The ambivalence of the ExternalEvaluation of Schoolseffects in the schoolpractices
This article aims to describe the ExternalEvaluation of Schools in Portugal through a brief framework of this system based on the guidelines of the European educatio- nal policies, in a logic of reciprocity between the national and transnational level, with the purpose of reflecting around the questions: Does the ExternalEvaluation of Schools promote educational quality? What effects does the ExternalEvaluation of Schools have on teaching practices? If, on the one hand, there are some studies that highlight the fact that the ExternalEvaluation of Schools promotes a transformative and formative approach to the schoolpractices through more or less direct conse- quences, on the other, there are studies that clarify that these effects reflected with shallow depth in the pedagogical reality. It is in this ambiguous context that is in- tended to deepen the reflection around the ExternalEvaluation of Schools and their effects on schoolpractices, namely, in the curricular and pedagogical dimensions, drawing on the conclusions of several national and international studies to increase the discussion.
If teachers feel individually powerless, as is revealed in Tables 17 and 18, and tend towards collective structures in meeting external demands, it appears unlikely that they would act to overcome their own classroom isolation by exposing their classrooms to others. This suggests a paradox in schools. Isolation is likely to increase feelings of vulnerability to evaluation, hinder open sharing of details of teaching with colleagues, and reduce feelings of influence in the school and broader educational community. (McLaughlin & Pfeifer 1988, p.5). However, the positives generated by exposure to that same vulnerability through shared experiences, such as mutual observation, should increase teacher confidence and yield a more independent perspective on teaching standards. Ultimately, such confidence should lead to a greater say in the management of change, and improved learning for students (Gitlin & Smyth 1989, pp.5-6, 63, 95). The issue becomes one not so much of the benefits for professionalism of reducing isolation and enhancing pedagogical discourse between teachers, but rather of how to start such a process given what may be presently a self-sustaining environment (McLaughlin & Pfeifer 1988, pp.15, 26-27, 58-59; Jones 1987, p.201; Gitlin & Smyth 1989, pp.37, 164-165). Undoubtedly, issues of time are relevant (McLaughlin & Pfeifer, 1988, p.69; Holly, 1989, p.110). However, this ought not obstruct those determined to make a difference (Schon, 1983, pp.334, 337).
The position taken by the researcher in this chapter is that of a classroom teacher with no particular access to the deliberations, arrangements, or communications of those involved with the development of the Tasmanian standards, and the documents referred to were provided by school or union representatives. Such documentation was neither privileged nor controlled. However, at the same time, it was not widely publicised to teachers, and the various working papers were circulated only to the ‘stakeholders’, which excluded members of the teaching profession in Tasmania in general. Few colleagues were aware of any developments in this area, particularly as it occurred during the implementation of the Essential Learnings curriculum framework, which consumed substantial amounts of teacher attention and effort. Consequently, the view of the researcher in this chapter is as one external to the standards developments, and who receives Teachers Registration Board public documentation only. As a result, if the perspective of an informed researcher appears incomplete, it is intentional. The knowledge and views of the average classroom teacher are likely to be far more limited than the few admitted to the standards deliberations.
In education, responsibility for outcomes shifts to education “service provid- ers” (schools and teachers), who are guided by national standards. Comparative data and instruments such as “best practices” and rankings orient policymaking. The state incentivises education providers to improve quality with quasi-market mechanisms: the introduction of per capita educational funding, which fosters competition between schools, and the implementation of performance-based salaries and benefits, which increases competition among school personnel. “Consumers” are students and their families, as well as the entire society sup- porting public education as a common good through taxes. The NPM model of education governance endorses accountability and transparency to make “consumers” aware of the quality of the service delivered by the “providers”. This is accomplished through QAE mechanisms such as external evaluations with publicised results assumed to empower consumer choice. The connection of evaluation to performance-based funding and salaries accentuates rational NPM ideas and produces a constant feedback cycle in which outputs feed inputs and vice versa (for a detailed examination of NPM in general education see e.g., Gunter et al. 2016).
The first article primarily addressed school administrative spatial practices. I reported on what the administrative clerks did and what motivated their practices. In my theoretical framework for this article I employed Lefebvre’s (1991) production of space theory , insights from De Certeau (1984) and Fiske (1988) and agency as a reflexive practice (Archer, 2007) in order to advance the notion ‘spatial agency’ that enables a particular reading of the practices of the school administrative clerks. This was based on the view that social action is intertwined with social space and that “space is produced through social action” (Jeyasingham 2013: 5). Spatial agency involves being able to reflexively engage in spatial practices. I used Archer's (2007) notion of reflexivity to focus on the administrative clerks’ internal conversations’ as important constituents of their reflexive being. Reflexivity is “the regular exercise of the mental ability, shared by all normal people, to consider themselves in relation to their (social) contexts and vice versa” (Archer, 2007: 4) by way of internal conversation (about what they want to do). Thus, to exercise reflexive spatial agency is to have an internal conversation (where people think about who they are and what they want to do) in terms of which they go about enacting socio-spatial practices that go beyond the normalized practices associated with the dominant discourses
climate). Under this funding formula and corresponding accountability plan, many school districts across the state, including L.A. Unified, are being forced to think about equity in terms of the way it allocates dollars and resources to individual schools.
The community schools dialogue in Los Angeles. At the time this study was being completed, LAUSD had unanimously passed a Board of Education policy that would embrace community school strategies in selective schools across the district. According to the United Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) (n.d.), community schools often include curriculum that is culturally relevant and challenging, educators who have a voice in professional development, improved student assessments, wrap-around services, positive discipline practices, and full engagement of educators, school staff, parents, students, and community members in decision- making. “Basically, Community Schools leverage public schools to become hubs of educational, recreational, cultural, health, and civic partnerships, improving the education of children in the community and furthering the revitalization of the entire community” (United Teachers Los Angeles, n.d.). UTLA has stated that it is committed to high-quality sustainable community schools and a more holistic approach to schooling than currently exists in traditional district schools in Los Angeles. UTLA publicly supported the recently passed board resolution.
In his paper, Harcourt (1998) criticizes the New York City’s 1993 quality-of-life initiative, which is premised on the Broken Windows theory, where order-maintenance is used to target misdemeanor offenses, such as public drinking and turnstile jumping to deter more serious criminal acts. Harcourt suggests that a focus on disorder may ignore the role that these factors play in crime and explores the idea that order-maintenance policing may maintain community norms, rather than creating moral cohesion and lower crime rates in areas characterized as disorderly (Harcourt, 1998). Harcourt (1998) suggests a link between the Broken Windows theory and the social influence of deterrence, which suggests there is a social dichotomy that assumes fixed identities between honest people and criminals in disorderly environments, wherein the law- abiding residents avoid a neighborhood, awarding criminals the opportunity to move in. An alternative view of this reality is included in his proposal, whereby the act of denoting a behavior, such as laying down in a stoop, as disorderly, and criminalizing it, results from past and present forms of punishment including excessive force and surveillance, respectively (Harcourt, 1998). In short, order-maintenance policing practices have created and defined the disorderly person and their tendencies as needing to be controlled,
While considerable efforts are currently expended to communicate with parents including generous availability of faculty and staff, regular report cards, and parent- oriented functions at school, an online student information component accessible by parents 24 hours a day would strengthen the parents’ role in supporting their students. Students reported they were not always aware of their grade status in classes being more focused on the daily report card and its attendant rewards. Parent access to grades could also help keep students more informed of the longer-term goal reflected by grades leading to academic credit.
There are different types of school innovations. A few developments are observable to imminent guardians. Illustrative are workstations for all learners or a computerized white board. Different advancements are undetectable to untouchables. One can consider new didactical methodologies or another framework for instructor pay. There is a broad assortment of writing on school developments, however up until now, most researchers just cover one specific advancement, without considering the nearness of alternate developments that the school may consider it. Savina (2015) utilize an instrumental construct to check the cause and effect of information technology on learners’ performance. The researcher noticed a noteworthy positive relationship and positive effect of technology. He also explore a positive relationship and presume that there is proof that technology utilization enhances academic performance of learners. Another study conducted by Simplicio (2004) and observed that information technology effects the academic performance of students positively. Indicators of school innovation include curriculum and teachers.
Current Bullying Prevention/Intervention Activities. The survey instrument was developed based on existing theoretical and empirical information about school-based bullying prevention and intervention. The four-page questionnaire contained three sections. The first section obtained general information about the respondent and the school for which he or she answered the question- naire. The second section obtained information about bullying prevention and intervention activities implemented within respondents’ schools. A comprehensive literature search in PsycINFO using keywords such as “bullying,” “prevention,” and “intervention” was performed. Anti-bullying strate- gies resulting from the search that addressed similar factors were grouped together to produce the following six domains: school environment, staff involvement, parent involvement, educating stu- dents, peer involvement, and working with bullies and victims. A total of 43 anti-bullying strategies were included in this section. Similar strategies were combined to reduce the length of the survey. For 39 strategies, respondents provided frequency of use of each strategy on a 5-point rating scale (1 = never, 2 = sometimes, 3 = often, 4 = always, 5 = don’t know). On the remaining four strate- gies (anti-bullying policy, anti-bullying committee, school-wide positive behavior support plan, and reporting procedures), respondents indicated whether their schools used each strategy by circling yes, no, or don’t know because these strategies are either in place or not and rating the frequency of usage does not apply to them.
17 One strand on residential segregation research uses boundary discontinuity analysis to isolate the effect of school quality on house prices. Studying house prices near the boundaries of school catchment areas should remove at least some of the unobserved factors that might have an impact on the link between school quality and house prices. However, examination of catchment area boundaries are subject to the above mentioned endogeneity problem due to differential growth over time or other unobserved factors correlated with school quality. (Machin & Salvanes, 2010) Variety of papers try to overcome the problem of endogeneity either by different experimental and methodological design or as Kane et al. (2005) use additional variation from court- imposed desegregation plan in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina between 1994 and 2001. The county redrew school catchment area boundaries several times during the plan to tackle the problem of racial segregation in schools and residential areas. The redrawing of the school catchment area boundaries was unanticipated by the residents so they were unable to react before the redrawing of the boundaries. One of their discoveries is that house prices are systematically different across boundaries and they seem to be reacting to the redrawing of the boundaries. (Kane, Staiger, & Riegg, 2005) As it seems, school choice reforms provide an interesting framework for studying the effects of school quality on house prices. However, one can flip the set-up and interpret the results from the viewpoint of school choice: did school choice reforms have an impact on house prices and hence on residential segregation? Machin and Salvanes (2010) use rich data from a high school choice reform that took place in Oslo County in 1997. High school admission rules changed from rigid catchment areas to open enrollment. They exploit time-series and cross-sectional variation from discontinuities in neighborhoods caused by the school catchment area assignments. They find that the relationship between school quality and house prices significantly weakens after the reform. However, house price premium does not disappear completely, and they speculate it may be due to transportation costs and persistent pre-reform neighborhood differences. To support their finding, they show that residential mobility has decreased after the reform, indicating reduced pressure to move to the catchment area of a superior school. (Machin & Salvanes, 2010) All in all, one could reason that school choice reform in Oslo has significantly weakened the ‘selection by mortgage’ problem.
For this analysis, a dummy variable is created for each source of ambivalence that represents above-average conflict (0 = below mean, 1 = above mean). Next, the between-group variance is analyzed. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to test for the homogeneity of variance across groups (below mean, above mean). This involves getting a Levene statistic (the test statistic for a homogeneity of variances test) and the associated probability. This probability tells us the likelihood with which we can confidently reject the null hypothesis and accept the hypothesis that there is higher error variance when predicting attitudes about social welfare for those with higher levels of conflict as opposed to those with lower levels. The results of the analysis in Table 2 indicate that, other than cognitive conflict, the sources of ambivalence are not strong predictors of the error variance from the model of attitudes about social welfare. For that matter, the effect of cognitive conflict is in the opposite of the expected direction. These findings suggest that those who are less conflicted when it comes to values are actually more ambivalent. Further, the variance is higher for those with below average cognitive-affective and affective conflict, but this differ- ence is not significant. If anything, this analysis tells us that the residuals are not a good measure of ambivalence (assuming that these measures of con- flict are sources of ambivalence).
During 1999-2000 a team from the University of Waikato worked on a pilot project, funded by the Ministry of Education, to develop a process for using Restorative Justice for Conferencing in schools around the Waikato. We named this project (and that process) Te Hui Whakatika. The intention of the project was to try to keep students in schools, rather than suspending them. The numbers of students being suspended from secondary (and primary) schools had been rising exponentially throughout the country. M¯aori students, especially M¯aori boys, were over-represented in numbers suspended. The project was in some ways an outgrowth of the work of Judges M. Brown, McElrea and Carruthers, who had written and spoken publicly about their concern about the numbers of young people coming before the courts (Brown, 1993; McElrea, 1996). The Waikato project picked up on their ideas about the probable value of using restorative justice principles for young people in schools. We melded those ideas with some ideas from M¯aori hui-making, and also with ideas about narrative therapy and respectful ways of speaking taught in the Counselling Programme in which some of us are teachers. Conferencing had of course been used for some time by the Department of Child Youth and Family Services as the Family Group Conference, and this history too informed our work. In that ﬁ rst project, we worked with ﬁ ve schools with very different characteristics, who implemented the ideas in very different ways. The Project was evaluated by a team from The University of Auckland, who found that there was substantial satisfaction among participants with the outcomes of the process. However it was clear that taking on this process in a formal way could take up a lot of time – one school employed a community worker to do the networking and setting up that conferencing required, with quite a lot of success.
Data collection instrument that was applied to school administrators and teachers consists of 2 sections. There are 9 articles that involve personal information in personal information and “parent” dimension of effective school in the second section. In literature, there are 6 dimension including school administrator, teacher, student, school culture, learning environment and parent (Çubukcu & Girmen, 2006, Yılmaz, 2006; Balcı, 2002; Şişman, 2002; Koçak & Helvacı, 2011 ). The articles were prepared in accordance with Likert scale and consisted of advisory statements. Possible answers of participants related to these statements were divided into five categories and these categories were “strongly agree”, “agree”, “neither agree nor disagree”, “disagree, “strongly disagree” and scores were 5,4,3,2,1 from the most chosen option to the least chosen one.
To evaluate menus offered in public, private and charter schools in the city of Seville (Spain) for different groups of school children.
A total of 86 schools were evaluated, including public, private and charter schools, which represented every district of the city. Four schools possessed their own kitchen, while the others had hired a catering service. The menus were aimed at school children aged between 3 and 16 years. The adequacy of menus regarding the monthly frequency of the different food groups, recipe repetition, variability of cooking techniques and nutritional balance were evaluated according to the recommendations. Statistica 7 software was used for statistical analysis.
Albeit there are differences between ethnic groups in terms of multilingual competence, the findings with regard to the development of language competence over time appear to be quite positive. Across the five schools, it was noticeable that at twelve years old students spoke only either Sinhala (90%) or Tamil (10%) with friends. By thirteen years old the proportions had changed and 10.2% spoke in two languages. This percentage rose to 28% by age sixteen. At eighteen years old the percentage speaking two languages was 22.2%. This overall pattern was repeated in all five schools (Table 2, Appendix F). The difference between those aged twelve in their first year at school and those aged eighteen in their last year is highly significant (p < 0.001) (Table 2a, Appendix F). Equally, in terms of reading, the proportion of those reading multiple languages changed as students grew older. 20% of students aged twelve, could read only Sinhala (18%) or Tamil (20%) in the five schools. By age eighteen, the proportions had changed. Only one student could read one language and the proportion of those reading three languages had risen to nearly one half (47.2%) (Table 3, Appendix F). More senior, rather than junior, students reported that they could read three languages best. This result indicates the perceptions of students of all ethnicities that they continued to develop their trilingual skills as they matured. In the English school a summary of languages spoken with friends shows all students used English to communicate with their friends (Table 6, Appendix G; Table 1, Appendix H; Table 1, Appendix I). Unlike Sri Lanka, England has only one national language. Leicester (1989) explained that bilingual education was rejected by the Swann Committee (1985) that encouraged education through the medium of the English language only. This has been the situation since that time. That being said, currently the Department for Education has an expressed intention to support children for whom English is an additional language: ‘The Government is committed to supporting pupils for whom English is not a first language’
is on improving the learning outcomes of students and to do this, cooperation and team spirit are essentials.
After the school priorities are once identified SIP Committees can design the school improvement plan. They use format during developing this plan. The format includes, goals, objective, priorities, implementation strategies, timeline, responsibility for implementing strategies, monitoring and evaluation and ways of modification of the plan or opportunities for revision. Once, the SIP committee has developed the plan and get the approval of all stakeholders, the next stage is about organizing various task forces that are responsible for the development of action plan for each domain. In the formation of taskforces, the principal should encourage parents, teachers, students and other stakeholders to take active part. Besides, the principal need to encourage the involvement of department heads, PTA members, students council, in the development of the action plans. She/he should create ways through ‟ which taskforces exchange information with SIP committees. The taskforces, while developing action plans, need to consider various issues. These are: setting Goals-in the preparation of goal statements, taskforces need to revise issues raised in the self-enquiry. The revision enables them to analyze the information on which the priorities are identified. And the goal must be that can be achieved within a specific period of time, and call for the active involvement of stakeholders that can move the schools to the higher level of performance. To sum up, goals must be SMART, and stated in simple and clear language; identifying most
Finally, I would like to thank my St. Vrain Valley School District colleagues. I am grateful to work in a school district with high quality educators focused on creating innovative and student-centered learning environments. Thank you to Dr. Don Haddad for helping me see the importance of being a champion for public education, and thank you to Dr. Diane Lauer for showing me the ropes in St. Vrain and being my doctoral role model. Dina Perfetti-Deany and Mark Mills, thank you for seeing something in me and giving me the feedback I needed to grow as a school leader. Thank you to Kim Lancaster for being my cheerleader, note taker, commiserating partner, proofreader, and pathway into St. Vrain. You are a dear friend and leader colleague. Finally, thank you to my Niwot High School team: Chase McBride, Zach Pinkerton, Eric Rauschkolb, Elzbieta Towlen, Jason Kelsall, Aimee Brown, David Cavanaugh-Keyek, Sarah Pomranka, Krista