Randomly chosen articles were picked on the basis of being on the topic of dementia, posted on the same form of social media in close time proximity to the DementiaDiaries article and which contained comments from the intended audience. Some DementiaDiaries articles and potential comparator sites had to be excluded because they did not permit comments to be posted (many of the newspapers) or did not have any comments posted for analysis (e.g. Comic Relief film on YouTube). One included the direct voice of a person with dementia and two did not, to allow for comparison of inclusion of the direct voice and of the methods used specifically within the DementiaDiaries project to package and present the voices of diarists to a public audience. The articles that were analysed were three articles written by the DementiaDiaries team:
noted as a benefit. The benefits of the bilingual material was noted in different setting contexts including language and play and community engagement work, as well as in library settings, thus highlighting the value of these resources in several shared stories contexts. Participants also noted the value of the auditory bilingual recording on the website as a means to allow non-Welsh speaking parents to gain confidence to use the books independently and to feel confident to pronounce words and phrases when sharing stories. All participants noted the benefits of the Superbox programme, and for those working directly with families and children in children care / play provision the activities linked to different books were used to support children and families to have interesting and fun ways to engage with the stories. Puppets, props, practical activities and singing and nursery rhymes as well as movement were discussed in session diaries, observations and interviews as a means to engage interest and for those in the Flying Start settings this appeared to be a way to break down barriers in terms of enjoying sharing books. Some participants in library contexts also used these activities as part of their story telling or shared reading work. However one participant (participant 9) note the library tended to be visited by families already motivated and confident to come to the library and thus the Superbox resources she had received in her context may not be reaching more marginalised groups as they would not be visiting traditional story telling library activities. The observation of two library sessions one in south- east Wales and on in north Wales tended to confirm this, where those attending the sessions were regular visitors to the library and appeared to be very comfortable in this environment. Some libraries had outreach programmes that could provide the opportunities to take the Superbox resources to different communities. Some telephone interviews and session diaries showed examples of engagement officers and field officers with language and play or bilingualism promotion aims holding children and family workshops / activities in the library, thus providing a non-threatening and relaxed opportunity for parents to visit the library who may not visit otherwise. Such partnership provides an opportunity for both the early years sector and the library sector to pool expertise and resources to support more awareness of the resources availablein the library.
The fact that there is not a statistically significant differ- ence in dementia risk between studies enrolling only patients with AF diagnosis during follow-up (incident AF) and studies enrolling also patients with AF at base- line (prevalent AF) can be explained in different ways. Since patients had normal cognitive function at baseline, prevalent AF patients included in this meta-analysis could have had an intrinsic resistance to AF-induced cogni- tive damage, thus blunting possible differences between prevalent and incident AF subgroups. Another possible reason is that, considering the normal baseline cognitive function, prevalent AF patients may have been affected by the atrial arrhythmia for a relatively short time before the start of the follow-up. Finally, there is a possibility that cognitive decline influences AF awareness and ultimate presentation for diagnosis and treatment. If so, then patients with healthier cognition are those that are more likely to present for clinical evaluation and management of AF.
monitor BPSD, however, these BEHAVE-AD assessments are subjective and place great demands on the personnel resources of the hospital. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)  is scored through a semi-structured interview by a clinician or researcher with a caregiver of the person with dementia, and it can be administered and scored as a 10-item (excluding sleep and vegetative symptoms) or a 12- item instrument (including both). The clinical scores may not adequately reflect the fluctuations of physical activities and disease severity . Recently, by using a method to analyze physical activity recorded by actigraph, Pan, et al. [7-9] have quantitatively evaluated the severity of motor fluctuation and sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson- ism. Previous studies examined the psychiatric symptoms associated with actigraph in subjects with dementia or other psychiatric disorders [10-12]. Wrist actigraph is a rater-independent method for obtaining data on motor ac- tivity and has been shown to be a valid means of measuring agitation and sleep-wake rhythms in patients order patients [13-15]. Moreover, it is a particularly attractive instrument
A suitable and cost-free application to host remote diaries was imperative to the success of the research. As the study involved recruitment of participants from China, popular chat apps in Asia like Google Talk, Facebook’s Messenger and WhatsApp, Korea’s KakaoTalk or Japan’s Line Messenger were disqualified, considering China’s strict data restrictions . Instead, China-based social media and messaging apps were shortlisted, namely Weibo, WeChat, and QQ. These tools provided an array of options, not only messaging services (traditional and app-based chat services), but also tools that allow users to post updates to their “friends’ circle” on their accounts.
Blogs are one of the most popular forms of users’ contri- bution to the web contents. There are many categoriza- tions of blogs which are diﬀerent in the content, publish- ing methodology, and even in the type of readers. Per- sonal blog, or online diary, is the most famous category in which the blogger expresses his/her feelings, show cre- ativity, and communicate with other people faster than emails or any other media. In addition, there are some targeted or focused blogs which focus on a speciﬁc sub- ject such as news blogs, political blogs, and educational blogs. Our research is focused on the personal blogs cat- egory. We selected one of the famous personal blog sites, namely the ”LiveJournal” 1 . LiveJournal is a free personal blog website forming a community on the internet that contains millions of users publishing their own ongoing personal diaries.
We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and con- trolled clinical trials (CCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of pa- tient diaries for their impact on recovery after admission to ICU. CCTs refer to quasi-randomized studies where, although the trial involves testing an intervention and control, concurrent enrol- ment and follow-up of intervention and control-treated groups, the method of allocation is not considered strictly random (see Box 6.3a, Lefebvre 2011). We included studies irrespective of pub- lication status, year of publication or language. We excluded non- randomized studies such as cohort studies because of the increased potential for bias. We also excluded cross-over trials as this method- ology is not suitable for evaluating an intervention that must be given at a specific time point.
care (Grad & Sainsbury, 1963). Interestingly the degree of cognitive impairment itself has not been found to relate to caregiver distress (Coen et al., 1997). Some authors (e.g. Duijnstee, 1992; Kramer, 1997a) have suggested that the discrepancy is due to methodological difficulties within these studies, each measuring slightly different criteria. Others have highlighted the circular argument of predicting distress by caregiver ratings of behavioxir. This is based on the finding that distressed caregivers make significantly higher ratings of difficulties in comparison with independent judges than do non distressed caregivers (Coen et al., 1997; Pruchno, Burant,& Peters, 1997). This later point also demonstrates that how the caregiver views caring may be as important as the task itself. That is, it is not just how many stressors the caregiver faces that are important, but also how they understand them, in that case, whether they rate them as being a ‘difficulty’.
A Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that were associated with all-cause death at the end of the follow-up. After being adjusted for general conditions including age, sex, heart rate, BMI, SBP and DBP, and EF, risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, previous MI, stroke, and CRF, and blood biochemistry indicators including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-C, and fasting blood glucose, plasma Hcy concentration (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.23–4.16, P = 0.023) and Cys C concentration (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.35–6.16, P = 0.006) were the independent predic- tors for long-term mortality, plasma Hcy concentration (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.03–3.51, P = 0.039) and history of MI (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.16–4.45, P = 0.017) were the indepen- dent predictors for MACE.
postoperative living quality of patients. 4 The prevalence of hypocalcemia caused by hypoparathyroidism can reach up to 28.8%, including transient hypocalcemia (27.9%) and permanent hypocalcemia (0.9%). 5 Further, some patients may suffer from hypomagnesemia at the same time. The prevalence of postoperative hypomagnesemia is about 10 – 72% 6 – 8 and is related to hypocalcemia (RR =2.65, P=0.002). 9 The relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) metabolism is complex and mainly relates to the interaction of these cations with parathyroid hormone (PTH). 9,10 There is a hypothesis that both post- operative hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia are the result of the reduction of postoperative PTH (Po-PTH) since Mg levels can also be affected by PTH, which stimulates Mg reabsorption in the kidney and small intes- tine and Mg release from bone. Therefore, PTH greatly in ﬂ uences the regulation of the balance of Ca and Mg. Nevertheless, most recent studies neglected the potential impact of PTH when exploring the role of serum Mg in hypocalcemia; thus, the results of these studies did not reach an agreement. Garrahy et al 9 showed that postopera- tive hypomagnesemia is an independent risk factor of postoperative hypocalcemia. When patients have post- operative hypocalcemia with hypomagnesemia, correcting Mg levels helps to relieve symptoms related to hypocalcemia. 11 However, Xiaofei 7 showed that post- operative hypomagnesemia was not a risk factor of hypo- calcemia, and thus, that there is no need to monitor serum Mg levels regularly during perioperative period. Preoperative preventive Mg supplements could even raise the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia. 12 Therefore, more research is essential to demonstrate the relationship between Mg and postoperative hypocalcemia, and more importantly, to reach a consensus on how to prevent post- operative hypocalcemia.
Dementia is a leading cause of death worldwide, representing a significant global burden. In addition to genetic and lifestyle factors that have been widely linked to dementia, pathogens are increasingly recognized as contributing to the development of dementia. Here we discuss the role of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in maintaining brain health by facilitating the elimination of pathogens and highlight evidence suggesting that the inability to eliminate pathogens contributes to dementia. Finally, we briefly review common forms of dementia including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and prion dementia in an effort to contextualize the role of persistent pathogens across the various dementia phenotypes.
A total of 1009 studies registered as non-pharmacological were extracted from the ALOIS database, of which 248 studies met the inclusion criteria. The purpose of the litera- ture review was to determine the outcomes used in existing research to complement the outcomes identified from in- terviews and focus groups with people with dementia, their care partners, health and social care professionals, and policymakers, commissioners and research leaders. As such, we extracted outcomes from a 50% random sample of the identified studies (n=124). During the outcomes extraction process we observed that no new outcome was added and that we had reached a saturation point at 50%. Outcomes and their respective measures or tools used were extracted verbatim into a MS Excel spreadsheet. In addition, and in order to be as comprehensive as possible, key reviews and qualitative studies (n = 8) and policy documents (n = 38) were also identified based on the knowledge of the research team and the study advisory group. All outcomes from these 170 sources were extracted and added to the afore- mentioned framework, if not already included, to constitute
Volume 3, Issue 2, February – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology ISSN No 2456 –2165 IJISRT18FB06 www ijisrt com 37 AN EVALUATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN E M[.]
Many students felt an increased sense of autonomy and responsibility in the training ward ICP compared with in traditional clinical placements. NSs, who in traditional place- ments worked with a nurse preceptor on allocated tasks, felt more independent in the way they now managed the overall care of a patient and their patient load: “It was good to be actually able to do it ourselves and then go back and report to [the facilitator], rather than having her stand behind us while we do everything” (NS; ED FG2); “I felt that I could take control and they were my patients” (NS; ED FG4).
Our study was carried out through several partner organizations with varying capacities in effectively getting households to log their data and caution must therefore be exercised in interpreting values of consumption we have documented especially when comparing across states. Moreover, given that there were elements of purposiveness in the selection of households for maintaining the food diaries the data must be treated as a qualitative one, indicative of the pattern of food consumption in these sample villages. The nutrition calculator developed for this project using ICMR food values is now available as free software.
In facing such issues, and disagreement about the best approach to future evaluation and research practice, arts and dementia is aligned with the wider field of arts and health research where, despite some ambivalence about it from those who deliver arts activities, the dominant discourse remains that of the health sciences (Daykin, Gray, McCree, & Willis, 2017; Fancourt & Joss, 2014). Greater methodological rigour is advocated by those who view the primary aim of research as investigating whether and how arts activity might be integrated within evidence-based practice. Robust experimental designs, including the randomised controlled trial (RCT), are seen as desirable (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, Orrell, & INTERDEM Network, 2011). Mixed method studies combine the strengths or compensate for the limitations of both