Throughout the study, I was confronted with the meaning of my process, and learning how the ability to manipulate it will really impact what I make. The initial goal of this thesis was to have a thorough personal investigation of form and technique through furniture making. I wanted to understand why I am attracted to organic, recurved, volumes and shapes, and how that relates to my desire to use specific woodworking techniques such as shaping with hand tools, or laminating veneer strips to make volumes. However, throughout physically making the body of work, that intention evolved into a larger and much more intimate study. I certainly investigated form and technique, but more importantly it became clear that I needed to gain an
Although many researches have been conducted the study for various factors affecting on spring-back but the study of factors affecting on springback such as punch angle, die opening, grain direction of sheet metal and pre bend condition of strip for sheet metal V bending for deep draw steel have not been researched yet. The aim of the presented work is to examine the degree of importance of process parameters such as punch angle, die opening, grain direction of sheet metal and pre bend condition of strip for sheet metal V bending for deep draw steel, using Finite Element Simulation, Design of Experiments (Taguchi Method) and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The commercial software Hyper-Form is used to carry out the prediction of spring-back. The FEM simulation results are verified by the experiments. The percentage contribution of each affecting factor on springback is estimated with help of ANOVA technique. The results elucidated the degree of importance of each process parameter. The punch angle has a major influence on the spring-back along with die opening. Again it is also found that grain direction of sheet metal and pre bend condition of strip had less impact on springback for the given case.
Metal inert gas welding is also known as gas metal arc welding. MIG welding is an arc welding process where the heat for welding is generated by arc between consumable electrode and the work material. It is a semi-automatic or can be fully automatic process in some industries by which the arc length and feeding of wire into the arc can be controlled automatically or by the operator skills. It is required to position the gun at a correct angle and moving it along the seam at a controlled travel speed in the metal transfer which depends upon modular and spray transfer. Through a welding gun a continuous and consumable electrode wire and a shielding gas such as CO 2 , Argon, Helium or a combination is fed. In the present research work 80% argon and 20% carbon gas is combinedly
They found out that the permeability reduction is a function of the volumes of deposited asphaltene. They showed that the entrainment mechanism could decrease the production . Wang and Civan developed a one-dimensional, three-phase asphaltene deposition model, including surface deposition, entrainment, and plugging terms . Soulgani et al. investigated the effects of concentration, velocity, and temperature parameters on the asphaltene deposition and developed the surface deposition term based on these parameters . Jafari Behbahani et al. developed a four-component, four-phase model based on the multilayer adsorption theory to describe formation damage during natural depletion and CO 2 injection processes. They showed that the oil and core types can affect the amount of asphaltene deposition during natural depletion process. They concluded that the live oil flooding caused more asphaltene deposition than dead oil flooding in porous media [17-19]. Khalifeh et al. investigated the asphaltene deposition on the carbonate and sandstone rock surfaces during dynamic flow tests. They simulated the permeability reduction by commercial software. They showed that the surface deposition and entrainment mechanisms were more important for asphaltene deposition process in carbonate rock than sandstone rock surfaces, and pore plugging mechanism had the same effect in both types of rocks . Bagherzadeh et al. studied the permeability reduction mechanisms during simultaneous injection of CO 2 and recombined oil into sandstone and carbonate cores at reservoir conditions. They concluded that the surface deposition and pore plugging mechanisms were simultaneously effective on permeability reduction in initial injected pore volumes for both types of the rock. Thus, they presented a new model consisting of surface deposition and pore plugging mechanisms for permeability reduction predictions . Recently Fallahnejad and Kharrat modeled the asphaltene deposition process, and they considered the asphaltene
consequences of the death of that other person (P.A.F. Lamintang, et all, 2010). According to Simons, opzet is an awareness of an actor about the possibility of a result other than the actual effect he wants, and that awareness has not caused him to cancel his intention to take actions prohibited by law (P.A.F. Lamintang, et all, 2010). Crimes that result in death are formulated as crimes against lives which consist of murder and ill-treatment offenses that cause death. The crime of murder is divided into two types, namely doodslag and moord. Doodslag is the crime of taking the lives of others intentionally, while the moord is eliminating the lives of others by premeditation. In addition, there are five other types of murder committed under the Criminal Code, namely the crime of taking the life of a child newly born by his own mother, a crime in the form of intentionally eliminating the lives of others at his own request, a crime in the form of intentionally encouraging others from committing suicide , or helping others kill themselves, and finally crime in the form of intentionally aborting a woman's womb or causing a child in the womb to die (P.A.F. Lamintang, et all, 2010). For this reason, post- mortem (forensic autopsy) is carried out to uncover clearly the cause of death (Cause Of Death) of the victim so that in providing conclusions the relationship of an actor's actions as a cause with the victim as a result can be easily carried out by the investigator. The judge, thus eliminating the notion that death due to poisoning was caused by mysticism. In the mid- 19th century, the first time chemistry, microscopy, and photography were used in the investigation of criminal cases (W.G Eckert, 1980). This revolution is a picture of the responsibility of investigators in law enforcement
laboratory procedure, maintenance of inhalation an- aesthesia is normally accomplished by delivering approximately 1.2 MAC to an animal via a mask or directly into the lungs via an endotracheal tube [13, 14]. Intubation is recommended whenever possible, particularly when a procedure will be prolonged. Endotracheal access is essential to provide monitor- ing or/and support of ventilation. Regardless of the kind of ventilation, capnography has become a trust- ed aid during this process (Fig. 1E). Only the lungs can deliver enough CO 2 to generate one capnogram
The Snowball sampling technique was employed to select the panel subjects. It is a special nonprobability method used often in hidden populations which are diffi cult for researchers to access or when the desired sample characteristic is rare. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. Thus the sample group appears to grow like a rolling snowball. This process is based on the assumption that a ‘bond’ or ‘link’ exists between the initial sample and others in the same target population, allowing a series of referrals to be made within a circle of acquaintance. The fi rst head nurse included in the study at each hospital introduced other head nurses to join the study and so on with the rest which resulted in panel of 42 head nurses and nurse supervisors (Kaplan et al 1987; Faugier and Sargeant 1997).
Abstract. The flow through coiled tubes is, in practice, important for pipe systems, heat exchangers, chemical reactors, mixers of different gas components, etc., and is physically interesting because of the peculiar characteristics caused by the centrifugal force. Therefore, it is not so easy to observe flow parameters in the helical pipe experimentally. Tracer techniques are being increasingly used to determine characteristics such as volume flow rate, residence time, dispersion and mixing process in industry. In this study, the flow in the helical pipe was obtained in the laboratory and investigated by using the tracer technique. The experimental system including the helical pipe was set up in the laboratory. In the experiments methylene-blue (C 16 H 17 N 3 S) has been used as
After getting the approval by regulatory authority, ready for the preparation of novel validation batch. The batch size of Novel Validation Batches is 300 kilogram or 450000 tablets. The shape of paracetamol tablet is round and get individual average weight of tablet is 650 mg of novel validation batch (500 mg API & 150 mg Excipients). For the preparation of granules started with dispensing, so the 30 kilogram raw materials dispensed including excipients and sift by 20 mm sieve. Then mixed by planetary mixer in 20 rpm for 20 minutes after mixer the products received in lumps form the next step is milling for 8 minutes by 8 mm hole size. Then the granules insert in fluid bed dryer for drying in 5 minutes with 6 kilogram esteem air pressure at 100 0 c. After drying the lubricant mixed in granules by octagonal blender for 25 minutes and then compresses the tablet by 60 rpm speed. The compressed tablet moved for next step i.e. evaluation parameters. The hardness of randomly selected tablet measured by Dr. Schleuniger hardness tester and the pressure is 9 kilogram this is equal to 90 newton. The next parameter is friability measured by Roche type fribilator rotate upto 100 rpm. The result of friability loss is 1.01% (maximum acceptable 2%). The tablet taken time for disintegration is 8 minutes 18 second and the thickness of tablet is 14 mm measured by Digital Vernier Caliper.
Adhesives are broadly classified into two groups – structural adhesives and non-structural adhesives. Structural adhesives are having high load carrying capacity while the nonstructural adhesives are having low load carrying capacity. As the structural adhesives are most famous among the two, the same is discussed in the present section. Structural adhesives are generally classified into two groups – thermoplastic and thermosetting. The thermoplastic adhesives get soften at high temperatures. The most commonly used thermoplastic adhesives include polyamides, vinyls and non-vulcanizing neoprene rubber. The vinyls are especially very popular for structural applications. For example, polyvinyl acetate is used to form strong bonds with metals, glass and porous materials. The thermosetting adhesives usually do not get soften at high temperature. Once they harden, these adhesives cannot be remelted and a broken joint cannot be rebounded by heating. Thermosetting adhesives are mainly available in two variants – phenolic resin and the epoxy resin. Phenolic resins are the best bonding materials for waterproof plywood. Epoxy resins produce the joint with high strength, toughness, chemical inertness, and low shrinkage. These adhesives can be cured at room temperature. Other thermosetting adhesives include melamin-formaldehyde, polyurethanes, polysters, phenolic rubber, and neoprene rubbers.
Color: The colorant(s) need(s) to be evenly distributed in the mixture so that the tablets have a uniform appearance (e.g., color, hue, and intensity). The coloring agent may need to be prescreened or more uniformly dispersed in the blend prior to compression to avoid speckling or shading of the color. Equipment capacity/load: The bulk density of materials or granules will affect the capacity of the equipment. If an excipient in the formulation affects the density of the final blend to a greater extent than any other ingredient, then a well-controlled density specification for that excipient may be warranted. Test different-sized loads in the mixer/blender (e.g., 30, 50, and 70% of working volume) for optimal mixing or blending. Undercharging or overcharging a blender can result in poor drug or tablet lubricant distribution. 2. Wet Granulation: What type of wet granulation technique will be used? Will it be of low shear (e.g., Hobart), high shear (e.g., Diosna, GEI-Collette) or fluid bed (e.g., Glatt, Fluid Air)? Each technique will produce granules with different physical properties and will require monitoring of different processing parameters. Wet granulation parameters to be considered during development and validation are:
It can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using a computer controlled and automated lathe which does not. When turning, a piece of material (wood, metal, plastic even stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries.
necessary for achieving the process goal without any help from other processes. The only external actor communicating with the process is Customer. Transforming the process to the 1st Normal Form causes the creation of three new processes collaborating with the original process: Order Step Management, Production Step Management and Payment Step Management. Now it is possible to start speaking about the system of processes instead of just a single process covering everything. The manager of the Customer Order Management process is not responsible for the negotiation of the order details, handling the customer’s payment, nor organizing the production cycle; this responsibility lies with the managers of supporting processes. The manager of the Customer Order Management process can now better focus on the goal of his own process – delivery of value to the customer. Besides the generally positive effect of the specialization, such division of the work significantly contributes to the needed standardization of the enterprise functionality. It is obvious that all three newly created processes are more general than merely being regarded as special services for just this specific supported process. This allows exploiting the maximum effect of the specialization up to the ultimate solution in the form of complete outsourcing of the process. Moreover, depending on the ‘automatability’ of the process’ subject of specialization, in this way the system of processes in the organization can be harmonized as much as possible with the standard ERP functionality together with keeping up the needed flexibility of the information system.
Precipitation hardening is a kind of heat treatment technique which was used to increase the yield strength of materials that are malleable. These steels can develop very high strength by adding elements such as Cooper, Niobium, and Aluminium to PH steel,. PH stainless steel have higher corrosion resistance
Verification run. The goal of the verification run was to verify the conformity to the ISO 12647-2 standard. Firstly, the test form (IT8.7/4) was printed with curved plates to achieve both the SID and TVI aim points per ISO 12647-2. Then, the test form (IT8.7/4) was measured ; color difference was calculated between the printed test form (IT8.7/4) and FOGRA39 characterization dataset. It turned out that the press was in good conformity to the ISO 12647-2, and as a result, the FOGRA39 was considered as a reasonable output space to process the two GCR test forms in the following experiment.
Heat and moisture transforms the wood to a semi-plastic state, and when the wood has cooled and dried, it retains its bent shape. I researched various ways to apply heat and moisture. One tool that I found particularly useful was the bending iron. A bending iron is, simply, an electrically heated pipe. It is commonly used for making musical instruments such as violins or guitars. The bending iron has a huge advantage over other methods. It creates curves in the wood almost immediately. I quickly grasped my ability to control the curvature of the wood using this device. A mastery of the requisite skill is significant in the organic making process. To make my form-giving process truly organic, this newly introduced device should be almost an extension of my hand. It may seem that using a bending pipe is similar to using lamination technique in terms of control over the wood. However, this process is explicitly distinct from lamination mainly because it doesn’t require a predetermined plan. It is a more open-ended and free-form experience. With the bending iron, my hand and the material are closely integrated. Constant feedback is generated when my hand meets the wood.
alloying element - acts as an de-oxidant and also forms easily-melting eutectics. This means that sintering occurs in the presence of a liquid phase, and simultaneously, P also strengthens the basic Cu- Ni alloy in such a way that a relatively high hardness of the sintered material is produced. The basis of the DS 20 sintered material is Fe-Ni-Cu, P and Sn - as alloying elements - form easily-melting phases, P is a substitute for C and also gives the structure an ap- propriate hardness. The sintering of DMLS tools starts from a basic plate (material C45 with 0.45 mass % C, the microstructure is lamellar perlite and ferrite), on which the laser melts a first layer of powder mate- rial. Our investigations showed that the first layer and the basic plate are joined without defects (Fig. 4).
cause some dissatisfaction. At Hayslope, there were no formal departmen tal meetings and members worked largely in isolation. Only two of the four geographers taught GYSL on a regular basis, while a third, who had 5B, disliked the Project and had never attended any familiarization courses. The two GYSL teachers operated independently, although they did let one another know if they found something particularly successful. This lack of communication was partly, according to Mr. Shackleton, the choice of the teachers themselves. At Lowick, however, it was not. The Department consisted of only two full-time geographers, and they rarely saw one another during the day. To compensate for this they arranged evening meetings in their own houses, to plan the work of new courses, preparation, assessment and so on - a clear reflection of the importance which both teachers ascribed to departmental dialogue. The main problem at Lowick was the split-site nature of the school with the two teachers being located in separate buildings. Mr. Cook was trying to end the arrangement and bring the History and Geography Departments together to form a new Humanities area so that communication could be improved.
Climate change and coral reefs form one of the major foci of this encyclopedia. Although entries are presented in alphabetical order, they have been organized under major compilation headings which should become partic- ularly obvious when the reader uses the cross-references with each entry. Theories and hypotheses, from Darwin to climate change, also provide a substantial number of entries, together with some of the major methodologies used in the hypothesis testing. Short biographies are given of some of the major contributors to the study of coral reefs in the earth science field, including organizations. Classifi- cations of various features are given, which again show that there may be more than one critical approach to features or processes. Although the encyclopedia does not contain a formal glossary, there are many short entries explaining specific features or processes. As coral reefs vary around the world, a significant number of entries have been devoted to geographical areas. Finally, the past contribution to mod- ern reefs is not forgotten with contributions on specific reef complexes of the geological past, whilst the future, however fragile, is assessed through a number of contributions on conservation.
It is essential that the validation program is documented and that the documentation is properly maintained. Approval and release of the process for use in routine manufacturing should be based upon a review of all validation documentation, including data from the equipment qualification, and product/package performance testing to ensure compatibility with the process. For routine production, it is important to adequately record process details (e.g. time, speed, temperature & equipment used) and to record any changes which have occurred. A maintenance log can be useful in performing failure investigations concerning a specific manufacturing lot .