Top PDF IN VIVO AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF CAFFEIC ACID AGAINST HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

IN VIVO AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF CAFFEIC ACID AGAINST HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

IN VIVO AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF CAFFEIC ACID AGAINST HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

the fluid through the bile duct which is containing ALP and other substances. If the bile duct is damaged or blocked accumulating ALP and other substances were escaped or leakaged into the bloodstream. Naturally, the cell lining of the bile ducts in the liver is responsible for producing the ALP enzyme (Cholestatic) [46]. However, during hepatic cell damages, the accumulated ALP enzymes are released into the bloodstream (hepatocytes) along with aminotransferases rises prominently. Therefore, these biomarker enzymes are very useful to detect the liver damages or liver disease in animals by way of distinguishing the type of liver disease, either cholestatic or hepatocellular [47,48] Ramadan et al. also observed similar type of results in D-GalN/LPS treated rats, they suggested due to injury in liver cells the enzymes serum transaminases, ALP, LDH leak into the bloodstream, and results in the rise of serum level. The extent of the increase in serum levels is proportional to the extent of liver damage. It was found that there was a significant increase in the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH) and the total bilirubin level when compared to normal control groups. In the present study, it was also found that decrease in the level of enzymes transaminases, ALT and LDH due to pre- or post-treatment of rats with propolis extract indicated repair of hepatic tissue caused by D-GalN/LPS [49]. For hepatic function serum bilirubin is considered as the index and LDH is an intracellular enzyme. Normally, LDH is widely distributed throughout the body. In tissues, the availability of LDH is found to be at a high level. The main role LDH is to utilize the glucose molecule for energy production. As a result, enhancement of LDH in the bloodstream could indicate the cellular damage occurs in a number of different tissues (skeletal or cardiac muscle, kidney, and liver). LDH isoenzyme plays a key role to involved in energy metabolism in muscle tissues, facilitating the production of ATP through glycolysis process during the oxygen demand or energy demand. During the hypoxic conditions or stressful situation or energy demand leads to stimulated the secretion of LDH as an alternate anaerobic pathway to increase ATP production hence high levels of LDH available in bloodstream [50]. Another reason for the enhancement of LDH levels may be increased may be due to the formation of cell necrosis caused by heavy metal treatment. Normally, erythrocytes have high levels of LDH; therefore, even low-level hemolysis occurred in the tissues can alter the serum activity considerably. Continuous enhancements of LDH are also observed for megaloblastic anemia, shock, renal infarction, hemolytic conditions, leukemias, and liver disease [51]. The various isoenzymes of LDH can
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IN VIVO HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID ON MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

IN VIVO HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID ON MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

-STZ-induced learning and memory deficit, cholinergic hypo-function, and oxidative-nutritive stress in rats. Yang et al . [54] have also examined the control of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo condition by CA and RA combined treatment and estimated their potential in liver protection. CA also had a power of hepatic protection and also enhanced defensive effect of hepatocytes against t-BHP induced oxidative injure in rat liver cells. This could be attributed to the outstanding antioxidant properties (ability to scavenge FR) of CA. Soumya et al. [55] have also observed a similar type of result in liver tissues of mercury-intoxicated rat when treated with Aerva lanata plant extract. They observed that the decreased level of GSH was found in liver tissues due to intoxication with mercuric chloride. This reduced level of GSH content in the cells resulted from the depletion of GSH during oxidative injury of the hepatocytes [56]. During the administration of ethanolic extract of A. lanata on the hepatotoxic rats, the decreased level of GSH has been reverted back to normal due to an increased synthesis of GSH under the antioxidant effect of the extract [57]. They are suggested that an administration of A. lanata plant extract has possessing a high potential of several bioactive compounds which is responsible for promoting antioxidant properties in intoxicated animals.
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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced
nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

conjugation reaction of xenobiotics metabolism and may have increased the availability of non-critical nucleophile for inactivation of electrophiles and therefore might be playing a major role in metalloprotection. Some of the active constituents of S-Allylcystein from garlic have been reported to possess a bioactive compound which is act as phytochelating substance to nullify the toxicity effect on various organisms. Reports suggested that SAC has been known to have free radical scavenging effect and it could be a potential therapeutic or modulating agent for oxidative damage induced disease [10, 22] Lin, et al. (2008) also reported that garlic is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant due to the presents of flavanoids, phenol, acids, vitamins and sulphur compound, of garlic which contain the biological properties of garlic. The free radical scavenging effect of SAC has been reported in previous studies. SAC could enhance the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH in fact it has been shown that SAC have antioxidant properties in vivo conditions [1, 7, 9, 13, 18, 22].
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Reconnaissance of Hepatoprotective Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Paracetamol and Ethanol Induced Hepatotoxicity Models of Albino Wistar Rats

Reconnaissance of Hepatoprotective Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Paracetamol and Ethanol Induced Hepatotoxicity Models of Albino Wistar Rats

The collected samples (leaves of Annona squamosa, leaves of Cassia fistula and fruits of Illicium verum) were washed, cut into small fragments and shade dried until the fracture is uniform and smooth. The dried plant material was granulated or powdered by using a blender and sieved to get uniform particles by using sieve number 60. The final uniform powder was used for the extraction of active constituents of the plant material. The powder was kept in dry, clean air tight glass jars. 2000g of each powdered plant was mixed with absolute ethanol (99.9%) for 48 hours with occasional shaking and was filtered. The filtrate was dried in Petri dishes and concentrated to brownish residue by evaporation at 4°C under reduced pressure in drying oven. The dried alcoholic extract is stored in refrigerator. The extract was dissolved in adequate amount of ethanol just before administration to respective group of rats.
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EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL (HEPIN) AGAINST ALCOHOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL (HEPIN) AGAINST ALCOHOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

Obtained results revealed that administration of ethanol caused a significant increase in plasma SGPT, SGOT, ALP and Bilirubin compared to the control group. While total protein concentration is significantly declined. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of hepatic GSH was also observed. However, the treatment of experimental rats with Hepin prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of hepatoprotection.

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Evaluation of leaves of Lawsonia inermis for nephroprotective activity

Evaluation of leaves of Lawsonia inermis for nephroprotective activity

The present study was aimed to evaluate the nephroprotective potential of ethanol extract of leaves of Lawsonia inermis in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Albino rats. Leaves of Lawsonia inermis were powdered and ethanol extract was prepared by hot extraction method. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. Further ethanol extract was subjected to GC- MS analysis which revealed the presence of various bioactive phytoconstituents. Nephroprotective activity of extract was evaluated at 200 and 400mg/kg b. w. in male Albino rats in both curative and prophylactic regimens. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by single intra peritoneal injection of cisplatin at a dose of 5mg/kg b. w. Nephroprotective activity was determined by estimating serum markers, urinary parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in renal tissue. It was observed that Cisplatin-induced marked nephrotoxicity manifested by a significant increase in Serum marker levels, Urinary total protein, lipid peroxidation and decrease in creatinine clearance, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase levels. Treatment with extract significantly attenuated drug- induced nephrotoxicity in cisplatin model by restoring the biochemical and oxidative stress markers in dose dependent passion in both regimens. Histological studies also substantiated the biochemical parameters. Thus the findings of the present study provided a corroborative scientific evidence for folklore use of Lawsonia inermis as a nephroprotective agent.
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 AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN AGAINST CADMIUM–INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

 AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN AGAINST CADMIUM–INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

Livers of Cd-treated rats for 6 weeks showed many pathological alterations in the form of focal inflammatory reactions proved by mononuclear cell infiltration, cellular degeneration including hydropic (ballooning), hyaline degeneration and fatty change, disorganization by blurring of the normal lobular architecture, congestion, focal necrosis and apoptosis proved by cellular swelling, deep cytoplasmic acidophilia, nuclear pyknosis, caryorrhexis and nuclear fragmentation (Figures 1A, B, C, and D). These changes were found throughout the sections without any specific zonal localization. Livers of rats that treated with combination of cadmium and curcumin for 6 weeks showed some pathological changes in the form of focal inflammatory cell infiltration, cellular degeneration including hydropic (ballooning) degeneration and fatty change. Normal lobular architecture was preserved but still there was venous congestion and focal necrosis (Figures 2A, B). Control rats and curcumin- treated ones showed no abnormal findings (Figure 3).
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Hepatoprotective activities of aqueous extract of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) against lead-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Hepatoprotective activities of aqueous extract of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) against lead-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activities of aqueous extract of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) against lead-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus (albino Wistar rat). The different groups of the animals (groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) were administered a single dose of lead after groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been pre-treated with aqueous extract of Pleurotus ostreatus at concentrations of 50mg/kg, 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg daily, respectively for 21 days. Hepatoprotective effects were studied by the liver marker enzymes concentration assay [Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)]. Hepatotoxicity- induced rats (group 2(control II)) showed increased level of ALT and AST (26.25 ± 1.49 vs 21.57±1.32 and 54.75 ± 5.13 vs 35.5±1.66 U/L, P < 0.05) in serum when compared to group 1(control I). On the other hand, the rats pre-treated with aqueous extract of Pleurotus ostreatus showed hepatoprotective effects by maintaining the levels of ALT (group 3: 14.00± 1.58, group 4: 15.50± 2.18, group 5: 14.75± 2.50 and group 6: 13.75 ± 1.18 U/L) and AST (group 3: 37.75 ± 5.20, group 4: 44.25 ± 2.87, group 5: 51.25 ± 1.89 and group 6: 44.00 ± 1.96 U/L,) in the serum around the normal levels. These were observed to be significantly lower than group 2. This result reveals that aqueous extract of Pleurotus ostreatus demonstrated some degree of hepatoprotection against lead induced hepatocellular injury. Hence, it is recommended that Pleurotus ostreatus be included as one of the functional food with hepatoprotective qualities.
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HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ LEAVES ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FICUS DALHOUSIAE MIQ LEAVES ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

In the present study one of the local available plant Ficus dalhousiae Miq was selected. Liver damage induced by CCl4 and Paracetamol are commonly used models for the screening of Hepatoprotective drugs. The rise in the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and Bilirubin (Direct & total) where as decrease in the levels of ALB and T/P has been attributed to the damaged structural integrity of liver.

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 HEPATOPROTECTIVE  ACTIVITY  OF  GUETTARDA  SPECIOSA  L. AGAINST  CARBON  TETRA  CHLORIDE  (CCl 4 )-INDUCED  HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GUETTARDA SPECIOSA L. AGAINST CARBON TETRA CHLORIDE (CCl 4 )-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

The extract (200 and 400mg/kg) and the standard drug were administered orally to rats of the respective groups (III, IV and V) three times at 12h intervals. Then carbon tetrachloride diluted with liquid paraffin (1:1) was administered in dose of 1ml/kg, p.o, daily once for 2 days, to all the animal groups except for normal control. After 36hrs of carbon tetrachloride treatment, blood was collected from all groups of rats by puncturing the heart. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 2500rpm at 37 0 C for 15min and analyzed for various biochemical parameters.
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THE BENEFIT EFFECT OF GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST NICKEL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

THE BENEFIT EFFECT OF GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION AGAINST NICKEL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

reduce liver damage by maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane. Otherwise, the hepatoprotective activity of ginger may be due to its direct radical scavenging activity [54]. Nickel is well known to induce oxidative damage in liver by enhancing LPO [55]. LPO is supposed to cause the destruction and damage cells membranes, leads to changes in membrane permeability and fluidity [56]. Corroborate with these findings, treatment with Ni resulted in a significant increase in LPO as indicated by the significant increase in MDA. It has been reported that administration of Ni resulted in the accumulation of iron, which, in turn, generates ROS through Haber–Weiss and Fenton’s reaction [4]. The significant decrease in GSH in Ni-treated group was in accordance with the previous reports [41,57]. The findings showed also that Ni administration induced a significant decrease GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD activities, which confirm the work of Boulila et al. [58], Hfaïedh et al. [59], and Misra et al. [55]. This might be due to their increased utilization in scavenging free radicals induced by the metal, thus causing irreversible inhibition in their activities or due to direct binding of the metal to the 0
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Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Thirty-six male albino rats weighing 180–200 g, were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into three groups of 12. Rats were housed in individual plastic cages and allowed one week to acclimate to their surroundings before the beginning of the experiments. Standard rat chow and tap water were available ad libitum for the duration of the experiments, unless otherwise noted.

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 HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-HEPATOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TACAZZEA BARTERI AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

 HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-HEPATOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TACAZZEA BARTERI AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

hepatoprotective study, the animals were treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of T. barteri extract for 7 days prior to the intra peritoneal injection of 1 ml/kg of carbon tetrachloride while for the anti hepatotoxic study; 1 ml/kg of carbon tetrachloride was administered via intra peritoneal route before treatment (2 days). Blood samples were collected from the animals before and after treatment and serum biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Bilirubin and Albumin) were determined. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of ALT, AST, ALP and Bilirubin and a significant (p < 0.01) increase in carbon tetrachloride induced suppression of Albumin induction in both models. Histological photomicrographs of liver sections of the untreated groups showed high cellular damage while no visible histological damages were noticed in the extract treated groups in the hepato- protective model while mild cellular damage was noticed in the anti-hepatotoxic model. The extract not only showed protection of the liver cells against CCL 4
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Hepatoprotective Activity of Basella Rubra Linn Against Ethanol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Albino Rats

Hepatoprotective Activity of Basella Rubra Linn Against Ethanol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Albino Rats

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) significantly associate with certain genetic traits and Genetic studies conducted till now abundantly have been hypothesis-driven only, Which involved a candidate compound–candidate gene approach . According to Jae Woo-kwon et al genetic variations in thioredoxin reductase 1 gene (TXNRD1) leads toward development of DILI.(Aggarwal BB et al;2007) Variation in activity of drug metabolizing enzyme, (such asCYPS3A, CYP2C9, CYP2C19) which require for drug metabolism lead to pathogenesis of idiosyncratic DILI [229]. Polymorphism of bioactivities pathway through CYP450 enzymes, detoxification reactions and excretion/transport reaction together with immunological factors (HLA class II antigen, cytokines ) are major genetic factor that can effect Hepatotoxicity(Wilke RA et al;2007)
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 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS LAM. LEAVES AGAINST THIOACETAMIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS

 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS LAM. LEAVES AGAINST THIOACETAMIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON WISTAR ALBINO RATS

serious health problem because of the wider use of prescribed medications with adverse reactions in modern life of today or the drug misuse. The current research has targeted on finding new therapeutic alternatives and analyzing their mechanism to get rid of the signaling routes and reduce the loss induced on the liver 2 . The numbers of compounds of natural origin are

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL HERBS AND ANIMAL MODELS FOR THEIR SCREENING – A REVIEW

HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL HERBS AND ANIMAL MODELS FOR THEIR SCREENING – A REVIEW

Modern medicines have little to offer for alleviation of hepatic diseases and it was chiefly the plant based preparations, which were employed for their treatment of liver disorders. But there was not much drug available for the treatment of liver disorders 19, 20 . Therefore; many folk remedies from plant origin were tested for its potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective liver damage in experimental animal model.

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PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

Mercury is used widely in agriculture as the anti- fungual agent, in medicine as a topical purificator, disinfectant and insecticide for parasites 5 . The most frequent chemical form to which humans and animals are exposed to mercury is elemental mercury vapor, mercury salts as mercuric chloride and organic mercury compounds such as methyl mercury. Poisoning can result from inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through the skin 7 .

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Chronological assessment of Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

Chronological assessment of Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

Our results have therefore shown that the immune response to INH and RIF mediated liver injury sets in after the initial liver injury and also that it takes more than 20 days to set in at a significant level in comparison to other hepatic toxins that show more immediate responses. This has shown that Wistar albino rats provide a robust model for immune changes during INH and RIF induced liver injury.

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The Ameliorative Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosemarinic Acid against Cardio-nephrotoxicity Induced by Doxorubicin in Rats

The Ameliorative Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosemarinic Acid against Cardio-nephrotoxicity Induced by Doxorubicin in Rats

Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally polyphenolic phytonutrient found in wide varieties of fruits, berries and nuts. EA has received particular attention because of its extensive array of biological properties including potent antioxidant, anticancer and antimutagen (Atessahin et al., 2007). Ellagic acid showed free radical scavenging action, chemopreventive, antiapoptotic, anti- inflammatory, gastroprotective, anti-cataractogenetic, cardioprotective ulcer healing, antifibrotic, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties (Warpe et al., 2015). Although the exact molecular mechanism of EA is unknown, its potent scavenging action on OH might be responsible for these effects (Priyadarsini et al., 2002) polyphenols of EA have attracted considerable attention as agents that protect cells or molecules from oxidative myocardial injury.
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 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF YAKRIT PLIHANTAK CHURNA AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF YAKRIT PLIHANTAK CHURNA AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HEPATOTOXICITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

The Indian system of medicine, especially Ayurveda, has several medicinal plants with proven beneficial claims towards many pathological conditions. However, the potential of herbal drugs as defined therapeutic agents is undetermined by the difficulty in standardization, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these multi component mixtures and also the lack of enough experimental data. Medicinal plants need to be investigated scientifically and rigorously to define their role in prevention and treatment of pathological conditions and to stimulate the future pharmaceutical development of therapeutically beneficial herbal drugs. Many herbals are on market to support health, relieve symptoms and cure diseases. However, most of these products lack scientific evidence that supports these allegations. One such product is Yakrit plihantak churna. Since; No pharmacological studies have been done on this poly herbal formulation.
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