Top PDF Analysis of Different Rare Metals, and Rare Earth Metals in Harvested Rain Water in Gaza Strip/Palestine by ICP/MS Data and Health Aspects

Analysis of Different Rare Metals, and Rare Earth Metals in Harvested Rain Water in Gaza Strip/Palestine by ICP/MS Data and Health Aspects

Analysis of Different Rare Metals, and Rare Earth Metals in Harvested Rain Water in Gaza Strip/Palestine by ICP/MS Data and Health Aspects

The Agilent Technologies 7500 Series ICP-MS (Agilent 7500) can measure trace ele- ments as low as one part per trillion (ppt) and quickly scan more than 70 elements to determine the composition of an unknown sample with a Mass Hunter Workstation software automates the analysis and accurately interprets the resulting data. The ICP/MS instrument consists of an on-board peristaltic pump that controls the flow of sample solution into and waste (drain) out of the instrument, a nebulizer (Micro Mist nebulizer) that uses a stream of argon to disperse the sample, an ICP Argon plasma torch using Argon as plasma gas, auxillary gas and nebulizer (carrier) gas, two pumps for evacuation, Quadrupole mass analyzer with unit resolution, an octapole reaction system (ORS), and electron multiplier detector.
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Analysis of Different Rare Metals, Rare Earth Elements, and other Common Metals in Groundwater of South West Bank/Palestine by ICP/MS Data and Health Aspects

Analysis of Different Rare Metals, Rare Earth Elements, and other Common Metals in Groundwater of South West Bank/Palestine by ICP/MS Data and Health Aspects

Sodium exists in ground water naturally as a result of rock-water interactions. Sodium ion is ubiquitous in wa- ter, owing to the high solubility of its salts and the abun- dance of Na-containing mineral deposits [27]. According to WHO 2004 [28], the desirable limit of sodium is 20 ppm, while the limit is 200 ppm according to EU Direc- tive regulations [29]. Our results showed that the con- centration of sodium ranges from 0.12 - 0.18 (average is 0.14 ppm), 0.16 - 0.58 (average is 0.36 ppm), 24.4 - 57.3 (average is 21.0 ppm) for the water samples analyzed in November 2012, March 2013, and April 2013, respec- tively. These results show that all water samples col- lected in April 2013 exceeded the desirable limit of Na according to WHO 2004 (20 ppm) while this concentra- tion is still within the limit of EU directive (200 ppm). Anyway, the concentration of sodium in ground water collected in April 2013 is relatively large which indicates that groundwater of the study area needs regular moni- toring. Although sodium is essential to human body, ex- cessive intake or very high doses of Na may cause acute effects such as nausea, vomiting, inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract, thirst, muscular twitching, and convulsions. For long-term lower level exposures, the health effect of primary concern is hypertension, cen- tral nervous system disturbances such as convulsions, confusion and pulmonary edema are possible [27]. Mag- nesium is present also naturally in ground water. There is no limit for Mg according to WHO or EU. However, regulative agencies in some countries set a limit for Mg. For example, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has set a limit of 30 ppm for Mg in drinking water [30]. As in the case of Na, the concentration of Mg in the ground water samples collected in April 2013 is high (21.7 - 32.2 ppm) and exceeded the limit of BIS for Mg in drinking water (30 ppm) for some groundwater samples (more than 60% of the analyzed water samples). Increased intake of Mg salts may cause a change in bowel habits (diarrhea), but seldom causes hypermagnesemia in persons with nor- mal kidney function. Excess Mg concentration may lead to changes in mental status, nausea, diarrhea, loss of ap- petite, muscle weakness, difficulty in breathing, extremely low blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat [31].
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Determination of Different Trace Heavy Metals in Ground Water of South West Bank/Palestine by ICP/MS

Determination of Different Trace Heavy Metals in Ground Water of South West Bank/Palestine by ICP/MS

(ground, drinking, surface. etc.) is an important issue for the human health and for environment. In Palestine, the principal water resources available include groundwater, springs, and harvested rainwater [20]. However, there are few studies in Palestine that dealt with pollution of groundwater with different pollutants e.g. pesticides, nitrates, chlorides, heavy metals. A study by Ghanem and Samhan (2012) [21] has focused on the assessment of pollution of groundwater in Tulkarem area with nitrate and chloride, and results indicated that there are many samples with nitrate concentrations exceeding the WHO standards of 45 mg/L for drinking water. Ghanem et al. (2011) [22] has also investigated the groundwater pollu- tion due to pesticides and heavy metals in north West Bank, and results showed that Pb, Cd, and Cr are de- tected in the groundwater of north West Bank, with con- centration of Pb higher that the WHO limit. El-Nahhal (2006) [23] has studied the contamination of groundwa- ter with heavy metals in Gaza Strip where results showed that concentration of Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cr are above the EPA limits in some wells. However and according to our best knowledge there are no studies conducted on the analysis of heavy metals in south of West Bank. The ob- jectives of the current study are therefore to study the occurrence of different trace metals, and to determine the concentration of different heavy metals (Tl, Pb, Bi, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, and Cd) and Al in ground water samples collected in south of West Bank.
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The Current Study of Rare Earth Magnetism
and Evaluation of Magnetic Structure of
Holonium

The Current Study of Rare Earth Magnetism and Evaluation of Magnetic Structure of Holonium

The Crystal field splitting is negligible against the separation of the spin-multiplet states. For the 4f levels there is no overlap with the neighborhood, and the states of the free atom remain largely intact. Exchange interaction between the localized spins of 4f shells is an indirect one, being mediated by the 6s and, if available, the 5d conduction electrons. To point out the prominent part of rare earths among the magnetic metals, a new approach with electronic structure of the rare earth 3+ ion cores and indirect exchange between their localized magnetic moments in the metal is described. Finally, the magnetic structure of holmium is discussed.
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Baseline Concentration of Heavy Metals in Fish Collected from Gaza Fishing Harbor in the Mediterranean Sea along Gaza Coast, Palestine

Baseline Concentration of Heavy Metals in Fish Collected from Gaza Fishing Harbor in the Mediterranean Sea along Gaza Coast, Palestine

The found cadmium concentrations were ranged from 0.02 to 0.51µg/g with a mean concentration of 0.27µg/g. This finding is in agreement with previous observations recorded by Suresh et al., (2007) for commercially valuable marine eatable fishes from Parangipettai coast, south east coast of India (0.18- 0.54 µg/g dry wt.). Canli and Atli (2003) documented higher concentrations of Cd as compared with this study where Cd mean concentrations were ranged between 0.37 and 0.79 µg/g in the fish species of Mediterranean Sea. Bashir et al., (2013) reported lower concentrations of Cd as compared to our study with mean concentration of 0.058 µg/g and 0.027 µg/g for fish muscles collected from Kapar and Mersing coastal waters in Malaysia. Additionally, the Cd concentrations in the muscles of different marine fishes harvested from Masan Bay, Korea (0.02 μg/g to 0.05 μg/g, dry weight) (Kwon and Lee 2001) were lower than those reported in our study. Kalay et al., (1999) reported higher concentrations of Cd as compared to this study with mean concentrations ranged from 1.28-1.60 µg/g for marine fish samples collected from Mediterranean Sea in 1996. The proposed limits of Cd set by FAO/WHO (1989), EU in 2001 and TFC for eatable fish is about 0.5 µg/g, 0.1 µg/g and 0.1 µg/g dry wt., respectively ( Yilmaz, 2009) which is lower than 70% of the values observed during this study. Thus, cadmium appear to present a contaminant hazard to fish within this percentage of concentrations.
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Pentadentate N2O3 Schiff Base Complexes of Rare Earth Metals

Pentadentate N2O3 Schiff Base Complexes of Rare Earth Metals

3 – 1 Preparation of ligand: 4 – tert-But-2,6- diformylphenolbis(4-aminoantipyrine)(H1L): The ligand was prepared according to our previous paper17 ; (0.4g, 2 mmol) of 2,6 – diformyl – 4 – ter-butylphenol dissolved in ethanol (10 ml) was added slowly with stirring to( 0.80g, 4 mmol) of 4 – amino antipyrine dissolved in ethanol (20 ml). The resulting mixture was stirred under reflux on water bath for 3 hrs and the yellow precipitate was filtered, dried and then recrys tallized from ethanol to afford bright yellow crystals with 90% yield (scheme 1). Elemental analysis data; Found (calculated); %C,70.73 (70.51); %H6.25 (6.16) %N 14.56 (14.39).
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Geology & Geochemistry of the Kingman Feldspar, Rare Metals and Wagon Bow Pegmatites

Geology & Geochemistry of the Kingman Feldspar, Rare Metals and Wagon Bow Pegmatites

In the Mojave Pegmatite district, located in northwestern AZ, numerous pegmatites intrude syn- to post-collisional Paleoproterozoic granitic rocks. The slightly older Cerbat plutons are associated with the suturing of the Mojave and Yavapai terranes whereas Aquarius granites were emplaced during the Yavapai Orogeny as the sutured terranes docked with North America. A detailed study of 5 pegmatites shows that they are zoned with composite cores and contain REE minerals characteristic of NYF pegmatites. However, they exhibit characteristics atypical for NYF pegmatites including F depletion, white microcline, an absence of columbite and, in the Rare Metals pegmatite, have muscovite and beryl. With the exception of the Kingman
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Evolution of construction arbitration

Evolution of construction arbitration

In   regard   to   the   current   usage   of   arbitraNon,   the   researchers   have   not   managed   to   find complete  or  even  semi-­‐complete  data  on  the  extent  of  construcNon  arbitraNon  in  PalesNne. However,   the   researchers   received   staNsNcs   of   arbitraNon   cases   referred   to   two   arbitral insNtuNons  that  a]ract  the  vast  majority  of  construcNon  arbitraNon.  The  first  (based  in  Gaza) processes  4  arbitraNon  cases  on  average  per  annum  while  the  second  (based  in  the  West Bank)  processes  24  arbitraNon  cases  on  average  per  annum.  This  evidence  corroborates  the available  empirical  evidence  suggesNng  that  construcNon  arbitraNon  is  more  common  in  the West  Bank  than  in  Gaza  (Besaiso  et  al.,  2016).  The  difference  in  the  pa]ern  of  construcNon dispute  resoluNon  between  Gaza  and  the  West  Bank  can  be  a]ributed  to  variaNons  in  ‘legal culture’   and   the   percepNon   of   arbitraNon,   the   size   of   construcNon   business,   number   of projects   etc.   The   number   of   internaNonal   construcNon   arbitraNon   cases   that   were conducted  aboard,  as  stated  by  most  respondents,  are  a  handful  of  cases.        Keeping  in  mind the  small  size  of  the  construcNon  industry  in  PalesNne  ~  $  2.3  billion  (Office  of  the  Quartet RepresentaNve,  2014),  the  number  of  arbitraNon  cases  appears  to  be  proporNonally  high. Although   the   main   users   of   arbitraNon   are   governmental   employers,   there   is   anecdotal evidence  that  two  internaNonal  governmental  organisaNons  or  internaNonal  agencies  have recently   parNcipated   in   internaNonal   arbitraNon   conducted   in   PalesNne.   This   may   be   a promising   start   to   bring   a   change   in   the   aztude   and   dispute   resoluNon   policy   of internaNonal   organisaNons.   Such   a   change   is   important   because   the   sNpulaNon   of internaNonal  employers  that  internaNonal  arbitraNon  is  to  be  seated  abroad  (e.g.  in  Paris  or Geneva)  hinders  many  contractors  from  seeking  their  rights  as  the  majority  of  their  claims are  of  small  values.  Contractors  end  up  with  negoNaNon  or  waiving  their  claims.  All  in  all, internaNonal  employers  should  rethink  their  policy  towards  Nered-­‐dispute  resoluNon  clauses in  their  standard  forms  of  contract  because  the  current  system  prevents  contractors  from economic  access  to  jusNce.
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Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement

Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement

Iron and Nd (as a proxy for the rest of the REE) concentrations in the tidal creek show a positive correlation. However, the high variability in the Fe contents of SF makes it difficult to use to an average composition to model Fe/Nd variability for both ebb tides (figure 4.3). The high Fe-Nd tidal creek concentrations for the first ebb tide require a SF end-member with higher Fe and REE concentrations than what was measured in the fluids. It is quite possible that SF compositions variability was not sampled in its entirety, at least for Fe and REE. Alternatively, part of the Fe-REE variability in the tidal creek and perhaps SF, may be due to fast oxidation and subsequent removal of iron in the fluids which will effectively move the tidal creek compositions off the mixing line, in which case conservative binary mixing between coastal water and SF cannot describe the Fe-Nd distribution in the creek.
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Automated ultrasound studies of magnetoelastic effects in rare earth metals and alloys

Automated ultrasound studies of magnetoelastic effects in rare earth metals and alloys

The aim is to produce an automated ultrasound measurement system which can perform velocity and attenuation measurements as a function of temperature, frequency and applied magnetic fiel[r]

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Direct Determination of Rare Earth Elements by ICP-MS after Fluoride Fusion –Application to Bauxite

Direct Determination of Rare Earth Elements by ICP-MS after Fluoride Fusion –Application to Bauxite

The solutions of five samples were prepared using the fluoride fusion method. REE and Y were determined directly after appropriate dilution by ICP-MS. For validation, the samples were also analysed by an alternate sodium peroxide fusion method employing ICP- OES. The results obtained for REE and Y contents of five bauxite samples are given in Table-4. The results obtained by present ICP-MS method compared well with those obtained by the alternate ICP-OES method, there-by proving the accuracy of the present method. The high aluminum-iron matrix does not pose problems in ICP-MS unlike in ICP-OES determinations wherein severe spectral interferences are encountered. Hence, for ICP-OES determinations, additional steps to separate and pre-concentrate REE have to be employed making ICP-OES determinations more laborious. Inspite of employing additional pre-concentration/separation steps (ammonia hydroxide group precipitation followed by fluoride separation), some REEs like Tb, Tm and Lu could still not be quantified by the ICP-OES method (Table-4). On the contrary, it is feasible to achieve faster direct determination of all REEs by ICP-MS. Further, owing to the superior sensitivity much lower concentrations of REEs can be determined in bauxites by ICP-MS (Table-5).
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Effect of Rare-Earth Incorporation in Ferromagnetic Metals for Magnetic Domain Wall Devices.

Effect of Rare-Earth Incorporation in Ferromagnetic Metals for Magnetic Domain Wall Devices.

Three series of compositions of CoGd, NiGd and PyGd were prepared by the co- sputtering technique briefly described in Chapter 3. Co-sputtering was accomplished onto Si substrates using an RF supply to deliver power to each magnetron sputter gun. Because the sputter rates of these magnetron guns have been shown to be linear with applied power, different alloy compositions are achieved by simply adjusting the relative power applied to each target. The deposition rates were then converted to atomic percentages for each composition. The product of the deposition rate and the elemental density was divided by the standard atomic weight for Gd and the doped material. The ratio of the two materials was analyzed to yield a compositions based on atomic percentages. The Gd concentrations for each of the various alloys created are shown in Table 4.1 along with the corresponding power applied to the Gd target. The power applied to the target for the doped material was held constant at 100 Watts. The NiGd and CoGd series consist of six different compositions with Gd concentration ranging from 0-25%. There are also six different compositions of PyGd alloys with the Gd concentration ranging from 0-12.5%.
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Rare Earth Element Determination in Olivine by Laser Ablation Quadrupole ICP MS: An Analytical Strategy and Applications

Rare Earth Element Determination in Olivine by Laser Ablation Quadrupole ICP MS: An Analytical Strategy and Applications

reported. Nearly all REE intensities were above the background equivalent concentration (BEC) calculated from multiple measurements of the blank internal standard mixture. However, as expected, the sample signal intensi- ties for the REEs were low and progressively approached the levels of the procedural blank from the HREEs to LREEs. Accordingly, data for La to Nd were indeterminable above the blank. For the remaining REEs, only the blank-corrected solution concentrations that exceeded the value of the procedural blanks by a factor of 2 were considered reliable. This is demonstrated in online supporting infor- mation Table S1 and Figure S1, where the latter shows the CI-chondrite-normalised REE patterns of the BEC, procedu- ral blanks and screened sample concentrations as described above. These REE data are used for comparison with those obtained by the LA-ICP-MS method. Rubidium, determined as a proxy for melt addition or metasomatism, was only detectable in one sample. The laboratory is continuing to refine the technique for single-crystal shard analysis by S-Q-ICP-MS.
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Chemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in Gaza Strip, Palestine

Chemical and microbiological quality of drinking water in Gaza Strip, Palestine

The entire population is completely depend- ent on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer is con- tinuously over-exploited. The sewage system is incorrectly designed. 5 The total abstraction of groundwater in Gaza Governorates is estimated to be 170 Million Cubic Meter (MCM or Mm 3 )/ year. 6 Crop cultivation alone consumes around 85 MCM/year of the groundwater pumped through more than 4000 wells located over all Gaza Governorates, while the remainder (85 MCM/year) is used for industrial and domestic water supplies. 3 The water crisis stems from the growing water deficit as the amount of water exploitation; 170 MCM/year is not balanced by natural or anthropogenic replenishments. The natural replenishment of the aquifer is estimated to be 35 MCM/year, while the anthropogenic replenishment (agricultural return flow, pipe leakage and waste water) is estimated at 40 MCM/year. The lateral inflow from the eastern part of the aquifer is 15 MCM/year. Overall, the Gaza Strip is facing an annual deficit of ~70 MCM/year. 6 Because of the water deficit, re- gional water levels have lowered, and deep hy- drological depressions have formed in the urban areas including Gaza City in the north and Rafah in the south. 7-10
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Heats of solution and related thermochemical properties of some rare earth metals and chlorides

Heats of solution and related thermochemical properties of some rare earth metals and chlorides

An isothermally jacketed calorimeter has been constructed to measure the changes in heat content accompanying the solution of some rare earth metals and compounds. To check the performance of the apparatus, the integral heats of solution of potassium nitrate in water at 25°C have been measured. The values corrected to infinite dilution by use of relative apparent molal heat content data in the literature give 8384 +/- 12 cals/mole. The result agrees well with the values reported by others.

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Magnetic Proporties of Intermetallic Compounds of Praseodymium with the Metals of Iron  and Renium Subgroup

Magnetic Proporties of Intermetallic Compounds of Praseodymium with the Metals of Iron and Renium Subgroup

Analysis of the available data in the literature allows doing an assumption that the addition of rhenium to the rare earth intermetallic compounds improve their technological characteristics and stabilize their magnetic properties. Therefore, a systematic study of new complex compositions with praseodymium, rhenium and iron triad is very reasonable and promising.

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Assessment of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals in North West Bank/Palestine by ICP MS

Assessment of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals in North West Bank/Palestine by ICP MS

Groundwater of North West Bank in Palestine was assessed for pollution with trace metals by ICP/MS. The samples were analysed for their pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and different trace metals con- tent. The pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids of all water samples were found to be within the US Environmental protection Agency limits. Results showed that the concentration of nine trace metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb, Cd, and Al) is within the WHO limits in drinking water (50, 500, 20, 2000, 3000, 70, 10, 3, and 200 ug/L, respectively), however six metals of them (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Mo, and Al) were detected in 100% of the samples, while Pb, Cd, and Zn were detected in 80%, 60%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. On the other hand, Tl which is a very toxic heavy metal with allowed WHO limits of 0.01 - 1 ug/L is detected in 100% of the water samples analysed with a range of 0.02 - 0.12 ug/L. It indicates that such concentration levels of Tl would be harmful to the human being drinking the water. In general, 82% of all samples analysed contained one or more of the 12 metals studied each in varying concentration. Results of this study suggest a possible risk to the people of the study area given the toxicity of heavy metals, and the fact that for many people in the study area, groundwater is a main source of their water supply.
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Thermal expansion of rare earth metals

Thermal expansion of rare earth metals

A high temperature dilatometric investigation of the rare earth metals was undertaken as part of a broad program of study of these elements, the ultimate goal being better understanding of metals in general. The more immediate goal, in addition to determining the coefficients of expansion quantitatively, was to detect evidence of any crystalline transformations which may occur and particularly to cast some light on certain high temperature transitions already discovered in several of these metals. The rare earth metals included in this investigation were lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, erbium, and ytterbiumo
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A calculation of the elastic constants of yttrium and the rare earth metals

A calculation of the elastic constants of yttrium and the rare earth metals

A modified cellular method developed by Raimes was extended to scandium, yttrium, and the rare earth metals. The assumption that the valence electrons are free and share the same ground state wave functions at zero wave number, was capable of giving fairly good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of the atomic radii, compressibilities, and total energies of the trivalent rare-earth metals as well as for scandium and yttrium. In addition the calculated variation of atomic radius and compressibility of the hexagonal rare-earth metals with atomic number was in qualitative agreement with experiment. Calculations based on the assumption that europium and ytterbium are divalent in the solid state were capable of giving reasonable agreement with the observed atomic radii and compressibilities of these elements. Calculations for cerium did not give satisfactory agreement with the assumption of either a trivalent or quadrivalent atomic core. This failure probably results from the fact that the assumption of equivalent behavior of the valence electrons at zero wave number is quite poor for this element. The compressibilities of promethium and scandium were predicted.
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The heats of combustion of some rare earth metals

The heats of combustion of some rare earth metals

RESULTS OF COMBUSTION OF THE METALS The heat of combustion was determined from the temperature rise of the calorimeter, AT, and the water equivalent, W... where Qc = the heat leakage cor[r]

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