En la ejecución de proyectos de construcción, se requiere el uso de variadas cantidades de materiales como, el concreto, mortero, ladrillo, cerámicas, acero, madera, dry wall entre otros; gran parte de RCD en la actualidad se disponen en Sitios autorizados por la autoridad ambiental, rellenos sanitarios o celdas de seguridad; las alternativas para reincorporar los RCD a la industria es incierta porque a nivel técnico existe desconfianza en la calidad de productos a partir de la reutilización, las políticas o normatividad no involucran a los fabricantes de productos de construcción y no contemplan la gestión de un producto en el marco del Ciclo de Vida (CV) o la Economía Circular (EC).
Many of the inputs used to calculate the energy demand and environmental emissions associated with commercial food wastemanagement are uncertain and/or vary from facility to facility. Due to the uncertainty and variability, a Monte-Carlo analysis was performed on the recycling alternatives. Triangular distributions based on expert estimation were provided for each input and the model was run 10,000 times using different randomly chosen values for the inputs. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) were determined for each of the outputs to show the reasonable ranges of values for each output. The CDFs were developed using the Hazen formula (Hazen 1930). This is useful to determine where additional data would be most useful. A sensitivity analysis was also performed that determined the Spearman rank correlation between each input and output to determine where more data would be most beneficial.
At urban level, the generation Municipal Solid Waste and Construction and DemolitionWaste is mostly related to the life-cycle of buildings. An evaluation method based on LifeCycle Assessment methodology is presented in this paper to make an analysis of the environmental performance of different life-cycle building wastemanagement strategies in tertiary buildings. As a case study, several wastemanagement strategies considering a tertiary building located in the city of Zaragoza in Spain, are studied. The aim of the case study is to compare the environmental impacts, in terms of Global Warming Potential, of the scenarios proposed focusing on the waste minimisation and avoidance of landfilling of at least 10% for the Municipal Solid Waste generation during a building´s use stage, and Construction and DemolitionWaste generated during its construction and end-of-life. In case of Municipal Solid Waste, the results show that when a recovery scenario includes energy recovery from the residual fraction of the mechanical-biological treatment plant in the form of Refuse Derived Fuel, greater benefits in terms of the Global Warming Potential are obtained than with current scenarios of landfill deposition of the residual fraction. On the other hand, in case of Construction and DemolitionWaste, a similar situation can be observed in case of an increase of the recovery rates of metals.
A literature review was made to evaluate the different C&DWM methods practiced. The following familiar keywords have been selected for this research: wastefromconstruction and demolition, circulareconomy, lifecycle assessment, and 3R principle. We have sparse studies published between the year 2011 to 2017. Abstracts, material and adopted methods in C&DWM in the screening phase were investigated. Building and demolitionwaste is generated during the renovation of structures in the building industry. The amount and composition of these waste products may differ across the region depending on the country's population growth, legislation, regional planning, and building industry. It is understood that the circulareconomy is the best-adapted model that by intention and design helps retrieve or regenerate the waste products. Circulareconomy replaces the notion of end-of-life with restoration, eliminates toxic chemicals that influence reuse, use renewable energy in moving bases, and seeks to eliminate waste through superior designs and business models (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2016). The circulareconomy is implemented in the building industry to eliminate and maintain C&D waste through recirculation in closed loops (Smol et al., 2015). The adoption of a circulareconomy is the step towards optimum management of C&D waste. Assessment of the lifecycle is a technique of visualizing C&D wastefrom the starting zone to the ending zone and categorizing waste based on its strategic stage to analyze waste (Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh 2018). The 3R principle is the fundamental basis of a circulareconomy. It includes reducing, reusing and recycling. This paper’s main objective is to define the environmental and financial effects of the C&DWM technique application of 3R principles.The Categorization of construction and demolition wastes is shown in table 2.1
Construction activity in the Porto urban area has some particularities compared with all the country. In recent years the majority of new buildings that have been built are residential (91,2%) and multifamily buildings are predominant . The suburban city districts around Porto are the most dynamic in construction of new buildings. In what concerns restoration of buildings the cities with old centres like Porto and Vila do Conde are the ones where this effort has been more relevant in the last years. Other construction activities with expression are mainly roads and railways including construction of the underground.
The existing literature strongly advocates that capacity building should take place at human resource and organisational levels. Human resource development (individual and team) addresses issues pertaining to skills and access to information, knowledge and training, providing for effective performance of national entities. Organisational development focuses on issues pertaining to structures, processes and procedures within organisations and maintenance of relationships with other organisations and sectors. Development of these two capacity levels eventually facilitates establishment of statutorily enforceable rules and regulations for post disaster C&D wastemanagement (institutional and legal development). Although the two levels target different interventions they should not be considered in isolation as capacity development of one level may cause a synergistic or detrimental effect on the other (Low et al., 2001; LaFond et al., 2002; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006). As illustrated in Figure 3, seven areas of activities and processes contribute towards capacity building in national entities in disaster wastemanagement, as graphically presented by arrows in the diagram. The arrows cut across structural levels indicating that activities and interventions may occur within and across structural levels. Arrow heads point at both directions suggesting that areas of each structural level can impact on another. Thus, the conceptual framework provides a structure by which capacities related to post disaster C&D wastemanagement can be enhanced. It should, however, be noted that external factors such as cultural, social, economical, political, legal and environmental factors can also affect the proposed framework.
ABSTRACT: Construction and demolitionwaste, C&D, is one of the largely produced wastes in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA. Management of C&D waste is essential in formation, growth and renovation of urban areas. Current municipality legislation and directive sets out to implement C&D waste prevention and recycling measures. Main objective of this study is to determine indicators to estimate amount of C&D waste generated on site and to find best way of recycling waste into a useful product. Part of study in metropolitan area of Dammam, Khobar and Dhahran focuses on generation and management of C&D waste based on construction activity and waste load movements. Data needed to develop indicators is collected through survey studies by suitably designed questionnaires, site investigations and field visits for a reasonable sample of home owners, construction firms and municipality. Laboratory activities were conducted to create a recycled concrete and compare its mechanical properties to a normal mix. Questionnaires results show that largest amount of municipality C&D waste was approximately 252806.8 tons/year, and from private sector amount was more than 5000 tons/month. Results of laboratory experiments showed that cubic samples had highest compressive stress value of 51.95MPa.
Skills and confidence building. As illustrated in Figure 4, it is important to provide more opportunities for career development of responsible persons with local and international exposure to enhance capacities of officials at strategic level. Parallel to this, providing opportunities for self-training through field activities, specifically in disaster wastemanagement which eventually provide real exposure than workshops and seminars is also important. It is proposed to provide incentives to attract and retain staff such as life insurance/pension schemes and sufficient grants for career development, especially for government employees due to high risk in disaster wastemanagement. Specifically, significant difference need to be visible in provided incentives than those provided to general employees. To avoid repetition or duplication of programmes and unethical practices, establish formal procedures to prepare, conduct, monitor and evaluate local and foreign programmes under responsible authorities. Example, implement a national-level project to build technical support, assigning Disaster Management Centre (DMC) with responsibility for training and building awareness aligned with master plans at strategic level. These would eventually align capacity development with economic development of the country. Additionally, introduce monitoring and evaluation methods such as beneficiary evaluations, statistical and non-statistical measures and progress reports. Sharing and disseminating knowledge among respective parties can enhance personal interests on interactive working such as collaborative projects. Further, enhancement of soft skills is proposed as an approach to eliminate traditional bureaucratic red tape. Gupta and Sharma (2006) pointed out that good governance and social capital are important elements to ensure equitable recovery processes, as well as to ensure appropriate capacity building for marginalised and highly vulnerable communities. Thus, promote training and development programmes focusing on native and sustainable approaches giving consideration to new aspects such as good governance, livelihood development and resilience emphasising on environmental protection and conservation. Development of an expert knowledge database consisting of experience of experts
Fifty percent of all construction debris generated on this project must be diverted from landfill disposal, via recycling of materials or deliver all construction and demolition debris generated to the Materials Recovery Facility at 3033 Fiddyment Rd in Roseville, CA. for processing. You are therefore required to submit a final report documenting diversion efforts. Reports are due prior to your final inspection. All waste hauling and disposal or recycling activity must be entered on the Waste Generation, Disposal & Diversion Report.
Keywords: case study, circulareconomy, citizen science, policy, production and consumption, wastemanagement
The 2019 Circularity Gap Report  notes that, of the 92.8 billion tonnes of biomass, fossil fuels, metals, and minerals that enter the global economy annually, only nine percent are re-used. Circulareconomy is a scenario for societies to transition away from unsustainable linear economies that ultimately deplete finite resources ; it is transition long-term process (rather than a one-off, finite document), where continuity in the implementation of agreed policy is crucial. There are three key approaches to promoting resource efficiency: 1) extended producer responsibility systems; 2) green public procurement, and 3) business partnerships along the value chain.
and develops implementation of principles of circulareconomy by means of political measures and measures targeting achievement of considerable effect throughout the whole cycle of resource utilization, from production and consumption to treatment of wastes and wastemanagement. Germany was one of the first countries to introduce dual waste collection system and legislations to regulate closed cycles of materials and wastemanagement. The efforts in Denmark were concentrated on designing products, changing business models and design strategies. In particular, that applies to engineered consumer products (electronics, cars) and high-quality production. The university research centers and projects funded by the EU were focused on CE principles, encouraging its development. The European Commission promoted the release of the European documentation package, which supported implementation of cutting-edge practice of CE, in 2015 . The concept of circulareconomy is of special relevance to areas facing seemingly controversial problem of combining economic development with protection of favorable environment.
Disasters cause substantial damage around the world every year . There has been an increase in natural disasters over the past few years and their impact in terms of human, structural and economic losses has also increased considerably. According to statistics issued by the Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) in 2006, natural disasters killed 91,963 people and destroyed US $ 159 billions worth of property and infrastructure in 2005. Apart from the tragic cost in lives it destroyed and damaged buildings and other infrastructure including building contents, even where buildings were not physically damaged it damaged vegetation at or near coastlines. According to the European Commission - a key player in post disaster humanitarian assistance processes – the key issues that need to be addressed after emergency relief are: the creation of a foundation for sustainable and long term reconstruction and the commencement of governance structures and projects in critical areas of recovery, recreating communities and livelihoods, rehabilitation of the environment including wastemanagement, rebuilding infrastructure and transport processes, and strengthening local governance .
However, United Nations Development Programme Report (2005) highlights poor performance of post-tsunami rehabilitation operations affected by a lack of responsive capacities with local government institutions to address the needs of an event of such magnitude. This was mainly caused by the fact that the strategic and operational level capacities of institutions responsible for public and commercial facilities were not expected to cater for a devastation of this magnitude. As such it has been identified that capacities of relevant institutions in Sri Lanka need to be improved to launch successful post disaster recovery programmes and to face any future challenges similar to the Asian Tsunami (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2005; Asian Disaster Reduction Centre, 2005). In particular, the Joint Report of Government of Sri Lanka and Development Partners (2005)  revealed that the construction industry in Sri Lanka did not possess the adequate number of contractors, equipment, skilled workforce, modern management practices or access to easy finance necessary to maintain the required speed of post tsunami reconstruction work. This is a critical issue that needs to be addressed for the purposes of effective post disaster rehabilitation. There are no readymade solutions and every programme must be appropriately designed for a given post disaster scenario. This concept is very effective for developing countries, since most of them lack resources and suffer from inefficient use of available resources.
As illustrated in Table 34 , the lack of formal procedures for the preparation, conducting, monitoring and evaluation of training and awareness programmes is a major capacity gap as evidenced by the lesser number of programmes conducted on soft skills’ development as against the many programmes conducted for technical skills’ development at local authority level. This was evident by external factors having an influence,such aslowparticipation with high female representation within capacity building programmes. Repetition and duplication of programmes is one reason forhigh female participation as males are responsible for supporting theirfamilies. Furthermore, among participants, there is a lack of capacity as concerns language barriers especially in the Northern and Eastern provinces as most experts are not fluent in the Tamil language. Fewer opportunities for personal development such as training, workshops and scholarships and inadequate strategies to retain valuable human resources are identified as the other main capacity gap prevalent in skills and confidence building. As mentioned previously, because of certain factors such as the facts that most jobs in this area are contract based and pension schemes and life insurance policies are generally unavailable, there can be much job dissatisfaction in this sector. A lack of awareness among officers at national level, traditional bureaucratic red tape, inappropriate assignment of ministerial functions, inadequate resources and a lack of in-house trainers are otherinternal influencing factorsin the government sector.Most skill building programmes are conducted via the government sector.
takes place. This is when abatement begins, either by the demolition company themselves,
or by another contracted company. However, in many cases some of the hazardous materials
are only partially removed, particularly if the survey is not thorough enough and is missing
materials, which can then create unsafe work environments and surrounding areas for
Start and stop PVC and HFFR (halogen free flame retardant) scrap at cable extruders can be recycled directly back into extruders via hot milling of the scrap. This might need investment in mills which is not considered in this calculation. The extra work involved could often be handled by the extruder operator, thus, normally hot milling at extruders does not entail any extra work costs. It is difficult to clean the mills. Therefore, hot milling is only relevant at extruders that run the same material all the time. For increased meaning and understanding, hot milling at extruders should be compared to an alternative. A currently used alternative is to sell the hardened scrap lumps from the extruder to an external waste handler who granulates them and pass them on for mechani- cal recycling in a different product. It is a good idea to make a rough drawing of the processes involved in both recycling routes, see below. Avoided processes and materials are coulored yellow in Figure 6. Note that up- stream processes like transport and compounding of virgin PVC is avoided by hot milling the scrap at extruders. A minus sign in Table 1 means saved or avoided € or CO 2 eq. It is recommended to do the calculations both with
do not differ statistically in probability level of 95% by Tukey test.
Slenderness ratio (SR) from control samples (Pinus spp) was statistically higher than the other material, meanwhile samples produced with recycled MDP and plywood showed lower average values. Both MDP and plywood samples had adhesive in their original composition. The presence of this residue adhesive on the particle surface could be responsible for the production of higher thickness particles that resulted in lower SR values. The residue adhesive also influenced the flatness ratio (FR) result, but in a different way. FR values from recycled timber were higher than the values found for particles produced with other C&D waste material or the control sample. Recycled timber, without adhesive, presented with lower width values than the samples originated from already processed material.
this paper is the first focused upon documenting and overcoming the barriers to implementation of smart wastemanagement systems. Smart enabling technologies have great potential for improving the performance of wastemanagement activities, but there are many barriers that hinder their implementation. This research is timely because it provides knowledge on the typical barriers to adopting smart wastemanagement in China, the world’s largest developing country, and one that faces huge challenges in wastemanagement. The resulting practical implications are beneficial for policy-making and provide managerial decision-support. Third, this research employed a mixed-methods approach to first shortlist barriers (based on interviews with experienced practitioners) and then to quantify their causal-effect relationships through a scientific prioritization technique called fuzzy DEMATEL. This methodology provided more credible insights than simple qualitative or quantitative methods. Last but not least, this research has important theoretical implications. It affirms the relevance of the stakeholder theory and RBV for sustainability research. It highlights an important research direction that wastemanagement for CE must address, together with product and supply chain design, to achieve the circularity of materials, to use energy more efficiently, and to accelerate the transition to equitable, sustainable, livable, post-fossil carbon CE societies within the context of urgent climate change-related dangers.
In recent years, the reuse and recycling of C&D wastes for obtain from the main components of residential and commercial structures appear to be making continuous progress (Wang, 2013; Hunt and Shields, 2014; Ahankoob, 2015). The benefits of reuse and recycling of waste streams from building construction and demolition include diversion of waste materials from landfill sites and reduced depletion of natural resources. Procedural and economic factors and the relevant standards that underwrite to the success of reuse and recycling are identified. Economic barriers include the need for rapid demolition and clearing of the site, the cost of separating the material to be recycled from contaminating materials and the relative economic advantage of disposal versus recycling. The economic feasibility of a recycling program often depends on whether the added cost (time, effort and resources/equipment) associated with the recycling activities is less than the avoided costs (tipping fees, labour, haulage, maintenance, taxes, and local permanent fees) (Duran et al., 2006; Begum and Siwar, 2006; Meyer, 2007; Srour et al., 2012; Calvo et al., 2014).
Data collection is the primary step for doing analysis or quantifying a term. Data collection is the procedure of collecting and measuring statistics on centered variables in a longtime systematic fashion, which then allows one to reply applicable questions and evaluate consequences. The information collection thing of studies is not unusual to all fields of look at which includes bodily and socialsciences, humanities and enterprise. It helps scientists and analysts to gather the mainpoints as amassed records. While strategies vary with the aid of area, the emphasis on making sure correct and sincere series remains the identical. The purpose for all records collection is to seize first-rate evidence that then translates to rich information evaluation and permits the constructing of a convincing and credible answer to questions that have been posed. Regardless of the field of study or preference for defining data (quantitative or qualitative), accurate data collection is essential to maintaining the integrity of research. Both the selection of appropriate data collection instruments (existing, modified, or newly developed) and clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce the likelihood of errors occurring. The data collection was done by two methods. The first method was data collection through manual survey-. The second method was data collection through online survey. The data collected encountered 72 respondents from which 32responses were collected manually and 40 were collected through online survey. The data was collected in appropriate method in order to match its reliability. The data was collected in the form of likert scales. The data was collected with respect to frequency and severity on contribution rates of sources of constructionwaste.