Finally, it is worth noting the lack of national data on young people’s assets and the environment shaping young people’s health-related decisions. An assessment of adolescent health and well-being would ideally include a profile of young people’s assets, such as positive outlook and pro-social behavior, as well as their risky behavior. In addition, our under- standing of trends in adolescent risk-taking would be enhanced by data on the contexts— such as family, school and community environments—in which adolescents make health- related decisions. The last decade has seen significant progress both in measuring these con- cepts and in linking assets and contexts to adolescent risky behaviors. For example, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (“AddHealth”) has increased our knowledge of the individual assets (e.g., self-esteem, decision-making competency) and environmental factors (e.g., connections to family and school) associated with healthy decision-making. Furthermore, an analysis of AddHealth data suggests that individual factors and contextual variables are stronger predictors of risky behaviors than demographic variables such as race/ethnicity and income (Blum, Beuhring & Rinehart, 2000). At least one international study, involving 28 countries, has examined the influences of individual assets and contexts on adolescent health (Currie, Hurrelmann, Settertobulte, Smith & Todd, 2000). Other promising efforts to measure development are underway, with the potential to broaden our understanding of and ability to monitor the health and well-being of adolescents (Chapin Hall Center for Children, 2001; Child Trends, 2001; Grunbaum, personal communication, May 2002). Currently, however, there are no ongoing national surveys and few state surveys comparable to those that monitor risky behaviors and more traditional markers of health. Because nationwide measures are not available, nearly all of the health indicators presented here focus on the prevalence of health problems and risky behaviors, comparing indicators among demographically defined groups.
Medical group evaluation. Each subject was screened by a trained research assistant with the Health Symptoms Checklist (18). Vital signs were collected at the time of venipuncture. All medically relevant data was reviewed by the phy- sicians (J.A.B., S.J.S., and B.R.D.) who made the final consensual determination of the subjects’ medical status. Subjects were classified into one of the following three medical groups: (i) healthy (subject had no medical problems and was not taking any medication); (ii) minor medical problem (subject had mild medical symptoms such as a cough or runny nose, had had fever within the past week [venipuncture was deferred in subjects with current fever], or had taken medi- cation for a cold within the past 2 weeks); or (iii) medical problem (subject was found to have more significant chronic or current medical problems considered likely to be associated with altered immunity). This last group consisted mainly of asthmatics who, in the past year, had had an asthmatic attack or utilized antiasthmatic medication and of adolescents with a history of a recent infection requiring antibiotic therapy. Of the total 331 adolescents studied, 206 were classified in the healthy group prior to the analysis of any data. Only the subjects in the healthy group were included in the analyses to be described.
Adolescent and young adult male health receives little attention, de- spite the potential for positive effects on adult quality and length of life and reduction of health disparities and social inequalities. Pedi- atric providers, as the medical home for adolescents, are well posi- tioned to address young men ’ s health needs. This review has 2 primary objectives. The ﬁ rst is to review the literature on young men ’ s health, focusing on morbidity and mortality in key areas of health and well-being. The second is to provide a clinically relevant review of the best practices in young men ’ s health. This review covers male health issues related to health care access and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ’ sHealthy 2020 objectives for adolescents and young adults, focusing on the objectives for chronic illness, mor- tality, unintentional injury and violence, mental health and substance use, and reproductive and sexual health. We focus, in particular, on gender-speci ﬁ c issues, particularly in reproductive and sexual health. The review provides recommendations for the overall care of adoles- cent and young adult males. Pediatrics 2013;132:535 – 546
ure common underlying constructs of each domain. Therefore, the above findings show that there are complex associations among the items and their underlying con- structs are incompletely represented with the present sub- scales, although they had strong effects on the total score, suspecting that there might be some third constructs involved in these relations and it needs to be discovered in the future examinations of construct validity [3,14]. The present study is the only one to use CFA for the KINDL in healthy children and adolescent, so it is hard to compare the findings. Nevertheless, the findings from the studies of exploratory factor analysis performed on healthy samples showed the subscales possess unimpor- tant items or some that could be regrouped differently, suggesting revisions for the KINDL [8,10,13]. For the model studied here, AMOS suggested several modifica- tion indices that would let to the model improvement as the means of structural equation modeling [3,20]. How- ever, this is beyond the article's scope and such a revision should be best undertaken applying a cross-cultural simultaneous approach to ensure comparability of differ- ent national versions and to avoid running into results due to chance. An important consideration during a revi- sion shall be to study the causal effects of those items that influence QOL, causal variables, separately from those indicating a QOL level, indicator variables [3,16]. The study has some limitations that could explain the results as well. First, restricting the sample to healthy sub- jects leads to restricted distribution of scores and vari- ances, therefore the results of a CFA might be significantly affected. Further, the results might be also affected even Bollen-Stine bootstrap was used to manage the effect of deviation form normality, so the usage of polychoric cor- relations would be an alternative. Finally, there is no available QOL measures in Serbia with appropriate meas- urements characteristics against witch to confirm the results of construct validity and no studies reported evalu- ating the KINDL with CFA in healthy subjects.
Autonomous and controlled motivation for healthy eating was assessed with 15 items based on the Regu- lation of Eating Behaviors Scale . The scale assesses motivational orientations toward dietary regulation. Par- ticipants are asked what specific reason to eat healthily ap- plies to them personally on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = not at all true to 7 = very true). The autonomous motivation subscale includes nine items (e.g., “Eating healthy is part of the way I want to live my life”). The controlled motiv- ation subscale (e.g., “Other people close to me insist that I eat healthy) includes six items. Cronbach’s alpha’s were .91 and .75 for autonomous and controlled motivation re- spectively and mean scores were computed. Higher scores indicate stronger autonomous and controlled motivations. Agentic autonomy was assessed by five items from the behavioral autonomy subscale of the Worthington Au- tonomy Scale . Items were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = totally disagree to 5 = to- tally agree). Sample items include “I accept responsibility for my own mistakes” and “I don’t spend my money wisely (reverse coded). Cronbach’s alpha was .36, which is lower than previously found for this measure. A mean score was computed. A higher score indicates more agentic autonomy.
as their perception on their life’s direction over that past months. On the other hand, the data shows that the respondents’ responses on most of the items under psychological well-being has descriptive equivalent of moderately mentally healthy, this includes their perception towards the component of their personality, the quality of their relationship towards other people as well confidence to express their ideas and opinions. Aligned to this result is a data provided in 2015 stating that majority of school adolescents aged 12 to 18 from Pakistan were perceived to have moderate level of Psychological Well-being while a local research suggests that the Filipino adolescents, regardless of gender feel optimistic in realizing their potential. This emphasis on possibilities of growth and existence of positivity by Perez (2012) is observable to the present study as the result shows that when it comes to self-assessment, the respondents would collectively respond to have moderate mental health suggesting possibility of growth; while on statement suggesting impact of experience and its repercussions as well as outlook on future and meaning of life, the respondents would respond rather certain in positive manner [23, 24].
were tested by using x 2 tests. De- scriptive statistics for raw variables are presented as mean 6 SD. Separate multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations of dietary sodium intake with adiposity and adipokine measure- ments (weight, BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentage body fat, SAAT, VAT, leptin and adiponectin) and in ﬂ ammatory markers (CRP, ICAM-1, and TNF- a ). Pearson ’ s correlation coef ﬁ cient was ﬁ rst used to assess the correla- tions of adiposity, adipokines, and markers of in ﬂ ammation with potential confounding factors, including Tanner stage, physical activity, birth weight, SES, dietary fat, and sugar-sweetened soft drink and potassium intake. 9 – 12,27,28
In addition, individuals who experienced CSA and who develop CSA-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk to develop subsequent internalizing disorders (Lindert et al., 2014), which makes internalizing disorders and CSA-related PTSD overlapping in symptomatology. This, in combination with the comparable levels of increased amygdala activation in response to emotional faces (Hart and Rubia, 2012; Monk et al., 2008a,b; Roberson-Nay et al., 2006; Thomas et al., 2001), highlights the need to investigate whether similar underlying neurobiological mecha- nisms are present in these two groups. To our knowledge, there is no research published that directly compared amygdala responsive- ness in adolescents with an internalizing disorder and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. It is possible that there are neurobiological differences between these two groups: although adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology (Lindert et al., 2014) and amygdala responsiveness to emotional faces (Hart and Rubia, 2012; Monk et al., 2008a,b), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD also have distinct characteristics like the experience of sexual abuse and a different attachment proﬁle (van Hoof et al., 2015).
disorders . Primary and secondary preventive actions against oxidative damage, especially in young people are important. Moreover, the use of antioxidants as a new therapeutic approach for diseases associated with increased oxidative stress has been proposed. Investigating the role of OS in children needs information about the status of OS in young people. Whereas, there are only a few reports about the status of DNA OS in children and adolescents. In these studies few numbers of people with low age range are considered. In most studies blood samples were collected. In most studies blood samples were collected and reduced / oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione- reductase activity, selenium, vitamins, antioxidants, reduced / oxidized coenzyme Q10, thiobarbituric acid, superoxide and catalase activities were analyzed [26, 27, 28]. In addition, in most studies OS markers were evaluated in protein and fat according to intervention method. The aim of most studies was not to determine and evaluate the OS and the sample size and age range were determined. According to researchers, only two studies have been conducted to evaluate. Kauffman et al measured F2 isoprostane of urine in 342 children under
This book offers extensive background on Latin America, providing up-to-date social, political, and economic context for schools’ situation in the region. While Latin America is the focus, the American reader specifically will gain from viewing the United States through a regional frame, revisiting interactions between the two that have occurred throughout history. The American reader will also find it timely as it provides background on thirty years of Latino immigration into the United States and contrasts this influx with those of previous immigrant groups. American identity historically and the multiculturalism, a concept they define with reference to definitions and descriptions given by Will Kymlicka, Charles Taylor, John Buenker, and Lorman Ratner, presenting itself now is discussed (pp. 114-119). In the United States, educators at many levels will find this discussion helpful for reflection both personal and professional. As with any good history, references to literature, art, political cartoons, pop culture, and, in this case, soccer dot the pages.
or ⬎ 55 (considered “biologically im- plausible values” on the basis of CDC criteria) were coded as missing. Cova- riates included age and race/ethnicity. For the purposes of the present study, we focused on 2 BMI percentile catego- ries: healthy weight (5th – 84th percen- tile) and extremely obese ( ⱖ 99th percentile). This “extreme group ap- proach” is accepted as a useful strategy in exploratory analyses as a reasonable way to increase statistical power and en- hance detection of general trends that otherwise might be blurred with the in- clusion of a full range of data. 30 Race/
True North’s leases in the North Slope comprise four 2,500 acres units (10,000 acres total) of on-shore and off-shore targets, adjacent to ExxonMobil’s Beaufort Sea’s explo- ration leases. True North’s prospects are located west of British Petroleum’s giant Prudhoe Bay production unit. When discovered in 1968, the Prudhoe Bay field had proven reserves of 25 billion barrels of oil, 10 of which have already been produced. The Prudhoe Bay field is the largest oilfield in North America and the 18th largest field ever discovered worldwide. $25 biilion have already been invested in the development of the field that is jointly owned by British Petroleum, ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips. 46 Trillion Cubic Feet of Gas (26 of which classified as recoverable) remain in place.
The following paragraphs detail information on healthy boundaries and mature leadership. Determining the number of adults needed for supervision of adolescents depends on a number of factors: the nature of the activity, the age of the adolescents, and the location of the activity. For starters, in most dioceses all activities require a minimum of two adults, 21 years of age or older. Unless the group being supervised is either all boys or all girls, there must be a chaperone of each gender. A good standard for away trips is a 1:6 ratio (1 adult for six youth). It is inappropriate for adults to drink any alcoholic beverages while supervising a youth ministry activity.
This paper explored intuitive eating among the adolescent population, beginning with a look at disordered eating and including predictors and impacts of intuitive eating, and successful interventions teaching intuitive eating. Intuitive eating has been linked to positive outcomes in adulthood, including less disordered eating, greater emotional functioning, and positive body image, among others (Bruce & Ricciardelli, 2016). Dietary intake in adolescence is a predictor of intake in adulthood (Lake et al., 2006), therefore adolescence is an important time period to consider in the formation of intuitive eating behaviors that may continue into adulthood. It is important to consider adolescence as a primary point of intervention, as adolescence has been identified as a risk period for the development of eating pathology and clinical eating disorders, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence have been found to increase into young adulthood (Slane et al., 2014). Additionally, it has been found that girls and boys who diet during adolescence are more likely to diet 10 years later, indicating that the activity of dieting (having an unhealthy relationship with food) may form in adolescence and continue into adulthood (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2011). Neumark-Sztainer et al. (2011) also found that the use of extreme weight control behaviors in adolescents increased for both boys and girls, 10 years later, and adolescents using unhealthy weight control behaviors still used these behaviors 10 years later. The stage of adolescence should be considered as a primary time where individuals may begin to develop intuitive eating behaviors or disordered eating behaviors, that may continue into adulthood. Efforts, therefore, should be made to increase intuitive eating behaviors in the
In order to get information about physical activity and fitness of the healthy children investigated, we asked them or their legal representatives about participation in sport and other physical activity and scored this with numbers (from 0 to 4, no up to 4 additional weekly ac- tivity hours). However, this PAS added significant infor- mation to predict the 6MWD only in adolescent girls. Potentially, the questionnaire to assess this PAS did not really reflect physical activity in everyday life. It may well be that some children were very active outdoors in gar- dens and playground without achieving a high PAS as they did not count outdoor playing to Sports activity. The better performance of this score in adolescents may point towards this direction.
particularly in El Salvador, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. Brazilians and Mexicans have become notably more positive toward the U.S. in just the past year. Even in Bolivia and Venezuela, two countries where national leaders have regularly engaged in anti-American rhetoric over the past few years, the U.S. on balance gets positive marks, although in both countries ratings are higher among people on the political right than among those on the left. The exception in Latin America is Argentina, where just 41% express a favorable view, although this is still much more positive than the 16% registered in 2007.
Our study had several limitations. Our study was based on self report and therefore subject to respondent recall and deliberate misreporting. The study also recruited only school-going adolescents who may not have been repre- sentative of the out of school adolescents. The findings of the study may also be limited by not controlling for unmeasured confounders and effect measure modifiers . For example, Bergen et al  have reported that per- ceived academic performance was associated with tobacco use among adolescents. We did not account for perceived academic performance. Finally, data on current smoking were only collected through interviews and not verified by biomarkers such as cotinine assessment or exhaled carbon monoxide [30-33]. However, the study used validated standard GYTS methodology, and weighted analysis that adjusted for design effects and non-responses, to ensure valid comparisons of our findings to other studies using the same methodology. Brener et al  has also reported that adolescents in the United States reported reliably on health risk behaviours. The extent to which the reliability obtained by Brener et al, can be extrapolated to the Punjab adolescent group is not known.