions such as driving or playing sports. All posters must be in accordance with the college’s Posting Policy. 14. if a student program is held off-campus, the contracted server/facility must agree